Ques 1: Give a few examples of public sector activities and explain why the government has taken them up.
Ans: Construction of roads, bridges, railways, harbours, generating electricity, providing irrigation through dams, health, education etc. are a few examples of public sector activities Government has taken up these activities because these activities require a huge amount of investment which is beyond the capacity of the private sector and several things needed by the society as a whole which the private sector will not provide at a reasonable cost. Even if they do provide these things, they would charge a high rate for their use.m, Let us further understand this with the help of an example. Selling electricity at a price which covers the full cost of generation may push up the cost of production in industries. Many units, specially small scale units, might have to shut down. Government here steps in by producing and supplying electricity at rates which these industries can afford. So the government has to bear a part of the cost.
Ques 2: Distinguish between primary sector and secondary sector by stating four points of distinction.
(i) Primary sector includes all agricultural and allied activities, e.g., forestry, fishing mining, quarrying etc.
This sector is also known as manufacturing sector.
(ii) It produces goods by exploiting natural resources such as land, water, forests, mines etc.
Manufacturing sector converts one type of commodity into another.
(iii) Farmers buy many goods such as tractors. fertilisers, equipment etc. from secondary' sector. Thus, it shows the dependence of primary sector on secondary' sector.
Similarly, manufacturing sector needs raw materials su^h as cotton yarn to produce cotton "Sugarcane to produce sugar, wood for furniture etc. This shows the dependence of secondary' sector or primary sector.
(iv) Agriculture, a part of the primary sector, is the largest sector in terms of the workforce it employs and plays the most important role.
Manufacturing is one of the important components of the secondary sector.