Ques 1: Multiple choice questions
(i) Which one of the following industries uses limestone as a raw material.
Ans: (b) Cement
(ii) Which one of the following agencies markets steel for the public sector plants?
(c) TATA Steel
Ans: (b) SAIL
(iii) Which one of the following industries uses bauxite as a raw material?
Ans: (a) Aluminium
(iv) Which one of the following industries manufactures telephones, computer, etc?
(d) Information Technology
Ans: (b) Electronic
Ques 2: Answer the following briefly in not more than 30 words.
(i) What is manufacturing?
(ii) Name any three physical factors for the location of the industry.
(iii) Name any three human factors for the location of an industry.
(iv) What are basic industries? Give an example.
(v) Name the important raw materials used in the manufacturing of cement?
Ans: (i) Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing. For example, paper is manufactured from wood.
(ii) Physical factors: (a) Near to the raw material.
(b) Nearness to power i.e., sources of power generation.
(c) Climate particularly in the establishment of agro-based industries like cotton and jute textile.
(iii) Human factors: (a) Labour may be skilled or unskilled.
(b) Transport facilities to bring the raw material to the industries and to take finished goods to the market.
(c) It should be close to the market so that goods may be purchased and consumed.
(iv) Basic industries are those industries which supply their products or raw materials to manufacture other goods e.g., iron and steel and copper smelting, aluminium smelting industries.
(v) The important raw materials used in the manufacturing of cement are limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum.
Ques 3: Write the answers of the following questions in 120 words.
(i) How are integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants? What problems does the industry face? What recent developments have led to a rise in the production capacity?
(ii) How do industries pollute the environment?
(iii) Discuss the steps to be taken to minimise environmental degradation by industry?
|Integrated steel plants||Mini steel plants|
|(i) These are plants where all processes are handled in one complex from putting together raw material to steel making rolling and shaping. Thus manufactures all types of steel.||(i) These are small plants which specialise in one or two processes. They produce mild and alloy steel of given specifications. They use steel scrap and sponge iron.|
|(ii) These plants being large need, big investment.||(ii) Being mini-plants these need less investment.|
|(iii) These plants fulfil the need for local, national and international market.||(iii) These plant fulfil local needs.|
|(iv) There are ten integrated steel plants in India.||(iv) There are more than 600 mini steel plants in India.|
(ii) The following problems are being faced by this industry:
(1) High costs and limited availability of coking coal,
(2) Lower productivity of labour,
(3) Irregular supply of energy and
(4) Poor infrastructure.
(c) Recent developments: Liberalisation and Foreign Direct Investment have led to a rise in the production capacity of steel industry. Efforts of private entrepreneurs have given a boost to the industry. However, there is a need to allocate resources for research and development to produce steel more competitively.
(ii) Industries pollute the environment in four ways as given below:
(a) Air pollution: (1) It is caused by sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide.
(2) Smoke is emitted by chemical and paper factories, brick kilns and burning of fossil fuels in big and small factories.
(3) Toxic gas leaks can be hazardous as has happened in Bhopal Gas Tragedy.
(b) Water pollution: (1) The industrial effluents are discharged into rivers and pollute the water.
(2) The major industries responsible for this are paper, pulp, chemical, textile, dyeing and petroleum refineries and tanneries.
(c) Thermal pollution: (1) Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into the rivers and ponds before cooling.
(2) Dumping of wastes renders soil useless.
(d) Noise pollution: (1) Industrial and construction activities, machinery, factory equipment, generators, saws and other equipment make a lot of noise which have bad effects on human beings.
(2) It can cause hearing impairment, increased heart rate and blood pressure among other physiological effects.
Fig: Industry Pollutes Environment
(iii) Steps to minimise environmental degradation: (a) To minimise use of water for processing by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stages.
(b) Harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirements.
(c) Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds.
(d) Treatment of industrial effluents can be done in three phases as given below:
(1) Primary treatment by mechanical means. This involves screening, grinding, flocculation and sedimentation.
(2) Secondary treatment by biological process.
(3) Tertiary treatment by biological, chemical and physical processes. This involves recycling of wastewater.
(e) Overdrawing of groundwater reserves should be regulated legally.
(f) Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smokestacks to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators.
(g) Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories.
(h) Machinery and equipment can be used and generators should be fitted with silencers.
(i) Almost all machinery can be redesigned to increase energy efficiency and reduce noise.
(j) Noise absorbing material may be used such as silencers.
Fig: Minimise Environment Degradation by Industry