Q.1. Write the advantages of weight training?
How weight training improves the working quality of children?
Ans.1. Improves posture and range of motion:- Weight training helps to develop correct posture and extension, contraction of muscles leading to increase range of movement.
2. Increase muscle strength, bone density and endurance:- Resistance training can improve bone density and muscle mass. Due to more muscles mass, the tolerance Power is increased and improves the endurance of the body.
3. Protection against the injury:- Weight training, improves physical activity, system of the body and reduces the risk of injury.
4. Promote healthy blood pressure and cholesterol level:- Physical exercise with resistance training decreases bad cholesterol level and increases good cholesterol. It also improves blood circulation, which in turn maintains healthy blood pressure.
5. Improves immune system function:- With the proper digestion, release of enzymes, Absorption of nutrients, real ease of toxic substances and healthy functioning of body organs, the immune system functioning is improved and the body becomes capable of fighting diseases and infections.
6. Improves psycho-social well being:- A child with a well shaped healthy body with more potential to work is better accepted by society. A well maintained healthy physique makes a child more confident or raises his self-esteem.
Q.2. Explain the motor development during childhood?
Describe the stages of motor development?
Describe the pattern of physical development?
Ans. Motor development means “The development of movement and various motor abilities from birth till death”. Motor development is a progressive change in movement throughout the life cycle. As a matter of fact, the ability to move is essential to human development various motor movements or motor skills are essential for everyday life activities such as walking, sitting,running, jumping, catching or holding, throwing etc. Motor development in children.
1. Early childhood:- The period of early childhood starts from second year and continue till sixth year. The motor development during these periods takes place rapidly. It is known as the preschool years.
a) In this period, a child becomes perfect in various fundamental movements such as Running, Jumping, throwing & acquires the ability to unite or combine.
b) Children stride length increases and they develop a more mature running pattern.
c) Proficiency in climbing on ladder become efficient.
d) To hope and gallop skillfully.
e) Fine eye-hand coordination.
2. Middle childhood:- The period of middle childhood starts from 7th year and continues up till 10th year. During this period the changes, which takes place are -
a. Children become more agile
b. Strong desire to engage in various physical movements and activities.
c. Good eye-hand-leg coordination.
d. Better in balance and postures.
e. Motor skills are perfected and stabilized.
f. Coordinative abilities develop at a higher level, while the flexibility develops at a slower level.
3. Late childhood:- The period of late childhood begins from 11th year and continues upto 12th year or till the beginning of sexual maturation process. The no of changes takes place during this period area.
a. Girls are temporarily taller and heavier than boys because of the earlier onset of puberty.
b. Strength begins to differ among the boys and girls
d. Most of the children are master to most complex motor skills.
e. They learn strategies and more complex combination of motor skills.
f. Running and jumping movements, qualitatively and quantitatively develop at the faster rate. Coaches and teachers of physical education should continue to encourage skill development with an increasing stress on strategies and tactics.
Q.3. Discuss the factors affecting Motor Development in Children?
Write the factors responsible for good healthy body of children?
Ans. The factors affecting motor development in children are :-
1. Heredity: Genes are the small structure of body, which are responsible for various types of development of children. The working capacity of all organic systems are dependent on genes. The no. of factors, which are transferred from parents to children are:
a. Muscle fibres
b. Length of fibres
c. Working capacity of Cardio-vascular system
d. Bony structure.
e. Inherent chronic diseases.
2. Environment:- Encouragement, love & security helps the children to take risk to explore fearlessly and to know more about their surroundings, which leads to a better sensory development. healthy environment and inter-personal relationship leads to good personality of child.
3. Nutritious food promotes good motor development:- Sensory and motor development depends on nutrition that the child gets to a great extent. Balanced nutritious food helps to develop stronger and healthier children.
4. Opportunity for children:- Opportunity to play or gain knowledge give a better chance of developing sensory-motor activities. Children get more opportunity to develop agility, balance, coordination, flexibility, strength and speed.
5. Postural Deformities:- Postural deformities may be caused due to some disease, accident or by birth. Children suffering from deformities of posture encounter hindrance in performing a normal activity, therefore their motor development is impacted negatively.
6. Sensory Impairment:- Sensory impairment means senses like hearing, sight, speech etc. not functioning properly. Motor development is affected in children suffering from sensory impairment. For example. A child was not able to hear faces difficulty to understand and follow instructions, which cause hamper motor development.
7. Obesity:- Excessively overweight and obese children find it difficult to move properly or perform certain finer movements of the body. They become slow and sluggish in movement. Therefore obesity has a negative impact on motor development in children.
Q.4. Write the role of physical activity in improving the quality of life among the children?
Write the physical and physiological benefits of exercise for children?
State the advantages of an active body?
Ans. 1. Physical activity improves mental health:
a. Mental wellness:- Physical activity can relieve tension, anxiety, depression and anger.
b. Improves memory and active mind: Exercise increases the flow of oxygen, which directly affects the brain. Mental brilliance and memory can be improved with physical activities.
c. Improves mental activities: Regular physical activities help in keeping the thinking, learning and judgement skills sharp. It can also reduce the risk of a darker aspect of life.
2. Physical activity improves social health:
a. Physical activity helps to improve self-images.
b. Promotes enthusiasm and optimism:- Physical activities help a child to promote enthusiasm and optimism for better social recognition in the peer group.
3. Physical activity improves physical health:
a. Stronger immunity: It enhances child’s immune system and decreases the risk of developing any chronic illness and disease associated with the age and maintains quality of life.
b. Improves the functioning of the heart and minimize health-related chronic diseases:- Physical activities help delay or prevention of heart-related chronic illness by improving the working capacity of heart such as controlling the blood pressure good cholesterol, Controlling 2 types of diabetes.
c. Strengthens bones and muscles:- Regular muscle-strengthening activities help to increase or maintain muscle mass and strength. It also helps in improving flexibility of joints. Regular physical activities help to strengthen bones and joints of the body.
d. Maintain a healthy weight:- Regular physical activities helps in digestion and promotes regular movements. It also raises the metabolism and helps to lose extra weight easily.
e. Prolonged optimal health: Regular physical activities improve the strength, stamina and ability of the organic system in children