UPSC : Mineral Resources (Part - 2) UPSC Notes | EduRev
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- Below is a survey of India’s non-metallic mineral resources.
Limestone and Dolomite
- Limestone and dolomite occur in most of the geological formations of the country ranging from Pre-Cambrian to recent.
- Cuddapah, Guntur, Krishna, Khammam, Kurnool, West and East Godavari and Nalgonda districts of Andhra Pradesh possess over a third of the total reserves of cement-grade limestone in the country.
- Gulbarga, Bijapur and Shimoga districts of Karnataka have another one-third. Madhya Pradesh possesses 36 per cent of the country’s total reserves of flux-grade limestone.
- India is the world’s largest producer and exporter of mica.
- Mica represents a group of minerals characterised by perfect cleavage in a single direction due to which they can be split into extremely thin flexible and tough sheets orlaminate. It is used in the electrical industry and in medicines.
- Economic deposits of mica are found in three important belts Hazaribagh district of Jharkhand and Gaya districts of Bihar, Nellore district in Andhra Pradesh, and Rajasthan. 50% of India’s mica comes from Jharkhand and Bihar.
- India has the world’s richest deposits of kyanite and sillimanite.
- The Lapsa Buru area in Singhbhum district of Bihar has India’s largest reserves of kyanite quartz. About 83% of India’s total reserves of sillimanite are located in the Plateau of Meghalaya. Pipra near M.P. also has this element.
- The beach sands of Kerala contain 5 to 6 per cent sillimanite. Magnetite occur in Sales (Tamil Nadu) and Almora (U.P.) in considerable amount.
- Gypsum is a hydrated sulphide of Calcium. Over 94 per cent of gypsum reserves lie in Rajasthan (Bikaner and Jodhpur).
- It is used in manufacture of cement and fertilizer.
Facts To Be Remembered
First Train steamed off from Bombay to Than (April).
Central Railway came into existence (April).
The North Eastern Railway came into existence.
The Railway Testing and Research Centre formed.
Diesel Component Works set up.
Computerised passenger reservation
Rail Coach Factory set up in Kapurthala.
A wheel and Axel Plant set up at Bangalore.
Border Roads Development Board set up.
Nationa Institure for Training of Highway Engineers (NITHE) set up.
Road Safety Cell set up.
The National Highway Authority of India constituted.
Hindustan Shipyard Limited set up.
Lal Bahadur Shastri College of Advanced Maritime Studies and Research established.
Marine Engineering and Research Institute (MERI) established.
National Shipping Board established.
The Shipping Corporation of India Limited formed.
The Central Inland Water Transport Corporation (CIWTC) set up.
Cochin Shipyard Limited incorporated.
Dredging Corporation of India set up.
Hooghly Dock and Port Engineers Limited came into existence.
The lnland Waterways Authority of India set up.
Shore-based Academy T.S. Chanakya established.
National Shipping Policy Committee constituted.
Government introduced 'Open sky policy' for Cargo.
Airport Authority of India formed.
A new policyon domestic air transport service approved. Tourism
The India Tourism Development
- Also known as talc and soapstone, steatite is a hydrous silicate of Magnesium.
- The mineral occurs in ultrabasic rocks and metamorphosed dolomite limestone chiefly in Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand and Madhya Pradesh.
- Procelain manufacture, ornamental work in buildings, lowcost ceramics used in radio and TV, paints, paper, soap and cosmetics, and refractory are some of the important industries in which steatite is used.
Common salt or sodium chloride contains 39.32 per cent sodium and 60.68 per cent chlorine. Nearly 70 per cent of the total consumption of salt in the country is for edible uses.
There are three sources of production of salt in India:
- Seawater along the peninsular coasts;
- Brine springs, wells and salt lakes of the arid tracts of Rajasthan; and
- Rock salt deposits of Gujarat and Himachal Pradesh.
- The coastal areas, particularly of Gujarat and Maharashtra, produce large quantities of salt from sea brine.
| Points to be Remembered|
- The two multipurpose river valley projects.– (i) Jennessee Valley in the United States, (ii) Damodar Valley in India
- Name of the two radio-active elements– (i) uranium, and (ii) thorium
- Name of the two Nuclear Power stations in India.– (i) Tarapur (Maharashtra), and (ii) Rawat Bhata (Rajasthan)
- Name of the country of the world in which the wind mills are used to generate electricity-Netherlands.
- The two countries in which the tidal energy has been harnessed to produce power– (i) Canada, and (ii) France
- The countries in which the geothermal power has been developed–(i) United States, (ii) Italy, and (iii) New Zealand
- Name of the two minerals which have shortage of reserves in the world– (i) zinc, and (ii) copper.
- The two countries of the world which are famous for their offshore fisheries– (i) Netherlands, and (ii) Norway
- The two wool producing countries of the world– (i) Australia, and (ii) New Zealand
- The various land-forms over the surface of the earth are : mountains, plains, plateaus and valleys.
- The different agents of gradation or external agents of change are: (i) rivers, (ii) glaciers, (iii) waves, and (iv) winds.
- The internal agents of changes– (i) volcanoes, (ii) earthquakes, and (iii) interior movements.
- The moving agents that transport the weathered materials– (i) rivers, (ii) winds, (iii) glaciers, (iv) ocean waves.
Minerals for atomic energy Uranium
- Uranium is found in Jharkhand (Jaduguda mines), Himachal Pradesh, U.P. and Bastar region in M.P.
- Thorium is processed from the monazite sands of Kerala and Tamil Nadu coast. Beryllium (a good moderator in atomic piles) is found in Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, Kashmir and A.P.
- The Panna diamond belt, the only diamond producing area in the country is spread over the districts of Panna, Chatarpur and Satna in Madhya Pradesh.
|NATIONAL PARKS & SANCTUARIES|
1. Dachigam Sanctuary
Jammu & Kashmir
2. Gir Forest
3. Kanha National Park
Tiger, Panther, Nilghai, barking deer
Royal Bengal Tiger
5. Ghana Bird Sanctuary
6. Corbett National Park
Nainital Uttar Pradesh
Tiger, Elephant, Nilghai
7. Manas Sanctuary
Wild Cats, Deer
One Horned Rhinoceros
9. Bandipur Sanctuary
10. Chandra Prabha Sanctuary
11. Hazariagh National Park
12. Mudumalai Sanctuary
Wild Elephant, Wild Boar.
13. Periyar Game Sanutuary
Wild Elephant and Indian Bison
14. Shivpuri Park
Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh
Wild Elephant, Deer.
15. Dudhawa National Park
Lakhimpur Kheri U.P
- Under the Constitution, mineral rights and administration of mining laws are vested in the state government.
- The Central Government, however, regulates the development of minerals under the Mines and Minerals (Regulation and Development) Act, 1957 and the rules and regulations framed under it.
- The Department of Mines has six public sector enterprises under its charge.
- The Hindustan Zinc Ltd. (HZL),
- Hindustan Copper Ltd., (HCL),
- Bharat Gold Mines Ltd. (BGML),
- Bharat Aluminium Co. Ltd., (BALCO),
- The National Alum-inium Co. Ltd. NALCO)
- The Mineral Exploration Corporation Ltd. (MECL).
Countries and Parliaments
House of Commons and House of Lords
House of Commons and Senate
National People’s Congress
Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
General People’s Congress
Dewan Rakyat and
Great People’s Khural
Pyithu Huttaw (People’s Assembly)
House of Representatives and National Council
The States General
House of Representatives
House of Assembly
Grand National Assembly
Congress (House of
Representatives and Senate
New Names of Countries/Cities
Dutch East Indies
French West Africa
South West Africa
Tanganyika and Zanzibar