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NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 9 - Public Facilities

Q1. Why do you think there are so few cases of private water supply in the world?
Ans: 
Water is an essential amenity. The reasons for so few cases of private water supply in the world are:

  • Government Responsibility: Many governments consider access to clean water a basic human right and take responsibility for providing it to their citizens. They invest in public water supply systems to ensure equitable access and quality standards.
  • Cost and Affordability: Maintaining a private water supply system can be expensive. Many individuals or communities may not have the financial resources to invest in such infrastructure, especially in economically disadvantaged areas.
  • Infrastructure Challenges: Building and managing water supply infrastructure requires technical expertise and resources. Private entities may face challenges in acquiring land, constructing pipelines, and ensuring the sustainability of water sources.
  • Equity and Access: Private water supply systems may prioritize profitability over equitable access to water, leading to concerns about affordability and accessibility for marginalized or low-income communities.


Q2. Do you think water in Chennai is available to and affordable by all? Discuss.
Ans: In Chennai, not everyone has access to or can afford water. The degree of money one makes in the city is proportional to the availability of a decent, consistent water supply. On average, municipal supply covers only approximately half of the needs of the city's residents. In places like Anna Nagar, senior government officials can arrange for a complete water tanker to be sent to them. Most areas, such as Mylapore, only get water once every two days. People in Madipakkam buy bottled water for drinking, but the situation in slums is the worst. In the slums, a single tap provides water to over thirty families for less than an hour each day. 

Apart from the availability of water, only the wealthy can purchase bottled water and water purifiers and so have access to "safe" drinking water. Drinking water that is "sufficient and safe" is denied to the impoverished.

It is essential that the government ensures that citizens of the city have access to "adequate and safe" drinking water in order to live a good life.


Q3. How is the sale of water by farmers to water dealers in Chennai affecting the local people? Do you think local people can object to such exploitation of ground water? Can the government do anything in this regard?
Ans: The sale of water by farmers to water dealers in Chennai is affecting the local people in various ways:

  • The water they are taking away is for irrigation of agriculture. Because of this exploitation irrigation and so, agriculture is bound to suffer.
  • This water is also for general supply and drinking purpose of the villagers.
  • As a result of the heavy exploitation of water, the ground water levels dropped drastically in these areas.

Yes, the local people can object to such heavy exploitation of ground water since it is a public facility or nature’s gift on which everyone has equal right and so nobody can sell or take away exclusively.
The Government needs to play a crucial role to find out a suitable alternative in this regard. Our Constitution recognizes many of the public facilities including access to safe drinking water, as being a part of the Right to Life. So, the Government must see that these rights are protected so that everyone can lead a decent life.


Q4. Why are most of the private hospitals and private schools located in major cities and not in towns or rural areas?
Ans: Most of the private hospitals and private schools located in major cities and not in towns or rural areas because of the following factors:

  • Market Demand: Major cities have larger populations with higher demand for quality healthcare and education services.
  • Infrastructure: Urban areas offer better infrastructure, facilities, and resources essential for operating private hospitals and schools.
  • Profitability: Major cities provide opportunities for higher revenues and profitability due to affluent client base and competitive advantages.
  • Access: Residents of major cities have better access to private services compared to those in towns or rural areas, increasing disparities.
  • Regulatory Environment: Urban areas may have more favorable regulatory conditions or incentives for private investment compared to rural areas.
  • Concentration: The concentration of private hospitals and schools in major cities reflects a combination of market demand, infrastructure, profitability, access, and regulatory factors.


Q5. Do you think the distribution of public facilities in our country is adequate and fair? Give an example of your own to explain.
Ans: While there is no doubt that public facilities should be made available to all, in reality, we see that there is a great shortage of such facilities. The distribution of public facilities in our country is neither adequate nor fair. For example, the Delhites avail all public facilities like healthcare and sanitation, water, electricity, schools, colleges and public transport.
But if we go to places a few kilometres away, such as Mathura or Aligarh, people have to face grave crises for these facilities. Water shortages and electricity cut-offs are part of the normal routine of life in those places. Public transport is also not properly developed. Compared to the metros and large cities, towns and villages are under-provided. Compared to wealthy localities, the poorer localities are under-serviced. Handing these facilities over to private companies is not an answer. The important fact is that every citizen of the country has a right to these facilities, which should be provided to all in an equitable manner.


Q6. Take some of the public facilities in your area, such as water, electricity, etc. Is there scope to improve these? What in your opinion should be done? Complete the table.
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 9 - Public Facilities

Ans:
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 9 - Public Facilities


Q7. Are the above public facilities shared equally by all the people in your area? Elaborate.
Ans: 
No, the above-mentioned facilities are not shared equally in the areas. Water supply is not shared equally by all the people. The slum dwellers have to manage with a single water tap, whereas each house in a middle-class locality has a separate connection for water. While people of middle-class homes buy water from tankers to meet their needs, those in slums cannot afford it. However, other facilities, like electricity, road and public transport, are shared equally by all.


Q8. Data on some of the public facilities are collected as part of the Census. Discuss with your teacher when and how the Census is conducted.
Ans:
Census is conducted after every ten years. It counts the entire population of the country. It also collects detailed information about the citizens like their age, schooling, occupations, etc.


Q9. Private educational institutions – schools, colleges, universities, technical and vocational training institutes are coming up in our country in a big way. On the other hand, educational institutes run by the government are becoming relatively less important. What do you think would be the impact of this? Discuss.
Ans:
Private educational institutions have been coming up in India, and the decline of government educational institutions has raised concerns about affordability, quality, and accessibility. The impact of this could be:

  • Social Inequality: Privatization can deepen social stratification as wealthier families access better education, while lower-income families struggle with affordability.
  • Political Influence: Private institutions may wield significant political power through lobbying, potentially shaping education policies to their advantage.
  • Quality Disparities: While private institutions may offer better facilities, their profit-driven approach could compromise the overall quality of education and create disparities with government-run institutions.
  • Economic Effects: While private education can stimulate economic growth, it may also contribute to the commercialization of education, hindering social mobility.

The increasing dominance of private educational institutions at the expense of government-run institutions can have far-reaching implications for society, politics, and the economy. While privatization may offer certain benefits such as innovation and economic growth, it also raises concerns about social inequality, democratic values, and the equitable access to quality education for all citizens. Therefore, it is essential for policymakers to strike a balance between private and public provision of education to ensure that education remains accessible, affordable, and of high quality for everyone.

The document NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 9 - Public Facilities is a part of the Class 8 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 8.
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FAQs on NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 9 - Public Facilities

1. What are public facilities?
Ans. Public facilities refer to the basic infrastructure and services that are provided by the government for the welfare of citizens. These facilities can be in the form of roads, bridges, schools, hospitals, parks, public transportation, and many more.
2. Why is it important to have access to public facilities?
Ans. Access to public facilities is essential for the overall development of a society. It ensures that people have access to basic amenities like healthcare, education, and transportation. It also helps in promoting equal opportunities and a better quality of life for all citizens.
3. What challenges are faced in providing public facilities in developing countries?
Ans. Developing countries face several challenges in providing public facilities. Some of these challenges include lack of funds, inadequate infrastructure, poor planning, corruption, and ineffective policies. These challenges can lead to a lack of access to basic amenities for the citizens.
4. How can citizens contribute to the improvement of public facilities?
Ans. Citizens can contribute to the improvement of public facilities by being aware of their rights and responsibilities. They can participate in community initiatives, volunteer for social work, and actively engage with local government bodies. They can also report issues and problems related to public facilities to the concerned authorities.
5. What role can technology play in improving public facilities?
Ans. Technology can play a significant role in improving public facilities. It can help in better planning, monitoring, and implementation of infrastructure projects. Technologies like smart sensors, data analytics, and artificial intelligence can be used to optimize the use of resources and improve the efficiency of public facilities. It can also help in providing real-time information to citizens about the availability and quality of public services.
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