NCERT Textbook - Industries Class 8 Notes | EduRev

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Class 8 : NCERT Textbook - Industries Class 8 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Have you ever given a thought to the fact that the note 
book you use for writing has come to you after a long 
process of manufacturing. It started its life as part of a 
tree. It was cut down and transported to the pulp mill. 
There the wood of the tree was processed and converted 
into wood pulp. The wood pulp was mixed with chemicals 
and finally changed into paper by machines. This paper 
found its way to the press where ink made from chemicals 
was used to print the lines on the pages. The pages were 
then bound in the form of a note book, packed and sent to 
the market for sale. Finally, it reached your hands.
Secondary activities or manufacturing change 
raw materials into products of more value to people. As 
you have seen pulp was changed into paper and paper 
into a note book. These represent the two stages of the 
manufacturing process.
The paper made from pulp and cloth made from 
cotton have had value added to them at each stage of the 
manufacturing process. In this way the finished product 
has more value and utility than the raw material that it 
is made from.
Industry refers to an economic activity that is 
concerned with production of goods, extraction of 
minerals or the provision of services. Thus we have iron 
and steel industry (production of goods), coal mining 
industry (extraction of coal) and tourism industry 
(service provider).
CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES
Industries can be classified on the basis of raw materials, 
size and ownership.
Activity
Trace the journey 
of your shirt from 
a cotton field to 
your wardrobe.
Industries
Journey begins...
...paper made...
...recycle...
Page 2


Have you ever given a thought to the fact that the note 
book you use for writing has come to you after a long 
process of manufacturing. It started its life as part of a 
tree. It was cut down and transported to the pulp mill. 
There the wood of the tree was processed and converted 
into wood pulp. The wood pulp was mixed with chemicals 
and finally changed into paper by machines. This paper 
found its way to the press where ink made from chemicals 
was used to print the lines on the pages. The pages were 
then bound in the form of a note book, packed and sent to 
the market for sale. Finally, it reached your hands.
Secondary activities or manufacturing change 
raw materials into products of more value to people. As 
you have seen pulp was changed into paper and paper 
into a note book. These represent the two stages of the 
manufacturing process.
The paper made from pulp and cloth made from 
cotton have had value added to them at each stage of the 
manufacturing process. In this way the finished product 
has more value and utility than the raw material that it 
is made from.
Industry refers to an economic activity that is 
concerned with production of goods, extraction of 
minerals or the provision of services. Thus we have iron 
and steel industry (production of goods), coal mining 
industry (extraction of coal) and tourism industry 
(service provider).
CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES
Industries can be classified on the basis of raw materials, 
size and ownership.
Activity
Trace the journey 
of your shirt from 
a cotton field to 
your wardrobe.
Industries
Journey begins...
...paper made...
...recycle...
Raw  Materials: Industries may be agro based, mineral 
based, marine based and forest based depending on the 
type of raw materials they use. Agro based industries
use plant and animal based products as their raw 
materials. Food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, 
dairy products and leather industries are examples of 
agro-based industries. Mineral based industries are 
primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw 
materials. The products of these industries feed other 
industries. Iron made from iron ore is the product of 
mineral based industry. This is used as raw material for 
the manufacture of a number of other products, such 
as heavy machinery, building materials and railway 
coaches. Marine based industries use products from the 
sea and oceans as raw materials. Industries processing 
sea food or manufacturing fish oil are some examples. 
Forest based industries utilise forest produce as raw 
materials. The industries associated with forests are pulp 
and paper, pharmaceuticals, furniture and buildings.
Size: It refers to the amount of capital invested, 
number of people employed and the volume of production. 
Based on size, industries can be classified into small
scale and large scale industries. Cottage or 
household industries are a type of small scale 
industry where the products are manufactured 
by hand, by the artisans. Basket weaving, 
pottery and other handicrafts are examples 
of cottage industry. Small scale industries 
use lesser amount of capital and technology 
as compared to large scale industries that 
produce large volumes of products. Investment 
of capital is higher and the technology used 
is superior in large scale industries. Silk 
weaving and food processing industries are 
small scale industries(Fig 5.1). Production of 
automobiles and heavy machinery are large 
scale industries.
Ownership: Industries can be classified into private 
sector, state owned or public sector, joint sector and 
cooperative sector. Private sector industries are owned 
and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. 
The public sector industries are owned and operated by 
the government, such as Hindustan Aeronautics Limited 
Activity
Give some 
examples of agro 
based industries.
51
Fig 5.1: Stages in food processing of 
Gorgon nut (makhana)
INDUSTRIES
Page 3


Have you ever given a thought to the fact that the note 
book you use for writing has come to you after a long 
process of manufacturing. It started its life as part of a 
tree. It was cut down and transported to the pulp mill. 
There the wood of the tree was processed and converted 
into wood pulp. The wood pulp was mixed with chemicals 
and finally changed into paper by machines. This paper 
found its way to the press where ink made from chemicals 
was used to print the lines on the pages. The pages were 
then bound in the form of a note book, packed and sent to 
the market for sale. Finally, it reached your hands.
Secondary activities or manufacturing change 
raw materials into products of more value to people. As 
you have seen pulp was changed into paper and paper 
into a note book. These represent the two stages of the 
manufacturing process.
The paper made from pulp and cloth made from 
cotton have had value added to them at each stage of the 
manufacturing process. In this way the finished product 
has more value and utility than the raw material that it 
is made from.
Industry refers to an economic activity that is 
concerned with production of goods, extraction of 
minerals or the provision of services. Thus we have iron 
and steel industry (production of goods), coal mining 
industry (extraction of coal) and tourism industry 
(service provider).
CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES
Industries can be classified on the basis of raw materials, 
size and ownership.
Activity
Trace the journey 
of your shirt from 
a cotton field to 
your wardrobe.
Industries
Journey begins...
...paper made...
...recycle...
Raw  Materials: Industries may be agro based, mineral 
based, marine based and forest based depending on the 
type of raw materials they use. Agro based industries
use plant and animal based products as their raw 
materials. Food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, 
dairy products and leather industries are examples of 
agro-based industries. Mineral based industries are 
primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw 
materials. The products of these industries feed other 
industries. Iron made from iron ore is the product of 
mineral based industry. This is used as raw material for 
the manufacture of a number of other products, such 
as heavy machinery, building materials and railway 
coaches. Marine based industries use products from the 
sea and oceans as raw materials. Industries processing 
sea food or manufacturing fish oil are some examples. 
Forest based industries utilise forest produce as raw 
materials. The industries associated with forests are pulp 
and paper, pharmaceuticals, furniture and buildings.
Size: It refers to the amount of capital invested, 
number of people employed and the volume of production. 
Based on size, industries can be classified into small
scale and large scale industries. Cottage or 
household industries are a type of small scale 
industry where the products are manufactured 
by hand, by the artisans. Basket weaving, 
pottery and other handicrafts are examples 
of cottage industry. Small scale industries 
use lesser amount of capital and technology 
as compared to large scale industries that 
produce large volumes of products. Investment 
of capital is higher and the technology used 
is superior in large scale industries. Silk 
weaving and food processing industries are 
small scale industries(Fig 5.1). Production of 
automobiles and heavy machinery are large 
scale industries.
Ownership: Industries can be classified into private 
sector, state owned or public sector, joint sector and 
cooperative sector. Private sector industries are owned 
and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. 
The public sector industries are owned and operated by 
the government, such as Hindustan Aeronautics Limited 
Activity
Give some 
examples of agro 
based industries.
51
Fig 5.1: Stages in food processing of 
Gorgon nut (makhana)
INDUSTRIES 52 RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT
and Steel Authority of India Limited. Joint sector 
industries are owned and operated by the state 
and individuals or a group of individuals. Maruti 
Udyog Limited is an example of joint sector 
industry. Co-operative sector industries are 
owned and operated by the producers or suppliers 
of raw materials, workers or both. Anand Milk 
Union Limited and Sudha Dairy are a success 
stories of a co-operative venture.
FACTORS AFFECTING LOCATION OF INDUSTRIES
The factors affecting the location 
of industries are the availability of 
raw material, land, water, labour, 
power, capital, transport and market. 
Industries are situate d where some or 
all of these factors are easily available. 
Sometimes, the government provides 
incentives like subsidised power, lower 
transport cost and other infrastructure 
so that industries may be located in 
backward areas. Industrialisation 
often leads to development and growth 
of towns and cities.
INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM
An industrial system consists of inputs, processes and 
outputs. The inputs are the raw materials, labour and 
costs of land, transport, power and other infrastructure. 
The processes include a wide range of activities that 
convert the raw material into finished products. The 
outputs are the end product and the income earned 
from it. In case of the textile industry the inputs may be 
cotton, human labour, factory and transport cost. The 
processes include ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing 
and printing. The output is the shirt you wear.
INDUSTRIAL REGIONS
Industrial regions emerge when a number of industries 
locate close to each other and share the benefits of 
their closeness. Major industrial regions of the world 
are eastern North America, western and central Europe, 
eastern Europe and eastern Asia (Fig 5.4). Major 
Fig 5.3: Locational factors of industries
Activity
Find out the 
inputs, outputs 
and processes 
involved in the 
manufacture of a 
leather shoe.
Fig 5.2: Sudha dairy in
Co-operative sector
Page 4


Have you ever given a thought to the fact that the note 
book you use for writing has come to you after a long 
process of manufacturing. It started its life as part of a 
tree. It was cut down and transported to the pulp mill. 
There the wood of the tree was processed and converted 
into wood pulp. The wood pulp was mixed with chemicals 
and finally changed into paper by machines. This paper 
found its way to the press where ink made from chemicals 
was used to print the lines on the pages. The pages were 
then bound in the form of a note book, packed and sent to 
the market for sale. Finally, it reached your hands.
Secondary activities or manufacturing change 
raw materials into products of more value to people. As 
you have seen pulp was changed into paper and paper 
into a note book. These represent the two stages of the 
manufacturing process.
The paper made from pulp and cloth made from 
cotton have had value added to them at each stage of the 
manufacturing process. In this way the finished product 
has more value and utility than the raw material that it 
is made from.
Industry refers to an economic activity that is 
concerned with production of goods, extraction of 
minerals or the provision of services. Thus we have iron 
and steel industry (production of goods), coal mining 
industry (extraction of coal) and tourism industry 
(service provider).
CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES
Industries can be classified on the basis of raw materials, 
size and ownership.
Activity
Trace the journey 
of your shirt from 
a cotton field to 
your wardrobe.
Industries
Journey begins...
...paper made...
...recycle...
Raw  Materials: Industries may be agro based, mineral 
based, marine based and forest based depending on the 
type of raw materials they use. Agro based industries
use plant and animal based products as their raw 
materials. Food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, 
dairy products and leather industries are examples of 
agro-based industries. Mineral based industries are 
primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw 
materials. The products of these industries feed other 
industries. Iron made from iron ore is the product of 
mineral based industry. This is used as raw material for 
the manufacture of a number of other products, such 
as heavy machinery, building materials and railway 
coaches. Marine based industries use products from the 
sea and oceans as raw materials. Industries processing 
sea food or manufacturing fish oil are some examples. 
Forest based industries utilise forest produce as raw 
materials. The industries associated with forests are pulp 
and paper, pharmaceuticals, furniture and buildings.
Size: It refers to the amount of capital invested, 
number of people employed and the volume of production. 
Based on size, industries can be classified into small
scale and large scale industries. Cottage or 
household industries are a type of small scale 
industry where the products are manufactured 
by hand, by the artisans. Basket weaving, 
pottery and other handicrafts are examples 
of cottage industry. Small scale industries 
use lesser amount of capital and technology 
as compared to large scale industries that 
produce large volumes of products. Investment 
of capital is higher and the technology used 
is superior in large scale industries. Silk 
weaving and food processing industries are 
small scale industries(Fig 5.1). Production of 
automobiles and heavy machinery are large 
scale industries.
Ownership: Industries can be classified into private 
sector, state owned or public sector, joint sector and 
cooperative sector. Private sector industries are owned 
and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. 
The public sector industries are owned and operated by 
the government, such as Hindustan Aeronautics Limited 
Activity
Give some 
examples of agro 
based industries.
51
Fig 5.1: Stages in food processing of 
Gorgon nut (makhana)
INDUSTRIES 52 RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT
and Steel Authority of India Limited. Joint sector 
industries are owned and operated by the state 
and individuals or a group of individuals. Maruti 
Udyog Limited is an example of joint sector 
industry. Co-operative sector industries are 
owned and operated by the producers or suppliers 
of raw materials, workers or both. Anand Milk 
Union Limited and Sudha Dairy are a success 
stories of a co-operative venture.
FACTORS AFFECTING LOCATION OF INDUSTRIES
The factors affecting the location 
of industries are the availability of 
raw material, land, water, labour, 
power, capital, transport and market. 
Industries are situate d where some or 
all of these factors are easily available. 
Sometimes, the government provides 
incentives like subsidised power, lower 
transport cost and other infrastructure 
so that industries may be located in 
backward areas. Industrialisation 
often leads to development and growth 
of towns and cities.
INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM
An industrial system consists of inputs, processes and 
outputs. The inputs are the raw materials, labour and 
costs of land, transport, power and other infrastructure. 
The processes include a wide range of activities that 
convert the raw material into finished products. The 
outputs are the end product and the income earned 
from it. In case of the textile industry the inputs may be 
cotton, human labour, factory and transport cost. The 
processes include ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing 
and printing. The output is the shirt you wear.
INDUSTRIAL REGIONS
Industrial regions emerge when a number of industries 
locate close to each other and share the benefits of 
their closeness. Major industrial regions of the world 
are eastern North America, western and central Europe, 
eastern Europe and eastern Asia (Fig 5.4). Major 
Fig 5.3: Locational factors of industries
Activity
Find out the 
inputs, outputs 
and processes 
involved in the 
manufacture of a 
leather shoe.
Fig 5.2: Sudha dairy in
Co-operative sector
53 INDUSTRIES
Fig 5.4: World’s Industrial Regions
industrial regions tend to be located in the temperate 
areas, near sea ports and especially near coal fields.
India has several industrial regions like Mumbai-
Pune cluster, Bangalore-Tamil Nadu region, Hugli region, 
Ahmedabad-Baroda region, Chottanagpur industrial belt, 
Vishakhapatnam-Guntur belt, Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut 
region and the Kollam-Thiruvanathapuram industrial 
cluster.
Industrial Disaster
In industries, accidents/disaster mainly occur due to technical 
failure or irresponsible handling of hazardous material.
One of the worst industrial disasters of all time occurred 
in Bhopal on 3 December 1984 around 00:30 a.m. It was 
a technological accident in which highly poisonous Methyl 
Isocynate (MIC) gas along with Hydrogen Cyanide and other 
reaction products leaked out of the pesticide factory of Union 
Carbide. The official death toll was 3,598 in 1989. Thousands, 
who survived still suffer from one or many ailments like blindness, 
impaired immune system, gastrointestinal disorders etc. Union Carbide Factory
Page 5


Have you ever given a thought to the fact that the note 
book you use for writing has come to you after a long 
process of manufacturing. It started its life as part of a 
tree. It was cut down and transported to the pulp mill. 
There the wood of the tree was processed and converted 
into wood pulp. The wood pulp was mixed with chemicals 
and finally changed into paper by machines. This paper 
found its way to the press where ink made from chemicals 
was used to print the lines on the pages. The pages were 
then bound in the form of a note book, packed and sent to 
the market for sale. Finally, it reached your hands.
Secondary activities or manufacturing change 
raw materials into products of more value to people. As 
you have seen pulp was changed into paper and paper 
into a note book. These represent the two stages of the 
manufacturing process.
The paper made from pulp and cloth made from 
cotton have had value added to them at each stage of the 
manufacturing process. In this way the finished product 
has more value and utility than the raw material that it 
is made from.
Industry refers to an economic activity that is 
concerned with production of goods, extraction of 
minerals or the provision of services. Thus we have iron 
and steel industry (production of goods), coal mining 
industry (extraction of coal) and tourism industry 
(service provider).
CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES
Industries can be classified on the basis of raw materials, 
size and ownership.
Activity
Trace the journey 
of your shirt from 
a cotton field to 
your wardrobe.
Industries
Journey begins...
...paper made...
...recycle...
Raw  Materials: Industries may be agro based, mineral 
based, marine based and forest based depending on the 
type of raw materials they use. Agro based industries
use plant and animal based products as their raw 
materials. Food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, 
dairy products and leather industries are examples of 
agro-based industries. Mineral based industries are 
primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw 
materials. The products of these industries feed other 
industries. Iron made from iron ore is the product of 
mineral based industry. This is used as raw material for 
the manufacture of a number of other products, such 
as heavy machinery, building materials and railway 
coaches. Marine based industries use products from the 
sea and oceans as raw materials. Industries processing 
sea food or manufacturing fish oil are some examples. 
Forest based industries utilise forest produce as raw 
materials. The industries associated with forests are pulp 
and paper, pharmaceuticals, furniture and buildings.
Size: It refers to the amount of capital invested, 
number of people employed and the volume of production. 
Based on size, industries can be classified into small
scale and large scale industries. Cottage or 
household industries are a type of small scale 
industry where the products are manufactured 
by hand, by the artisans. Basket weaving, 
pottery and other handicrafts are examples 
of cottage industry. Small scale industries 
use lesser amount of capital and technology 
as compared to large scale industries that 
produce large volumes of products. Investment 
of capital is higher and the technology used 
is superior in large scale industries. Silk 
weaving and food processing industries are 
small scale industries(Fig 5.1). Production of 
automobiles and heavy machinery are large 
scale industries.
Ownership: Industries can be classified into private 
sector, state owned or public sector, joint sector and 
cooperative sector. Private sector industries are owned 
and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. 
The public sector industries are owned and operated by 
the government, such as Hindustan Aeronautics Limited 
Activity
Give some 
examples of agro 
based industries.
51
Fig 5.1: Stages in food processing of 
Gorgon nut (makhana)
INDUSTRIES 52 RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT
and Steel Authority of India Limited. Joint sector 
industries are owned and operated by the state 
and individuals or a group of individuals. Maruti 
Udyog Limited is an example of joint sector 
industry. Co-operative sector industries are 
owned and operated by the producers or suppliers 
of raw materials, workers or both. Anand Milk 
Union Limited and Sudha Dairy are a success 
stories of a co-operative venture.
FACTORS AFFECTING LOCATION OF INDUSTRIES
The factors affecting the location 
of industries are the availability of 
raw material, land, water, labour, 
power, capital, transport and market. 
Industries are situate d where some or 
all of these factors are easily available. 
Sometimes, the government provides 
incentives like subsidised power, lower 
transport cost and other infrastructure 
so that industries may be located in 
backward areas. Industrialisation 
often leads to development and growth 
of towns and cities.
INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM
An industrial system consists of inputs, processes and 
outputs. The inputs are the raw materials, labour and 
costs of land, transport, power and other infrastructure. 
The processes include a wide range of activities that 
convert the raw material into finished products. The 
outputs are the end product and the income earned 
from it. In case of the textile industry the inputs may be 
cotton, human labour, factory and transport cost. The 
processes include ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing 
and printing. The output is the shirt you wear.
INDUSTRIAL REGIONS
Industrial regions emerge when a number of industries 
locate close to each other and share the benefits of 
their closeness. Major industrial regions of the world 
are eastern North America, western and central Europe, 
eastern Europe and eastern Asia (Fig 5.4). Major 
Fig 5.3: Locational factors of industries
Activity
Find out the 
inputs, outputs 
and processes 
involved in the 
manufacture of a 
leather shoe.
Fig 5.2: Sudha dairy in
Co-operative sector
53 INDUSTRIES
Fig 5.4: World’s Industrial Regions
industrial regions tend to be located in the temperate 
areas, near sea ports and especially near coal fields.
India has several industrial regions like Mumbai-
Pune cluster, Bangalore-Tamil Nadu region, Hugli region, 
Ahmedabad-Baroda region, Chottanagpur industrial belt, 
Vishakhapatnam-Guntur belt, Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut 
region and the Kollam-Thiruvanathapuram industrial 
cluster.
Industrial Disaster
In industries, accidents/disaster mainly occur due to technical 
failure or irresponsible handling of hazardous material.
One of the worst industrial disasters of all time occurred 
in Bhopal on 3 December 1984 around 00:30 a.m. It was 
a technological accident in which highly poisonous Methyl 
Isocynate (MIC) gas along with Hydrogen Cyanide and other 
reaction products leaked out of the pesticide factory of Union 
Carbide. The official death toll was 3,598 in 1989. Thousands, 
who survived still suffer from one or many ailments like blindness, 
impaired immune system, gastrointestinal disorders etc. Union Carbide Factory
54 RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT
In another incident, on 23 December 2005, due to gas well 
blowout in Gao Qiao, Chongging, China, 243 people died, 9,000 were 
injured and 64,000 were evacuated. Many people died because they 
were unable to run after the explosion. Those who could not escape 
in time suffered burns to their eyes, skin and lungs from the gas.
Risk Reduction Measures
1. Densely populated residential areas should be separated far 
away from the industrial areas.
2. People staying in the vicinity of industries should be aware of 
the storage of toxins or hazardous substances and their possible 
effects in case if an accident occurs.
3. Fire warning and fighting system should be improved.
4. Storage capacity of toxic substances should be limited.
5. Pollution dispersion qualities in the industries should be 
improved.
DISTRIBUTION OF MAJOR INDUSTRIES
The world’s major industries are the iron and steel 
industry, the textile industry and the information 
technology industry. The iron and steel and textile 
industry are the older industries while information 
technology is an emerging industry.
The countries in which iron and steel industry is 
located are Germany, USA, China, Japan and Russia. 
Textile industry is concentrated in India, Hong Kong, 
South Korea, Japan and Taiwan. The major hubs of 
Information technology industry are the Silicon valley 
of Central California and the Bangalore region of India.
Iron and Steel Industry
Like other industries iron and steel industry too 
comprises various inputs, processes and outputs. This 
is a feeder industry whose products are used as raw 
material for other industries.
The inputs for the industry include raw materials 
such as iron ore, coal and limestone, along with labour, 
capital, site and other infrastructure. The process of 
converting iron ore into steel involves many stages. 
The raw material is put in the blast furnace where it 
undergoes smelting (Fig 5.6). It is then refined. The 
output obtained is steel which may be used by other 
industries as raw material.
Do you know? 
Emerging
industries are also 
known as ‘Sunrise 
Industries’.These
include Information 
technology,
Wellness,
Hospitality and 
Knowledge.
Glossary
Smelting
It is the process 
in which metals 
are extracted 
from their ores by 
heating beyond 
the melting point
Rescue operation
in Gao Qiao
Read More

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