Answer the following questions:
Q1. Differentiate between a workstation license and a site license.
Workstation licenses are licenses that permit the installation of an application on a single computer. Before installing it on a different machine the software must be removed from the first machine.
Site licenses permit the use of software on any computer at a specified site. Unlimited site licenses allow the installation of the software on any number of computers as long as those computers are located at the specified site.
Q2. Write a short note on your understanding of ‘cracking’ a software.
Cracking a software usually mean to harm the software, the hardware using this software or the end user of the software. These works are done by Crackers who modify or disable features of a software
Q3. What are the categories of Cyber crime. Explain them.
Categories of Cyber crimes are:
1. General Intrusions: It includes Hacking, spyware, phishing, pharming, Sending computer viruses & worms to invade computers. Causing denial of service attacks. Creating bots, Trojan horses, zombie machines.
2. Nuisances (usually non-violent activities): Sending spam, Changing web page text and images, Redirecting websites.
3. Personal Identity Theft (using someone else’s name or credit): Phishing for private information, passwords, code numbers, Making unauthorized purchases with stolen credit cards or ID, Destroying personal reputation, Damaging personal credit ratings.
4. Theft of Intellectual Property (stealing ideas or creations of others): Downloading copyrighted music & videos, Plagiarism, cheating, Software piracy.
5. Physical or Mental Damage: Cyberbullying, harassment, Cyberstalking, Sexual exploitation of minors, child pornography.
6. Terrorism: Stealing military and private industry secrets - espionage, Brainwashing and recruiting new followers, Building terrorist communications network.
Q4. Define the following terms:
(a) Spyware: Spyware is simply software that literally spies on what is being done on a computer.
(b) Malware: Malware is used to disrupt computer operation, gather sensitive information, or gain access to private computer systems.
(c) Virus: A computer virus is a program that replicates itself. A computer virus attaches itself to a program or file to help it spread from one computer to another.
(d) Worms:A worm is similar to a virus and is considered to be a sub-class of a virus. It spreads from computer to computer, as it has the capability to travel without any human action.
Q5. Read about ethical hacking and write a short note on your understanding of the topic.
Ethical hacking refers to the act of locating weaknesses and vulnerabilities of computer and information systems by duplicating the intent and actions of malicious hackers. This act is performed by computer and network expert known as Ethical hacker. An ethical hacker operates with the knowledge and permission of the organization for which they are trying to defend. Ethical hacking is also known as penetration testing, intrusion testing and red teaming. First examples of ethical hackers at work was in the 1970s, when the United States government used groups of experts called red teams to hack its own computer systems.
Q6. Why cyber security should be taken care by the user while working on internet?
To remain safe from dramatic virus attacks, hackers, and other interesting Internet phenomena cyber security should be taken care by the user while working on internet.
Q7. Discuss all the point which should be kept in mind while working on computers.
We should follow below point while working on computers:
1. Set secure passwords and don’t share them with anyone. Avoid using common words, phrases, or personal information and update regularly.
2. Restrict access and make personal information secure to prevent identity theft.
3. Be suspicious of unsolicited contact from individuals seeking internal organizational data or personal information.
4. Limit the amount of personal information you post. Do not post information that would make you vulnerable, such as your address or information about your schedule or routine.
5. Take advantage of privacy and security settings. Use site settings to limit the information you share with the general public online.
6. Be suspicious of unknown links or requests sent through email or text message. Do not click on unknown links or answer strange questions sent to your mobile device, regardless of who the sender appears to be.
7. Download only trusted applications from reputable sources or marketplaces.
Q8. What is Deniel of Service attack? How it affects the systems performance?
Denial of service (dos) attacks that are designed to prevent legitimate access to a system.
It affect system by web attacks that attempts to breach a website. Two of the most common such attacks are SQL injection and cross-site scripting.
Q9. What is the difference between Shareware and Freeware softwares?
Shareware are copyrighted software that can be shared for a limited on a trial basis with
the understanding that if the user decides to use it, he will pay for it.
Freeware software is made available for use, free of charge for an unlimited time. The copyright still remains with the producer / owner for any future development.
Q10. Mention the list of the licenses used by the users.
List of License:
1. Proprietary license
2. General Public Licenses(GNU)
3. End User License Agreement(EULA)
4. Workstation licenses
5. Concurrent use licenses
6. Site licenses
7. Perpetual licenses
8. Non-perpetual licenses
9. License with Maintenance
Q11. What do you mean by open source softwares? How are they different from properitary softwares?
Open-source software (OSS) is computer software with its source code made available. It is very often developed in a public, collaborative manner. A license for open sources software allows the end user to study, change and distribute the software for any purpose.Proprietary license where the copyright stays with the producer and the user is granted the right to use the software.
Categorize the following under ethical/safety/security precaution:
Q1. Do not share your password.
Q2. Do not use foul language.
Q3. Immediately report any suspect data or security breaches to your supervisor and/or authorities.
Q4. Install firewalls and antivirus softwares.
Ans: Security Precaution
Q5. Do not copy information from the Internet and claim it as yours (plagiarism).
Q6. Be wary of strangers and cautious of potentially misleading or false information.
Q7. Manage your computer settings to allow only data that comes from a known or safe place.
Ans: Security Precaution
Q8. Do not download copyrighted materials.
Q9. Download only trusted applications from reputable sources or marketplaces.
Q10. Pay attention to the URLs of websites you visit.
Q11. Do not use someone else’s password or break into his computer.
Q12. Restrict access and make personal information secure to prevent identity theft.
Ans: Security Precaution