A.1 Complete the following sentences using the correct form of the verbs given in brackets.
1. It is a big college. More than a hundred teachers ____________________ (employ) there.
Ans. are employed (passive)
2. _________________________ (somebody/ clean) the office yesterday?
Ans. Did anybody/somebody clean
3. How much of our country's land area _______________________ (cover) by forest?
Ans. is covered
4. The hostel gates ______ (lock) at 8.00 pm everyday.
Ans. are locked
5. The parcel __________ (send) a month ago and it _________ (arrive) only yesterday.
Ans. was sent, arrived
6. Where _____ (these photographs/take)? In Mumbai? __________ (you/ take) them, or somebody else?
Ans. were these photographs taken, Did you take
A.2 When do we use the passive voice?
Example: Look at the following sentences:
a) My grandfather established this steel factory in 1940.
b) This steel factory was established in 1940 by my grandfather.
We use the passive voice when we are more interested in the action than the person who does it or when we do not know the active subject .
Read the following sentences and using the given clues, find out the reason for the use of the passive construction as in the Example above.
1. He was killed in the World War II.
Clue: Who must have killed him? Is it obvious?
Ans. The enemy killed him. It is obvious from the passive sentence "He was killed in the World War II".
2. The Bank was looted last night.
Clue: Have the police caught the culprits?
Ans. It is understood that robbers looted the bank, but the stress should be on "the bank".
3. Sachin Tendulkar is looked upon as a sporting icon.
Clue: By whom?
Ans. The fans/admirers who look upon Sachin Tendulkar as sporting icon, are least important.
4. This sort of road-side restaurants can be seen everywhere in this city.
Clue: How will you write it in active voice?
Ans. People can see this sort of raod-side restaurants everywhere in this city.
5. When he arrived at the airport, he was arrested.
Clue: Rewrite the sentence in active voice. Is it a little awkward?
Ans. The police arrested him when he arrived at the airport. Yes the active voice is little awkward because everybody knows it is the police who arrests people.
6. Employer: On account of tight financial condition, bonus will not be paid this year.
Clue: If it is some good news, what voice will the employer use?
Ans. Active Voice: The company will pay bonus because of handsome profits.
7. I got my hair cut.
Clue: Look at the construction using 'got'.
Ans. Passive Voice: 'I got' means 'I've got'. Generally 'have' is not written along with got.
A.3 Match the excerpts below with the text types given in the box.
1. The tea leaves are picked and left to dry in the sun.
2. 20 ml of the salt is taken in a test tube and heated over the flame of a Bunsen burner.
3. Many villagers were adversely affected by the flash flood. It is estimated that nearly half of the standing crop has been submerged in water.
a) Newspaper (and formal) report __________
a. Newspaper and formal report - (3) Many villagers were ...
b. Description of processes - (1) The tea leaves are picked ...
c. Academic writings including reporting of .. (2) 20 ml of the salt ...
A.4 Read the following excerpt from a news story and answer the questions given below the excerpt.
74 killed in Myanmar quake.
MAESAI (THAILAND). At least 74 people were killed in a strong earthquake that struck Myanmar, state media said on Friday, while a series of aftershocks have caused panic but only limited damage in Thailand and Laos.
The death toll from Thursday's 6.8 mgnitude tremor was expected to rise slightly in Myanmar after 225 homes and nine government buildings were destroyed. Over 100 people were injured, according to state television.
The quake sparked panic, but no major damage in other countries across southeast Asia has been reported. An aftershock of an estimated magnitude of 5.5 rattled Thailand on Friday but caused limited damage, although residents living in properties close to the epicentre were advised to leave their homes.
- Hindustan Times - March 26, 2011
1. Are all the verbs in the passage in passive voice? What do you infer from this? _____
Ans. All verbs in the passage are in passive voice, because reports emphasize on results and the objects of actions. The agents who act here are not so important.
2. Underline the passive constructions in the passage and comment on why the passive is more appropriate than the active in these. _____
Ans. here is the list: were killed, have caused, was expected, were destroyed, were injured, has been reported, were advised.
These are passive constructions because the emphasis is on the results of the action.
3. Rewrite the second paragraph, keeping all the verbs in active voice. Begin like this.......
Authorities expect the death toll ............................................................ _____
Ans. Authorities expect the death toll to rise slightly after the Thursday's 6.8 magnitude tremor destroyed 225 homes and nine government buildings in Myanmar. According to state television, the earthquake injured over 100 people.
4. Does the re-written paragraph read well or is it a little awkward? Give reasons for your answer. _____
Ans. The report in active voice appears to be little awkward because it emphasizes on who did it rather than what happened.
A.5 Now read the following extracts from a passage about a diamond:
a. The Jacob Diamond is believed to have been mined in Africa and was bought in London by Shimla-based trader called A.M. Jacob, after whom it is named.
b. Weighing 184.75 carats, it was reckoned to be the world's seventh largest diamond.
c. The Jacob Diamond was bought by the sixth Nizam of Hyderabad, Mahbub Ali Khan.
d. It was considered to be such a lucky stone that when the Nizam was offered Rs. 1 million by the Agha Khan, he spurned the offer.
e. The famous diamond was later purchased by the Indian Government for Rs. 40 crore.
1. Give the article a title (use not more than three words) ________________
Ans. Imperial Jacob Diamond or Royal Jacob Diamond
2. Underline all the verb forms in the extracts above. What is the most common verb form in the passage called? ____________
Ans. Verb forms used: present tense, simple past, present perfect, participle (and gerund) . Both active and passive constructions are used but passive construction is prominent.
3. Write the appropriate newspaper headline for extract c. above. Use the jumbled words given in the box below:
|bought - diamond - sixth - Jacob - Hyderabad - by - of - Nizam|
Ans. Jacob diamond bought by sixth Nizam of Hyderabad.
4. Now write a headline for extract e. above.
Ans. Famous diamond purchased by Indian Government of Rs 40 Crore.
6. Now read extract d. again. You want to write a headline based on this extract.
You also want to focus attention on the Nizam of Hyderabad, not the Agha Khan. Write a headline to summarise this extract in not more than five words.
Ans. Nizam spurns offer of Rs 1- Crore.
A.6 Now practise writing a few headlines based on the following cues.
a. e.g. Police - received anonymous tip / complaint - managed to catch culprits - produced in court
CULPRITS CAUGHT AND PRODUCED IN COURT
Expansion: The culprits were caught and prosecuted by the police.
b. Young Sikkimese - succeeds - scales steepest face - Mt. Kanchenjunga
Ans. Steepest Mt. Kanchenjunga Scaled Or Young Sikkimese scales Steepest Mt. Kanchenjunga
Expansion: The steepest face Mt. Kanchenjunga was succeeded and scaled by Young Sikkimese.
c. Government - passed legislation - ban smoking in state of Tamil Nadu - people not received it well.
Ans. Legislation passed to Ban Smoking in TN state- Not well received.
Expansion: Legislation was passed by the Government to ban Ban on smoking in state of Tamil Nadu, it was not well received by the people.
d. The ruling party - excessive election spending - no proper accounts kept - no convincing answer to opposition questioning.
Ans. Ruling Party fails to convince opposition on excessive election spending and no accounting.
Expansion: No proper accounts were kept and no convincing answer was given to opposition question on excessive election spending by the ruling party.
e. SIEMENS, Germany has appointed new Managing Director - J. Shubert after convening General Bnody meeting - last week
Ans. J. Shubert SIEMENS new Managing Director appointed.
Expansion: J. Shubert, a new managing director of SIEMENS, Germany has been appointed after convening General Body meeting last week.
f. Rice shortage - increase production, says Govenrment
Ans. Hit by Rice Shortage, Government to increase production
Expansion: Government hit by rice shortage, says to increase production.
g. Archaeological Survey of India - has excavated Buddhist Satupa - in village in Haryana
Ans. Buddhist Satupa Excavated in Haryana
Expansion: Buddhist Satupa has been excavated by ASI in a village in Haryana.
h. Cricket team - prepares - tour to England - July 2011- selectors announce team
Ans. Cricket team announced for England Tour
Expansion: Cricket team was prepared and was announced by the selectors for tour to England in July 2011.
A.7 In two places in the incomplete sentence there has been some reduction, in order to avoid repetition.
'If (__________) found guilty', she will be given a life sentence.
Ans. (missing words) 'If (_she was _) found guilty', she will be given a life sentence.
'If (___ _____ ____) innocent', she will sue the police for wrongful arrest.
Ans. 'If (_she_ _is_ _found_) innocent', she will sue the police for wrongful arrest.
Read the following paragraph, which contains some repetition. Edit and rewrite the sentences so that you have one improved sentence.
a. The policeman, having been injured by the angry crowd, was lifted up by two Arun College students. He was carried to a nearby ambulance. Then he was taken to the city hospital.
Ans. The injured policeman, lifted by two Arun College students, was carried to nearby ambulance and then to the city hospital.
The policeman, injured by the angry crowd, was lifted, carried to nearby ambulance and then taken to the city hospital by two Arun College students.
Now give the sentence you have written a headline. Some of it has been done for you.
Ans. Headline: Policeman Injured by Crowd, Rescued by Two College Students
b. Suppose that you wish to focus attention on the kindness or bravery of the students who helped the policeman, rather than on the policeman himself.
Rewrite passage a. Above so that the focus is on the students, and give your passage a headline.
Ans. Two Arun College students lifted up the policeman, after having being injured by the angry crowd. they carried him to the nearby ambulance and then took him to the city hospital.
B. Present Passive
B1. Read the set of instructions below and underline the main verb in each sentence.
HOW TO MAGNETISE A SCREWDRIVER USING A COIL
1. Place a screwdriver inside a coil carrying a direct current.
2. It becomes magnetised.
3. Remove it from the coil.
4. Place the screwdriver in iron filings.
5. It attracts the filings.
When we write a description of this experiment, which tense do we use?
Complete the description of the experiment using the information in B 1, by writing the verbs in the correct form. One example has been done for you.
A screwdriver (place) is placed inside a coil carrying a direct current. The screwdriver (become) ________ magnetised. It (removed) _______ carefully and (place) __________ in iron filings. It (attract) _____________ the fillings.
Ans. A screwdriver (place) is placed inside a coil carrying a direct current. The screwdriver (become) becomes magnetised. It (removed) is removed carefully and (place) is placed in iron filings. It (attract) attracts the fillings.
B.2 Now read these instructions.
HOW TO DEMAGNETISE A SCREWDRIVER USING A COIL
1. Place the magnetised screwdriver blade inside the coil.
2. Pass an alternating current through it.
3. Slowly withdraw the screwdriver from the coil to a distance of about on metre while the current is flowing.
4. It becomes demagnetised.
5. Switch off the current.
6. Place the screwdriver in iron filings.
7. It does not attract the filings.
Write your own description of this experiment, using the Present Passive where appropriate.
A magnetised screwdriver is placed inside the coil.....________
Ans. A magnetised screwdriver blade is placed inside the coil. An alternating current is passed through it. The screwdriver is slowly withdrawn from the coil to a distance of about one meter while the current is flowing. It becomes demagnetized. The current is switched off. The screwdriver is placed in iron filings. It does not attract the filings.
B.3 As illustrated in India Today, September 1996, Ponniah Ramar, 34, an amiable individual from a Tamil Nadu village, claims to be able to convert a bucket of water into half a bucket of volatile fuel by adding a secret herb - or so he says! Here is the illustration of the process of preparing the fuel.
Write a report for the Junior Science Digest. You may use a combination of active and passive voice in your report, depending on what you wish to focus attention on.
1. Leaves of plant of unknown identity are collected.
2. These are put in a container of water and is boiled.
3. The mixture is allowed to cool.
4. Lime Juice and salt are added.
5. Chemicals of unknown identity are added to the mixture.
6. After a while, a golden yellow liquid becomes visible as a top layer which is filtered and is used as fuel.
D. Modals with the Passive
Look at the picture below. At present this room is in a terrible state. Suggest what should be done to make it fit for a student to live and work in. Use different modals in the Passive voice, as in the example.
1. Trash must be collected and be kept in a garbage bag.
2. Floor must be wiped.
3. Books should be arranged on the table and drawers must be closed.
E Present Perfect Passive
Two months later, you return to the room to observe the changes made.Write a letter to a friend asking him to pay a visit to your newly- renovated room. Describe in detail what has been changed. Use the space given.
You will be pleased to hear that my room is finally ready. It has taken a lot of time and money but it now looks much better. The walls have been painted.................
The walls have been painted with rainbow colours. The floor has been cleaned up and new tiles have been laid. The room has been renovated with nice decor. Books have been piled up on the shelf. Extra furniture have been removed. Unwanted things have been thrown out. Dull blinds have been replaced with colourful ones.
G. Getting Something Done
G.1 Study the examples below:
1. a) Mr. Akshay Pandey's car was damaged in an accident.
b) A mechanic repaired the car.
Usually in such situations, type 'b' sentences are rather uncommon. Instead, the same idea would be expressed as
Mr. Pandey got his car repaired.
This means that Mr. Pandey arranged for a mechanic to repair his car. He did not repair it himself. It can also be written thus:
Mr.Pandey had his car repaired.
Use the words in brackets to complete the following sentences. Use the structure: 'have/get something done'.
1. My neighbours _____ (their garden/ relay) at the moment.
Ans. My neighbours got their garden relaid at the moment.
2. I lost my identity card. I'll have to _______ another (another/make)
Ans. I lost my identity card. I'll have to make another.
3. _____ (you/ milk/ deliver) to your house every day, or do your go out and buy it?
Ans. Have you got mik delivered to your house every day, or do your go out and buy it?
4. A: Can I see the photographs you took during our school day function?
B: I'm afraid _______ (not/ the film/develop) yet.
Ans. I'm afraid the film has not got developed yet.
5. Your suit is a little tight. Why don't you ____ (a new one/ make)?
Ans. Your suit is a little tight. Why don't you get a new one made?
G.2 Answer the following questions using 'to have something done'. The first one has been done as an example.
1. Why did you go to the garage?
Ans. To have my car serviced.
2. Why did you go to the doctor?
Ans. To have my health checked up.
3. Why did you go to the bank?
Ans. To have my money deposited.
4. Why did you go to the tailor?
Ans. To have my dress altered.
5. Why did you go to the photo studio?
Ans. To have myself photographed.
6. Why did you go to the dentist's?
Ans. To have my teeth cleaned up.
H. Passives - Summary
H.1 Match the items from A and B to make meaningful sentences. There is sometimes more than one sensible combination.
1. Who will be
a. be informed
2. She likes
b. been done to stop it?
3. They ought
c. been told?
4. They are going
d. was given the money.
e. to get hurt.
6. It will
f. have been done by them.
7. You will
g. asked to come to the party?
8. He hates
h. being asked to parties.
9. What has
i. being looked at.
10. Has Sita
j. to be punished for what they did.
1. Who will be - asked to come to the party?
2. She likes - to get hurt.
3. They ought - to be punished for what they did.
4. They are going - to get hurt.
5. She - was given the money.
6. It will - be informed.
7. You will - be informed.
8. He hates - being looked at.
9. What has - been done to stop it?
10. Has Sita - been told?
H.2 Complete the following sentences appropriately by using the passive form of the given verbs.
1. There's somebody behind us. I think we........... (follow)
Ans. are being followed.
2. A mystery is something that ............. (cannot/explain)
Ans. can't be explained
3. We didn't play volleyball yesterday. The match........ (cancel)
Ans. was cancelled
4. The minaret ....... (restore). The work is almost finished.
Ans. is being restored
5. Every time I travel by plane, my plane ............. (delay)
Ans. gets delayed
6. I left some papers on the desk last night and I can't find them now. They ............... (might/ throw) away.
Ans. might be thrown
7. Two people ....... (report) to ...... (injure) in an explosion at a factory in Bengaluru early this morning.
Ans. were reported
H3. Rewrite the paragraph below by changing these sentences into the passive; include the agent only if necessary.
Last year Mckiney Company built two new apartment buildings in the city centre. Recently one of the buildings was damaged by an earthquake. The earthquake also destroyed the company offices in the other building. The owners of the apartments of the buildings will receive the insurance money to fix the damages. Nobody will lose the money paid for the apartments.
Two new apartment ________.
Recently one of the buildings was damaged by an earthquake. The company offices in ___________.
The insurance ________. Money ______.
Two new apartment _buildings have been built by Mckiney Company in the city centre last year_.
Recently one of the buildings was damaged by an earthquake. The company offices in the other building was destroyed.The insurance money will be received by the owners to fix the apartments. Money paid for the apartments will not be lost by anyone.
H.4 Look at the following newspaper article. It has two versions. Version 'A' is written in the active and version 'B' is written in the passive voice. For each piece of information, decide whether Version 'A' or Version 'B' is more appropriate. Then rewrite the passage using a combination of the two versions.
Thieves stole the famous Nor Y Koh emerald from the City Museum last night. Police believe the thieves must have forced the locks on the windows and disabled the alarms before the museum attendants had closed the museum for the night. Police have arrested a man whom someone saw acting suspiciously outside the museum.
Version BThe Famous Nor Y Koh emerald was stolen from the museum last night. It is believed that the window-locks had been forced and the alarms disabled before the museum was closed for the night. A man who was seen acting suspiciously outside the museum has been arrested.
The Famous Nor Y Koh emerald was stolen from the museum last night. It is believed that the window-locks had been forced and the alarms disabled before the museum was closed for the night.
Police have arrested a man whom someone saw acting suspiciously outside the museum.
H.5 Shahin, a newspaper reporter, visited the World Book Fair at Pragati Maidan. Suddenly he saw a stall in flames. He jotted down a few notes in his notepad. Using the cues and your own ideas write a newspaper report in the space provided. Use Active or Passive, depending on what you wish to focus on.
|- Pragati Maidan|
- 10 October
- 10 am
- Rendezvous Publishers
- over 2000 books published
- smoke and sudden flames
- injured - women 11
- men 6
- children 14
- people in ICU - 4
- fire fighters - no water available
October 10, 20XX
Around 10 am, at World book Fair, the stall of Rendezvous Publishers, a company which has published over 2000 books, caught fire. Smoke and sudden flames spread around and created panic. Fire fighters had to face a tough challenge putting off the fire because of non-availability of water at Pragati Maidan. It is reported that 11 women, 6 men and 14 children were injured in the fire. Four persons are in critical condition and were admitted to ICU.