1. Why do we say that it was not natural fertility and high levels of food production that were the causes of early urbanisation?
We often said that natural fertility and high level of food production are the causes of the early urbanisation because:
(i) Natural fertility encourages settled life and agriculture production.
(ii) Fertility of soil was also helpful in beginning of new occupations.
(iii) It paved the way for animal husbandry.
(iv) Flourishing trade and commerce is also another major factor for urbanisation.
2. Which of the following were necessary conditions and which the causes, of early urbanisation, and which would you say were the outcome of the growth of cities:
(a) highly productive agriculture, (b) water transport, (c) the lack of metal and stone, (d) the division of labour, (e) the use of seals, (f) the military power of kings that made labour compulsory?
Following are the necessary conditions for urbanisation-
(i) Highly productive agriculture.
(ii) Water transport.
(iii) The division of labour.
Causes of early urbanisation -
(i) Lack of mental and stones.
(ii) The use of seals.
(iii) The military power of kings that made labour compulsory.
Outcome of growth of cities-
(i) Efficient transport system.
(ii) Trade and system developed.
3. Why were mobile animal herders not necessarily a threat to town life?
Mobile animals herders were not necessarily a threat to town life because it was required to exchange ghee, metal, tools, grains etc.
4. Why would the early temple have been much like a house?
Temples overtime developed huge structures, built in shape of step pyramids. But early temple were much like house. They were small shrines made of unbaked bricks except that had outer walls going in and out at regular intervals unlike ordinary building. Early temples were like a house because:
(i) The temple symbolize the community as a whole and was the nucleus around which the city developed.
(ii) It was here that the processing of produce- grain grinding, spinning, weaving was done as in household.
(iii) The rulers of early Mesopotamia's cities were priests.They lived and administered from there. Since temples were used for residential purposes they looked like houses.
(iv) The complex was not only a place of rituals and worship but contained warehouses, workshops and living quarters of artisans.
Answer in Short Essay
5. Of the new institutions that came into being once city life had begun, which would have depended on the initiative of the king?
The new institutions that came into being with the beginning of city life include trade, temple, sea making, sculpture, and the art of writing. All these institutions depend on the initiative of the king.
6. What do ancient stories tell us about the civilisation of Mesopotamia?
Ancient stories of Mesopotamia are valuable sources of information. It is one of the advanced civilization of that time, its society was divided into three classes
(i) Upper classes
(ii) Middle classes.
(iii) Lower classes
• People belonging to upper classes live a luxurious life and enjoyed special privileges.
• Agriculture is the main occupation of the people. Their life was normally prosperous.
• Religion was the main part of their life. They worshiped many gods and goddesses.
• Shames was their main god who was the sun. Ziggurat was the name given to the Sumerian temples.
Another description from the bible-
According to bible, the flood was meant to destroy all life on earth. The almighty assigned the task of sustaining the earth, to a man Noah. Noah built a huge boat, and ark and took a pair of each known species of animals and birds on the ark. Thus when every other things were destroyed by the flood, this ark remained safe along with pairs of all species. Thus began a new life on earth.
There is a reference to a strikingly similar story in Mesopotamian tradition, where the principal character instead of Noah , was called Ziusudra or Utnapishtim.