Q. 1. Define the term “Human Development”. Explain the four pillars of Human Development.
Give the meaning of ‘Human Development’. Explain the four pillars of Human Development.
What is the meaning of ‘development’? Explain how equity, sustainability, productivity and empowerment are the four pillars of human development.
Explain any five important measures necessary for leading a healthy and reasonably long life.
Define human development. What is the basic goal of human development? Explain with examples the four pillars of human development.
Ans. Human development is a process that enlarges people’s choices and improves their lives. The basic goal of development is to create conditions where people can live meaningful lives.
The four pillars of Human Development :
(i) Equity (ii) Sustainability (iii) Productivity (iv) Empowerment
Detailed Answer :
(i) Equity : Equity refers to making equal access to opportunities available to everybody. The opportunities available to people must be equal irrespective of their gender, race, income and in the Indian case, caste. For example: In India, a large number of women and persons belonging to socially and economically backward groups drop out of school. This shows how the choices of these groups get limited by not having access to knowledge.
(ii) Sustainability : Sustainability means continuity in the availability of opportunities. To have sustainable human development, each generation must have the same opportunities. All environmental, financial and human resources must be used keeping in mind the future. A good example is about the importance of sending girls to school. If a community does not stress the importance of sending its girl child to school, many opportunities will be lost to these young women when they grow up.
(iii) Productivity : Productivity here means human labour productivity or productivity in terms of human work. Such productivity must be constantly enriched by building capabilities in people. Ultimately, it is people who are the real wealth of nations.
(iv) Empowerment : Empowerment means to have the power to make choices. Such power comes from increasing freedom and capability. Good governance and people-oriented policies are required to empower people. The empowerment of socially and economically disadvantaged groups is of special importance.
Q. 2. What is meant by human development? What are its different approaches? Explain.
Ans. Human development is a process of enlarging the range of people’s choices, increasing their opportunities for education, healthcare, income and empowerment and covering the full range of human choices from a sound physical environment to economic, social and political freedom.
Approaches are: (i) Basic Needs Approach (ii) Income Approach (iii) Welfare Approach (iv) Capability Approach
Detailed Answer :
(i) Basic Needs Approach : This approach was initially proposed by the International Labour Organisation (ILO). Six basic needs i.e.: health, education, food, water supply, sanitation, and housing were identified.
(ii) Income Approach : This is one of the oldest approaches to human development. Human development is seen as being linked to income. The idea is that the level of income reflects the level of freedom an individual enjoys. Higher the level of income, higher is the level of human development.
(iii) Welfare Approach : This approach looks at human beings as beneficiaries or targets of all development activities. The approach argues for higher government expenditure on education, health, social security and amenities. People are not participant in development but only passive recipients. The government is responsible for increasing levels of human development by maximising expenditure on welfare.
(iv) Capability Approach : This approach is associated with Prof. Amartya Sen. Building human capabilities in the areas of health, education and access to resources is the key to increasing human development.
Q. 3. “Development is qualitative change, which is always value positive”. Support this statement with suitable arguments.
Ans. Development cannot take place unless there is an increment or addition to the existing conditions. Development is possible only when some positive growth takes place. Yet, positive growth does not always lead to development. Development occurs when there is a positive change in quality.
Dr. Haq has described human development as development that enlarges people’s choices and improves their lives. People are central to all development under this concept. These choices that Dr. Haq talks about are not fixed but in fact they keep changing. The basic aim of development is to create conditions where people can live meaningful lives.
A meaningful life does not mean a long one. It refers to life with some purpose. This means that people must be healthy, be able to use their talent, participate in the society and be free to accomplish their goals happily.
Q. 4. “The size of the territory and per capita income are not directly related to human development”. Explain.
Ans. The size of the territory and per capita income are not directly related to human development: Often smaller countries have done better than larger ones in human development. Similarly, relatively poorer nations have been ranked higher than richer neighbours in terms of human development. For example, Sri Lanka, Trinidad and Tobago have a higher rank than India in the human development index despite having smaller economies. Similarly, within India, Kerala performs much better than Punjab and Gujarat in human development despite having lower per capita income.
Q. 5. What is ‘Human Development’?Classify the countries on the basis on human development scores earned by them.
What do you understand by the term human development.
Ans. Human Development : Development that enlarges people’s choices and improves their lives.
Classification : Countries can be classified into four groups on the basis of the human development scores earned by them :
(i) Very High (ii) High (iii) Medium (iv) Low Characteristics :
Level of development Score in Development Index
(i) Very High Above 0.800 (ii) High Between 0.701 to 0.796 (iii) Medium Between 0.550 to 0.699 (iv) Low Below 0.5
Detailed Answer :
(i) Countries with very high human development index are those which have a score of over 0.800. According to the Human Development Report of 2016, this group includes 51 countries.
(ii) Countries with high human development index are those which have a score between 0.701 and 0.799. This group includes 55 countries. Providing education and healthcare is an important government priority. Countries with higher human development are those where a lot of investment in the social sector has taken place.
(iii) Countries with medium levels of human development form the largest group. There are a total of 41 countries in this group. Most of these are countries which have emerged in the period after the Second World War. Many of these countries have been rapidly improving their human development score by adopting more people-oriented policies and reducing social discrimination.
(iv) As many as 41 countries record low levels of human development. A large proportion of these are small countries which have been going through political turmoil and social instability in the form of civil war, famine or a high incidence of diseases.