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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology - (Part -1) - Self and Personality

Q1: What is a self? How does the Indian notion of self differ from the Western notion?
Ans:  Self-refers to the totality of an individual’s conscious experiences, ideas, thoughts, and feelings with regard to herself or himself. It can be understood in terms of subject and object or I and Me

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology - (Part -1) - Self and Personality

The Indian notion of self and the Western notion of self differ from each other by a number of important features:
1. Indian Concept of Self

  • Self is characterized by the shifting nature of the boundaries.
  • The Indian view does not make rigid dichotomies.
  • It is based on collectivistic Indian society.

2. Western Concept of Self

  • The boundaries between self and the group are rigid.
  • It holds clear dichotomies between self and group.
  • It is based on individualistic society of the West. 

Q2: What is meant by a delay of gratification? Why is it considered important for adult development?
Ans:  Delay of gratification, also known as self-control, is a practice that means learning to delay or defer the more pleasurable or fun-loving needs and rewarding later.

  • It is considered important for adult development because any situations of life require resistance to situational pressures and control over ourselves.
  • Human beings can control their behavior the way they want, which is possible through what is commonly known as ‘willpower.’ 
  • Delaying or deferring the satisfaction of certain needs or practicing self-control plays a key role in the fulfillment of long-term goals.

Indian cultural tradition provides us with certain effective mechanisms (e.g. fasting in vrata or Roza and non-attachment with worldly things) for developing self-control. A number of psychological techniques of self-control have been suggested, which are:

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology - (Part -1) - Self and Personality

  • Observation of own behavior: 
    This provides us with the necessary information that may be used to change, modify, or strengthen certain aspects of self.
  • Self-instruction: 
    It is another important technique. We often instruct ourselves to do something and behave the way we want to. Such instructions are quite effective in self-regulation.
  • Self-reinforcement: 
    It involves rewarding behaviors that have pleasant outcomes. For example, you may go to see a movie with friends if you have done well in an examination. 

Q3: How do you define personality? What are the main approaches to the study of personality?
Ans:  The word ‘personality’ is derived from the Latin word ‘persona’, which means a mask or false face which Greek actors used to wear when acting on stage. Personality refers to psychophysical characteristics of a person that is relatively stable across situations and over time and make her or him unique.  It also defines our existence and the ways in which our experiences are organized and show up in our behavior.
There are many broad personality theories, which can be grouped into four categories: –

  1. Dynamic approaches: 
    Emphasizes on-going interaction among motives, impulses and psychological processes.
  2. Type and train approaches
    Focuses on people’s characteristics, stubbornness, shyness and so forth and how these characteristics are organized into systems.
  3. Humanistic approaches: 
    Emphasizes the self and the importance of the individual’s subjective view of the world.
  4. Learning and behavioural approaches: 
    Emphasizes the way habits are acquired through basic learning process. 

The main approaches to the study of personality are:

  • The type approach
  • The trait approach
  • The interactional approach
  • Psychodynamic approach
  •  Post-Freudian approach
  • Behavioural approach
  • Cultural approach
  • Humanistic approach

Q4: What is the trait approach to personality? How does it differ from the type approach?
Ans: The trait approach is very similar to our common experience in everyday life. These theories are mainly concerned with the description or characterization of basic components of personality. It tries to discover the 'building blocks' of personality. Human beings display a wide range of variations in psychological attributes, yet it is possible to club them into a smaller number of personality traits.
For example, when we come to know that a person is sociable, we assume that s/he will not only be cooperative, friendly, and helpful but also engage in behaviors that involve other social components. Thus, the trait approach attempts to identify the primary characteristics of people. A trait is considered a relatively enduring attribute or quality on which one individual differs from another. They include a range of possible behaviors that are activated according to the demands of the situation.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology - (Part -1) - Self and Personality

Q5: How does Freud explain the structure of personality?
Ans: According to Freud’s theory, there are three primary structural elements of personality which are the id, ego, and superego. They reside in the unconscious as forces, and they can be inferred from the ways people behave.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology - (Part -1) - Self and Personality

1. Id:

  • It is the source of a person’s instinctual energy
  • It deals with the immediate gratification of primitive needs, sexual desires, and aggressive impulses. 
  • It works on the pleasure principle, which assumes that people seek pleasure and try to avoid pain. 
  • Freud considered much of a person’s instinctual energy to be sexual and the rest as aggressive. Id does not care for moral values, society, or other individuals.

2. Ego: 

  • It grows out of id, and seeks to satisfy an individual’s instinctual needs in accordance with reality.
  • It works by the reality principle and often directs the id towards more appropriate ways of behaving. 
  • The ego is patient and reasonable and works by the reality principle.

3. Superego: 

  • The best way to characterize the superego is to think of it as the moral branch of mental functioning
  • The superego tells the id and the ego whether the gratification in a particular instance is ethical. 
  • It helps control the id by internalizing the parental authority through the process of socialization.

Thus, in terms of individual functioning, Freud thought of the unconscious as being composed of three competing forces. In some people, the id is stronger than the superego; in others, it is the superego. The relative strength of the id, ego and superego determines each person’s stability. 

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology - (Part -1) - Self and PersonalityFreud also assumed that id is energized by two instinctual forces, called life instinct and the death instinct. He paid less attention to the death instinct and focused more on the life instinct. The instinctual life force that energizes the id is called libido. It works on the pleasure principle and seeks immediate gratification.

Q6: How would Horney’s explanation of depression be different from that of Alfred Adler?
Ans:  
1. Horney’s Explanation of Depression

  • Horney was another disciple of Freud who developed a theory that deviated from basic Freudian principles. She adopted a more optimistic view of human life with an emphasis on human growth and self-actualization. 
  • Horney’s major contribution lies in her challenge to Freud’s treatment of women as inferior
  • According to her, each sex has attributes to be admired by the other, and neither sex can be viewed as superior or inferior
  • She countered that women were more likely to be affected by social and cultural factors than by biological factors.
  • She argued that psychological disorders were caused by disturbed interpersonal relationships during childhood. 
  • When parents’ behavior toward a child is indifferent, discouraging, and erratic, the child feels insecure, and a feeling called basic anxiety results
  • Deep resentment toward parents or basic hostility occurs due to this anxiety
  • By showing excessive dominance or indifference, or by providing too much or too little approval, parents can generate among children feelings of isolation and helplessness, which interfere with their healthy development.NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology - (Part -1) - Self and Personality

2. Alfred Adler's Explanation of Depression 

  • Adler’s theory is known as individual psychology
  • His basic assumption is that human behavior is purposeful and goal-directed
  • Each one of us has the capacity to choose and create
  • Our personal goals are the sources of our motivation
  • The goals that provide us with security and help us in overcoming feelings of inadequacy are important in our personality development. 
  • In Adler’s view, every individual suffers from feelings of inadequacy and guilt, i.e. inferiority complex, which arise from childhood. 
  • Overcoming this complex is essential for optimal personality development.
The document NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology - (Part -1) - Self and Personality is a part of the Humanities/Arts Course NCERT Books & Solutions for Humanities.
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FAQs on NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology - (Part -1) - Self and Personality

1. What is self-concept?
Ans. Self-concept refers to how an individual perceives themselves, including their beliefs, feelings, and attitudes about their own identity.
2. How does social media influence personality development?
Ans. Social media can influence personality development by shaping self-image, providing opportunities for self-expression, and impacting social interactions and relationships.
3. What are the factors that contribute to the development of personality?
Ans. Factors such as genetics, environment, upbringing, experiences, and culture can all play a role in shaping an individual's personality.
4. How can self-awareness help in personal growth and development?
Ans. Self-awareness allows individuals to understand their strengths and weaknesses, leading to personal growth through self-improvement and better decision-making.
5. What is the significance of self-esteem in shaping one's personality?
Ans. Self-esteem influences how individuals perceive themselves and their abilities, impacting their confidence, motivation, and overall personality development.
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