NCERT Exemplar - Challenges to Democracy Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Social Studies (SST) Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Exemplar - Challenges to Democracy Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Challenges to Democracy
101
Chapter 8
Challenges to
Democracy
Overview
This concluding chapter draws upon all that you have learnt in the
last two years so as to address the fundamental questions of
democratic politics : What are the challenges that democracy faces
in our country and elsewhere? What can be done to reform democratic
politics? How can our democracy become more democratic in its
practice and outcomes? This chapter does not answer these
questions. It only makes some suggestions about the way in which
we can approach the questions of challenges and reforms. It invites
you to think on your own and come up with your own reading of
the challenges, your recipe of how to overcome these and your own
definition of democracy.
2020-21
Page 2


Challenges to Democracy
101
Chapter 8
Challenges to
Democracy
Overview
This concluding chapter draws upon all that you have learnt in the
last two years so as to address the fundamental questions of
democratic politics : What are the challenges that democracy faces
in our country and elsewhere? What can be done to reform democratic
politics? How can our democracy become more democratic in its
practice and outcomes? This chapter does not answer these
questions. It only makes some suggestions about the way in which
we can approach the questions of challenges and reforms. It invites
you to think on your own and come up with your own reading of
the challenges, your recipe of how to overcome these and your own
definition of democracy.
2020-21
102
Democratic Politics
Thinking about challenges
Do you remember the chapters of your Political
Science textbook of Class IX?  There we tracked the
expansion of democracy all over the world . Our
reading thereafter has confirmed our initial
impression: democracy is the dominant form of
government in the contemporary world. It does
not face a serious challenger or rival. Yet our exploration
of the various dimensions of democratic politics has
shown us something else as well. The promise of
democracy is far from realised anywhere in the world.
Democracy does not have a challenger, but that does
not mean that it does not face any challenges.
At different points in this tour of democracy,
we have noted the serious challenges that
democracy faces all over the world. A challenge is
not just any problem. We usually call only those
difficulties a ‘challenge’ which are significant and
which can be overcome. A challenge is a difficulty
that carries within it an opportunity for progress.
Once we overcome a challenge we go up to a higher
level than before.
Different countries face different kinds of
challenges.  At least one fourth of the globe is still
not under democratic government. The challenge
for democracy in these parts of the world is very
stark. These countries face the foundational
challenge of making the transition to democracy
and then instituting democratic government. This
involves bringing down the existing non-democratic
regime, keeping military away from controlling
government and establishing a sovereign and
functional state.
Most of the established democracies face the
challenge of expansion. This involves applying the
basic principle of democratic government across all
the regions, different social groups and various
institutions. Ensuring greater power to local
governments, extension of federal principle to all the
units of the federation, inclusion of women and
minority groups, etc., falls under this challenge. This
also means that less and less decisions should remain
outside the arena of democratic control. Most
countries including India and other democracies like
the US face this challenge.
The third challenge of deepening of democracy
is faced by every democracy in one form or another.
This involves strengthening of the institutions and
practices of democracy. This should happen in such a
way that people can realise their expectations of
democracy. But ordinary people have different
expectations from democracy in different societies.
Therefore, this challenge takes different meanings and
paths in different parts of the world. In general
terms, it usually means strengthening those
institutions that help people’s participation
and control. This requires an attempt to
bring down the control and influence of
the rich and powerful people in making
governmental decision.
We have noted or hinted at these
challenges in all the various examples and
stories that we studied in our textbook
of Class IX and in the earlier chapters of
this book. Let us go back to all the major
stops in our tour of democracy, refresh
our memory and note down the
challenges that democracy faces in
each of these.
2020-21
Page 3


Challenges to Democracy
101
Chapter 8
Challenges to
Democracy
Overview
This concluding chapter draws upon all that you have learnt in the
last two years so as to address the fundamental questions of
democratic politics : What are the challenges that democracy faces
in our country and elsewhere? What can be done to reform democratic
politics? How can our democracy become more democratic in its
practice and outcomes? This chapter does not answer these
questions. It only makes some suggestions about the way in which
we can approach the questions of challenges and reforms. It invites
you to think on your own and come up with your own reading of
the challenges, your recipe of how to overcome these and your own
definition of democracy.
2020-21
102
Democratic Politics
Thinking about challenges
Do you remember the chapters of your Political
Science textbook of Class IX?  There we tracked the
expansion of democracy all over the world . Our
reading thereafter has confirmed our initial
impression: democracy is the dominant form of
government in the contemporary world. It does
not face a serious challenger or rival. Yet our exploration
of the various dimensions of democratic politics has
shown us something else as well. The promise of
democracy is far from realised anywhere in the world.
Democracy does not have a challenger, but that does
not mean that it does not face any challenges.
At different points in this tour of democracy,
we have noted the serious challenges that
democracy faces all over the world. A challenge is
not just any problem. We usually call only those
difficulties a ‘challenge’ which are significant and
which can be overcome. A challenge is a difficulty
that carries within it an opportunity for progress.
Once we overcome a challenge we go up to a higher
level than before.
Different countries face different kinds of
challenges.  At least one fourth of the globe is still
not under democratic government. The challenge
for democracy in these parts of the world is very
stark. These countries face the foundational
challenge of making the transition to democracy
and then instituting democratic government. This
involves bringing down the existing non-democratic
regime, keeping military away from controlling
government and establishing a sovereign and
functional state.
Most of the established democracies face the
challenge of expansion. This involves applying the
basic principle of democratic government across all
the regions, different social groups and various
institutions. Ensuring greater power to local
governments, extension of federal principle to all the
units of the federation, inclusion of women and
minority groups, etc., falls under this challenge. This
also means that less and less decisions should remain
outside the arena of democratic control. Most
countries including India and other democracies like
the US face this challenge.
The third challenge of deepening of democracy
is faced by every democracy in one form or another.
This involves strengthening of the institutions and
practices of democracy. This should happen in such a
way that people can realise their expectations of
democracy. But ordinary people have different
expectations from democracy in different societies.
Therefore, this challenge takes different meanings and
paths in different parts of the world. In general
terms, it usually means strengthening those
institutions that help people’s participation
and control. This requires an attempt to
bring down the control and influence of
the rich and powerful people in making
governmental decision.
We have noted or hinted at these
challenges in all the various examples and
stories that we studied in our textbook
of Class IX and in the earlier chapters of
this book. Let us go back to all the major
stops in our tour of democracy, refresh
our memory and note down the
challenges that democracy faces in
each of these.
2020-21
Challenges to Democracy
103
Different contexts, different challenges
Each of these cartoons represents a challenge to democracy . Please describe what that challenge is. Also place it
in one of the three categories mentioned in the first section.
Mubarak Re-elected Seeing the democracy
Liberal Gender Equality Campaign Money
© Patrick Chappatte - Cagle Cartoons Inc.
© Ares - Cagle Cartoons Inc.
© Tab - The Calgary Sun, Cagle Cartoons Inc.
© Ares - Best Latin America, Cagle Cartoons Inc.
2020-21
Page 4


Challenges to Democracy
101
Chapter 8
Challenges to
Democracy
Overview
This concluding chapter draws upon all that you have learnt in the
last two years so as to address the fundamental questions of
democratic politics : What are the challenges that democracy faces
in our country and elsewhere? What can be done to reform democratic
politics? How can our democracy become more democratic in its
practice and outcomes? This chapter does not answer these
questions. It only makes some suggestions about the way in which
we can approach the questions of challenges and reforms. It invites
you to think on your own and come up with your own reading of
the challenges, your recipe of how to overcome these and your own
definition of democracy.
2020-21
102
Democratic Politics
Thinking about challenges
Do you remember the chapters of your Political
Science textbook of Class IX?  There we tracked the
expansion of democracy all over the world . Our
reading thereafter has confirmed our initial
impression: democracy is the dominant form of
government in the contemporary world. It does
not face a serious challenger or rival. Yet our exploration
of the various dimensions of democratic politics has
shown us something else as well. The promise of
democracy is far from realised anywhere in the world.
Democracy does not have a challenger, but that does
not mean that it does not face any challenges.
At different points in this tour of democracy,
we have noted the serious challenges that
democracy faces all over the world. A challenge is
not just any problem. We usually call only those
difficulties a ‘challenge’ which are significant and
which can be overcome. A challenge is a difficulty
that carries within it an opportunity for progress.
Once we overcome a challenge we go up to a higher
level than before.
Different countries face different kinds of
challenges.  At least one fourth of the globe is still
not under democratic government. The challenge
for democracy in these parts of the world is very
stark. These countries face the foundational
challenge of making the transition to democracy
and then instituting democratic government. This
involves bringing down the existing non-democratic
regime, keeping military away from controlling
government and establishing a sovereign and
functional state.
Most of the established democracies face the
challenge of expansion. This involves applying the
basic principle of democratic government across all
the regions, different social groups and various
institutions. Ensuring greater power to local
governments, extension of federal principle to all the
units of the federation, inclusion of women and
minority groups, etc., falls under this challenge. This
also means that less and less decisions should remain
outside the arena of democratic control. Most
countries including India and other democracies like
the US face this challenge.
The third challenge of deepening of democracy
is faced by every democracy in one form or another.
This involves strengthening of the institutions and
practices of democracy. This should happen in such a
way that people can realise their expectations of
democracy. But ordinary people have different
expectations from democracy in different societies.
Therefore, this challenge takes different meanings and
paths in different parts of the world. In general
terms, it usually means strengthening those
institutions that help people’s participation
and control. This requires an attempt to
bring down the control and influence of
the rich and powerful people in making
governmental decision.
We have noted or hinted at these
challenges in all the various examples and
stories that we studied in our textbook
of Class IX and in the earlier chapters of
this book. Let us go back to all the major
stops in our tour of democracy, refresh
our memory and note down the
challenges that democracy faces in
each of these.
2020-21
Challenges to Democracy
103
Different contexts, different challenges
Each of these cartoons represents a challenge to democracy . Please describe what that challenge is. Also place it
in one of the three categories mentioned in the first section.
Mubarak Re-elected Seeing the democracy
Liberal Gender Equality Campaign Money
© Patrick Chappatte - Cagle Cartoons Inc.
© Ares - Cagle Cartoons Inc.
© Tab - The Calgary Sun, Cagle Cartoons Inc.
© Ares - Best Latin America, Cagle Cartoons Inc.
2020-21
104
Democratic Politics
Case and context Your description of the challenges for democracy in that
situation
Mexico: Second free
election after the defeat
of PRI in 2000; defeated
candidate alleges rigging
China: Communist Party
adopts economic reforms
but maintains monopoly
over political power
Pakistan: General
Musharraf held
referendum, allegations
of fraud in voters’ list
Iraq: Widespread
sectarian violence as the
new government fails to
establish its authority
South Africa: Mandela
retired from active politics,
pressure on his successors
to withdraw some
concessions given to
White minority
US, Guantanamo Bay:
UN Secretary General
called this a violation of
international law,
US refused to respond
Saudi Arabia:  Women not
allowed to take part in
all public activities,
no freedom of religion for
minorities
Yugoslavia: Ethnic
tension between Serbs
and Albanians on the rise
in the province of Kosovo.
Yugoslavia disintergrated
2020-21
Page 5


Challenges to Democracy
101
Chapter 8
Challenges to
Democracy
Overview
This concluding chapter draws upon all that you have learnt in the
last two years so as to address the fundamental questions of
democratic politics : What are the challenges that democracy faces
in our country and elsewhere? What can be done to reform democratic
politics? How can our democracy become more democratic in its
practice and outcomes? This chapter does not answer these
questions. It only makes some suggestions about the way in which
we can approach the questions of challenges and reforms. It invites
you to think on your own and come up with your own reading of
the challenges, your recipe of how to overcome these and your own
definition of democracy.
2020-21
102
Democratic Politics
Thinking about challenges
Do you remember the chapters of your Political
Science textbook of Class IX?  There we tracked the
expansion of democracy all over the world . Our
reading thereafter has confirmed our initial
impression: democracy is the dominant form of
government in the contemporary world. It does
not face a serious challenger or rival. Yet our exploration
of the various dimensions of democratic politics has
shown us something else as well. The promise of
democracy is far from realised anywhere in the world.
Democracy does not have a challenger, but that does
not mean that it does not face any challenges.
At different points in this tour of democracy,
we have noted the serious challenges that
democracy faces all over the world. A challenge is
not just any problem. We usually call only those
difficulties a ‘challenge’ which are significant and
which can be overcome. A challenge is a difficulty
that carries within it an opportunity for progress.
Once we overcome a challenge we go up to a higher
level than before.
Different countries face different kinds of
challenges.  At least one fourth of the globe is still
not under democratic government. The challenge
for democracy in these parts of the world is very
stark. These countries face the foundational
challenge of making the transition to democracy
and then instituting democratic government. This
involves bringing down the existing non-democratic
regime, keeping military away from controlling
government and establishing a sovereign and
functional state.
Most of the established democracies face the
challenge of expansion. This involves applying the
basic principle of democratic government across all
the regions, different social groups and various
institutions. Ensuring greater power to local
governments, extension of federal principle to all the
units of the federation, inclusion of women and
minority groups, etc., falls under this challenge. This
also means that less and less decisions should remain
outside the arena of democratic control. Most
countries including India and other democracies like
the US face this challenge.
The third challenge of deepening of democracy
is faced by every democracy in one form or another.
This involves strengthening of the institutions and
practices of democracy. This should happen in such a
way that people can realise their expectations of
democracy. But ordinary people have different
expectations from democracy in different societies.
Therefore, this challenge takes different meanings and
paths in different parts of the world. In general
terms, it usually means strengthening those
institutions that help people’s participation
and control. This requires an attempt to
bring down the control and influence of
the rich and powerful people in making
governmental decision.
We have noted or hinted at these
challenges in all the various examples and
stories that we studied in our textbook
of Class IX and in the earlier chapters of
this book. Let us go back to all the major
stops in our tour of democracy, refresh
our memory and note down the
challenges that democracy faces in
each of these.
2020-21
Challenges to Democracy
103
Different contexts, different challenges
Each of these cartoons represents a challenge to democracy . Please describe what that challenge is. Also place it
in one of the three categories mentioned in the first section.
Mubarak Re-elected Seeing the democracy
Liberal Gender Equality Campaign Money
© Patrick Chappatte - Cagle Cartoons Inc.
© Ares - Cagle Cartoons Inc.
© Tab - The Calgary Sun, Cagle Cartoons Inc.
© Ares - Best Latin America, Cagle Cartoons Inc.
2020-21
104
Democratic Politics
Case and context Your description of the challenges for democracy in that
situation
Mexico: Second free
election after the defeat
of PRI in 2000; defeated
candidate alleges rigging
China: Communist Party
adopts economic reforms
but maintains monopoly
over political power
Pakistan: General
Musharraf held
referendum, allegations
of fraud in voters’ list
Iraq: Widespread
sectarian violence as the
new government fails to
establish its authority
South Africa: Mandela
retired from active politics,
pressure on his successors
to withdraw some
concessions given to
White minority
US, Guantanamo Bay:
UN Secretary General
called this a violation of
international law,
US refused to respond
Saudi Arabia:  Women not
allowed to take part in
all public activities,
no freedom of religion for
minorities
Yugoslavia: Ethnic
tension between Serbs
and Albanians on the rise
in the province of Kosovo.
Yugoslavia disintergrated
2020-21
Challenges to Democracy
105
Belgium: One round of
constitutional change
taken place, but the Dutch
speakers not satisfied;
they want more autonomy
Sri Lanka: The civil war
came to an end in 2009;
the process of
reconciliation between
different communities
begins
US, Civil Rights: Blacks
have won equal rights, but
are still poor, less
educated and marginalised
Northern Ireland: The
civil war has ended but
Catholics and Protestants
yet to develop trust
Nepal: The monarchy
was abolished; the
Constituent Assembly
adopted a new
constitution
Bolivia: Morales, a
supporter of water struggle,
becomes Prime Minister ,
MNCs threaten to leave
the country
Case and context Your description of the challenges for democracy in that
situation
2020-21
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