Ques 1: Mention different aspects of life in which women are discriminated or disadvantaged in India.
Ans: The different aspects of life in which women are discriminated or disadvantaged in India are:
(i) There are sex-selective abortions in India. A girl child is aborted due to the preference of a male child among several Indian parents and the assumption that a girl child will be a burden on the economic wealth of the parents. The sex ratio in India is 927 girls to every 1000 boys who have fallen to even 800:1000 in some parts of India.
(ii) The literacy rate of women is only 54% as compared to 76% among men in India. Many girls in India tend to leave their education midway because economically weak parents prefer to spend their money on the education of their son as compared to that of their daughter. Also, money that can be invested for the education of a daughter is rather saved for her dowry and marriage.
(iii) Women form a small portion among highly paid and valued jobs. Many girls are not able to pursue higher education in India due to early marriage, inaccessibility to higher education institutes or lack of money to pursue higher education. Therefore they do not have the qualification to apply for high paying jobs.
(iv) There are instances of sexual harassment and domestic violence against women which deters the formation of a supportive environment for a woman to pursue her ambitions and fulfil her dreams as per potential. Their conditions are created due to the assumption of women being physically weaker, lack of protection from state agencies such as police and structure of the patriarchal society.
Ques 2: State different forms of communal politics with one example each.
Ans: Different forms of communal politics:
(a) The expression of communal superiority in everyday beliefs
Militant religious groups are a good example of this.
(b) The desire to form a majoritarian dominance or a separate state
Separatist leaders and political parties in Jammu and Kashmir and Central India are an example of this.
(c) The use of religious symbols and leaders in politics to appeal to the voters
This technique is applied by many politicians to influence voters from the two largest religious communities in the country.
(d) In addition to all this, communal politics can take the form of communal violence and riots, like the riots in Gujarat in 2002.
Ques 3: State how caste inequalities are still continuing in India.
Ans: caste inequalities are still continuing in India in the following ways:
(i) Most people still marry within their own caste or tribe. The upper caste people or sometimes other caste people to do not allow inter-caste marriages.
(ii) Untouchability has been prohibited by the Constitution but in practice it still exists in different parts of the country, particularly in rural areas.
(iii) In the field of education to the position is far from satisfactory. The caste groups that had access to education under the old system have done very well in acquiring modern education as well. But those groups who did not have access to education or were prohibited from acquiring it have naturally lagged behind.
(iv) Caste is still an important source of economic inequality because it regulates access to resources of various kinds. While the upper classes are best off, the Dalits and Adivasis are worst off, and the backward classes are in between.
(v) Although every caste has some poor members, the proportion of living in extreme poverty is much higher for the lowest castes. Lower caste people like rural landless labourers are generally poor and are exploited even today. The percentage of the population living below the poverty line between 1999-2000 was 45.8% (STs) 35.9%, (SCs) and 27% (OBCs) in the rural areas.
Ques 4: State two reasons to say that caste alone cannot determine election results in India.
Ans: Caste alone cannot determine election results in India because:
Ques 5: What is the status of women’s representation in India’s legislative bodies?
Ans: The status of women’s representation in India’s legislative bodies is very less as mentioned below:
(а) In Lok Sabha, the percentage of elected women members has never reached even 10 per cent of its total strength.
(b) Their share in the state assemblies is less than 5 per cent. India is among the bottom group of nations in the world in this respect.
(c) Thus the proportion of women in legislative bodies has been very low. Women’s organisations and activists have been demanding reservation of at least one-third of seats in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies for women. A bill with this proposal has been pending before the parliament for more than a decade but due to lack of consensus among the political parties, it has not been passed.
Ques 6: Mention any two constitutional provisions that make India a secular state.
Ans: Two constitutional provisions that make India a secular state are:
Fig: Secular India
Ques 7: When we speak of gender divisions, we usually refer to:
(a) Biological difference between men and women
(b) Unequal roles assigned by the society to men and women
(c) Unequal child sex ratio
(d) Absence of voting rights for women in democracies
Ans: (b) Unequal roles assigned by the society to men and women
Fig: Unequal Roles Assigned
Ques 8: In India, seats are reserved for women in
(a) Lok Sabha
(b) State Legislative Assemblies
(d) Panchayati Raj bodies
Ans: (d) Panchayati Raj bodies
Fig: Panchayati Raj Bodies
Ques 9: Consider the following statements on the meaning of communal politics. Communal politics is based on the belief that:
Α. One religion is superior to that of others.
Β. People belonging to different religions can live together happily as equal citizens.
C. Followers of a particular religion constitute one community.
D. State power cannot be used to establish the domination of one religious group over others.
Which of the statements is/are correct?
(a) A, B, C and D
(b) A, B and D
(c) A and C
(d) B and D
Ans: (c) A and C
Ques 10: Which among the following statements about India’s Constitution is wrong? It
(a) prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion
(b) gives official status to one religion
(c) provides to all individuals freedom to profess any religion
(d) ensures equality of citizens within religious communities
Ans: (b) gives official status to one religion
Ques 11: Social divisions based on ______________ are peculiar to India.
Ans: Social divisions based on caste are peculiar to India.
Ques 12: Match List I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists:
A person who believes in equal rights and opportunities for women and men
A person who says that religion is the principal basis of community
A person who thinks that caste is the principal basis of community
A person who does not discriminate others on the basis of religious beliefs
Ans: (b) B, A, D, C is the correct answer.