NCERT Textbook - पद Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook - पद Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


8 / Li'kZ
ehjk
(1503-1546)
ehjkckbZ dk tUe tks/iqj osQ pksdM+h (oqQM+dh) xk¡o esa 1503 esa gqvk ekuk
tkrk gSA 13 o"kZ dh mez esa esokM+ osQ egkjk.kk lkaxk osQ oq¡Qoj Hkkstjkt ls
mudk fookg gqvkA mudk thou nq[kksa dh Nk;k esa gh chrkA ckY;koLFkk esa gh
ek¡ dk nsgkar gks x;k FkkA fookg osQ oqQN gh lky ckn igys ifr] fiQj firk
vkSj ,d ;q¼ osQ nkSjku 'olqj dk Hkh nsgkar gks x;kA HkkSfrd thou ls fujk'k
ehjk us ?kj&ifjokj R;kx fn;k vkSj oa`nkou esa Msjk Mky iwjh rjg fxjèkj xksiky
Ñ".k osQ izfr lefiZr gks xb±A
eè;dkyhu HkfDr vkanksyu dh vkè;kfRed izsj.kk us ftu dfo;ksa dks tUe
fn;k muesa ehjkckbZ dk fof'k"V LFkku gSA buosQ in iwjs mÙkj Hkkjr lfgr
xqtjkr] fcgkj vkSj caxky rd izpfyr gSaA ehjk ¯gnh vkSj xqtjkrh nksuksa dh
dof;=kh ekuh tkrh gSaA
lar jSnkl dh f'k";k ehjk dh oqQy lkr&vkB Ñfr;k¡ gh miyCèk gSaA ehjk
dh HkfDr nSU; vkSj ekèkq;ZHkko dh gSA bu ij ;ksfx;ksa] larksa vkSj oS".ko HkDrksa
dk lfEefyr izHkko iM+k gSA ehjk osQ inksa dh Hkk"kk esa jktLFkkuh] czt vkSj
xqtjkrh dk feJ.k ik;k tkrk gSA ogha iatkch] [kM+h cksyh vkSj iwohZ osQ iz;ksx
Hkh fey tkrs gSaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


8 / Li'kZ
ehjk
(1503-1546)
ehjkckbZ dk tUe tks/iqj osQ pksdM+h (oqQM+dh) xk¡o esa 1503 esa gqvk ekuk
tkrk gSA 13 o"kZ dh mez esa esokM+ osQ egkjk.kk lkaxk osQ oq¡Qoj Hkkstjkt ls
mudk fookg gqvkA mudk thou nq[kksa dh Nk;k esa gh chrkA ckY;koLFkk esa gh
ek¡ dk nsgkar gks x;k FkkA fookg osQ oqQN gh lky ckn igys ifr] fiQj firk
vkSj ,d ;q¼ osQ nkSjku 'olqj dk Hkh nsgkar gks x;kA HkkSfrd thou ls fujk'k
ehjk us ?kj&ifjokj R;kx fn;k vkSj oa`nkou esa Msjk Mky iwjh rjg fxjèkj xksiky
Ñ".k osQ izfr lefiZr gks xb±A
eè;dkyhu HkfDr vkanksyu dh vkè;kfRed izsj.kk us ftu dfo;ksa dks tUe
fn;k muesa ehjkckbZ dk fof'k"V LFkku gSA buosQ in iwjs mÙkj Hkkjr lfgr
xqtjkr] fcgkj vkSj caxky rd izpfyr gSaA ehjk ¯gnh vkSj xqtjkrh nksuksa dh
dof;=kh ekuh tkrh gSaA
lar jSnkl dh f'k";k ehjk dh oqQy lkr&vkB Ñfr;k¡ gh miyCèk gSaA ehjk
dh HkfDr nSU; vkSj ekèkq;ZHkko dh gSA bu ij ;ksfx;ksa] larksa vkSj oS".ko HkDrksa
dk lfEefyr izHkko iM+k gSA ehjk osQ inksa dh Hkk"kk esa jktLFkkuh] czt vkSj
xqtjkrh dk feJ.k ik;k tkrk gSA ogha iatkch] [kM+h cksyh vkSj iwohZ osQ iz;ksx
Hkh fey tkrs gSaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
in / 9
ikB izos'k
dgrs gSa ikfjokfjd larkiksa ls eqfDr ikus osQ fy, ehjk ?kj&}kj NksM+dj o`ankou
esa tk clh Fkha vkSj Ñ".ke; gks xbZ FkhaA budh jpukvksa eas buosQ vkjkè; dgha
fuxqZ.k fujkdkj czã] dgha lxq.k lkdkj xksihoYyHk JhÑ".k vkSj dgha fueksZgh
ijns'kh tksxh osQ :i esa ladfYir fd, x, gSaA os fxjèkj xksiky osQ vuU; vkSj
,dfu"B izse ls vfHkHkwr gks mBh FkhaA
izLrqr ikB esa ladfyr nksuksa in ehjk osQ bUgha vkjkè; dks lacksfèkr gSaA ehjk
vius vkjkè; ls euqgkj Hkh djrh gaS] ykM+ Hkh yM+krh gSa rks volj vkus ij
mykguk nsus ls Hkh ugha pwdrhaA mudh {kerkvksa dk xq.kxku] Lej.k djrh gSa
rks mUgsa muosQ drZO; ;kn fnykus esa Hkh nsj ugha yxkrhaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


8 / Li'kZ
ehjk
(1503-1546)
ehjkckbZ dk tUe tks/iqj osQ pksdM+h (oqQM+dh) xk¡o esa 1503 esa gqvk ekuk
tkrk gSA 13 o"kZ dh mez esa esokM+ osQ egkjk.kk lkaxk osQ oq¡Qoj Hkkstjkt ls
mudk fookg gqvkA mudk thou nq[kksa dh Nk;k esa gh chrkA ckY;koLFkk esa gh
ek¡ dk nsgkar gks x;k FkkA fookg osQ oqQN gh lky ckn igys ifr] fiQj firk
vkSj ,d ;q¼ osQ nkSjku 'olqj dk Hkh nsgkar gks x;kA HkkSfrd thou ls fujk'k
ehjk us ?kj&ifjokj R;kx fn;k vkSj oa`nkou esa Msjk Mky iwjh rjg fxjèkj xksiky
Ñ".k osQ izfr lefiZr gks xb±A
eè;dkyhu HkfDr vkanksyu dh vkè;kfRed izsj.kk us ftu dfo;ksa dks tUe
fn;k muesa ehjkckbZ dk fof'k"V LFkku gSA buosQ in iwjs mÙkj Hkkjr lfgr
xqtjkr] fcgkj vkSj caxky rd izpfyr gSaA ehjk ¯gnh vkSj xqtjkrh nksuksa dh
dof;=kh ekuh tkrh gSaA
lar jSnkl dh f'k";k ehjk dh oqQy lkr&vkB Ñfr;k¡ gh miyCèk gSaA ehjk
dh HkfDr nSU; vkSj ekèkq;ZHkko dh gSA bu ij ;ksfx;ksa] larksa vkSj oS".ko HkDrksa
dk lfEefyr izHkko iM+k gSA ehjk osQ inksa dh Hkk"kk esa jktLFkkuh] czt vkSj
xqtjkrh dk feJ.k ik;k tkrk gSA ogha iatkch] [kM+h cksyh vkSj iwohZ osQ iz;ksx
Hkh fey tkrs gSaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
in / 9
ikB izos'k
dgrs gSa ikfjokfjd larkiksa ls eqfDr ikus osQ fy, ehjk ?kj&}kj NksM+dj o`ankou
esa tk clh Fkha vkSj Ñ".ke; gks xbZ FkhaA budh jpukvksa eas buosQ vkjkè; dgha
fuxqZ.k fujkdkj czã] dgha lxq.k lkdkj xksihoYyHk JhÑ".k vkSj dgha fueksZgh
ijns'kh tksxh osQ :i esa ladfYir fd, x, gSaA os fxjèkj xksiky osQ vuU; vkSj
,dfu"B izse ls vfHkHkwr gks mBh FkhaA
izLrqr ikB esa ladfyr nksuksa in ehjk osQ bUgha vkjkè; dks lacksfèkr gSaA ehjk
vius vkjkè; ls euqgkj Hkh djrh gaS] ykM+ Hkh yM+krh gSa rks volj vkus ij
mykguk nsus ls Hkh ugha pwdrhaA mudh {kerkvksa dk xq.kxku] Lej.k djrh gSa
rks mUgsa muosQ drZO; ;kn fnykus esa Hkh nsj ugha yxkrhaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
10 / Li'kZ
in
(1)
gfj  vki  gjks  tu  jh  HkhjA
nzksinh jh ykt jk[kh] vki c<+k;ks phjA
Hkxr dkj.k :i ujgfj] èkj~;ks vki ljhjA
cw<+rks xtjkt jk[;ks] dkVh oqQ.tj ihjA
nklh ehjk¡ yky fxjèkj] gjks Egkjh HkhjAA
(2)
L;ke Egkus pkdj jk[kks th]
fxjèkkjh ykyk Egk¡us pkdj jk[kksthA
pkdj jgL;w¡ ckx yxkL;w¡ fur mB njl.k ikL;w¡A
fcUnjkou jh oaqQt xyh esa] xksfoUn yhyk xkL;w¡A
pkdjh esa njl.k ikL;w¡] lqej.k ikL;w¡ [kjphA
Hkko Hkxrh tkxhjh ikL;w¡] rhuaw ckrk¡ ljlhA
eksj eqxV ihrkEcj lkSgs] xy oStUrh ekykA
fcUnjkou esa èksuq pjkos] eksgu eqjyh okykA
m¡Qpk m¡Qpk egy c.kkoa fcp fcp jk[kw¡ ckjhA
lk¡ofj;k jk njl.k ikL;w¡] igj oqQlqEch lkM+hA
vkèkh jkr izHkq njl.k] nhT;ks teukth js rhjkaA
ehjk¡ jk izHkq fxjèkj ukxj] fgoM+ks ?k.kks vèkhjk¡AA
  lanHkZ % ehjk¡ xzaFkkoyh&2] dY;k.k ¯lg 'ks[kkor
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


8 / Li'kZ
ehjk
(1503-1546)
ehjkckbZ dk tUe tks/iqj osQ pksdM+h (oqQM+dh) xk¡o esa 1503 esa gqvk ekuk
tkrk gSA 13 o"kZ dh mez esa esokM+ osQ egkjk.kk lkaxk osQ oq¡Qoj Hkkstjkt ls
mudk fookg gqvkA mudk thou nq[kksa dh Nk;k esa gh chrkA ckY;koLFkk esa gh
ek¡ dk nsgkar gks x;k FkkA fookg osQ oqQN gh lky ckn igys ifr] fiQj firk
vkSj ,d ;q¼ osQ nkSjku 'olqj dk Hkh nsgkar gks x;kA HkkSfrd thou ls fujk'k
ehjk us ?kj&ifjokj R;kx fn;k vkSj oa`nkou esa Msjk Mky iwjh rjg fxjèkj xksiky
Ñ".k osQ izfr lefiZr gks xb±A
eè;dkyhu HkfDr vkanksyu dh vkè;kfRed izsj.kk us ftu dfo;ksa dks tUe
fn;k muesa ehjkckbZ dk fof'k"V LFkku gSA buosQ in iwjs mÙkj Hkkjr lfgr
xqtjkr] fcgkj vkSj caxky rd izpfyr gSaA ehjk ¯gnh vkSj xqtjkrh nksuksa dh
dof;=kh ekuh tkrh gSaA
lar jSnkl dh f'k";k ehjk dh oqQy lkr&vkB Ñfr;k¡ gh miyCèk gSaA ehjk
dh HkfDr nSU; vkSj ekèkq;ZHkko dh gSA bu ij ;ksfx;ksa] larksa vkSj oS".ko HkDrksa
dk lfEefyr izHkko iM+k gSA ehjk osQ inksa dh Hkk"kk esa jktLFkkuh] czt vkSj
xqtjkrh dk feJ.k ik;k tkrk gSA ogha iatkch] [kM+h cksyh vkSj iwohZ osQ iz;ksx
Hkh fey tkrs gSaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
in / 9
ikB izos'k
dgrs gSa ikfjokfjd larkiksa ls eqfDr ikus osQ fy, ehjk ?kj&}kj NksM+dj o`ankou
esa tk clh Fkha vkSj Ñ".ke; gks xbZ FkhaA budh jpukvksa eas buosQ vkjkè; dgha
fuxqZ.k fujkdkj czã] dgha lxq.k lkdkj xksihoYyHk JhÑ".k vkSj dgha fueksZgh
ijns'kh tksxh osQ :i esa ladfYir fd, x, gSaA os fxjèkj xksiky osQ vuU; vkSj
,dfu"B izse ls vfHkHkwr gks mBh FkhaA
izLrqr ikB esa ladfyr nksuksa in ehjk osQ bUgha vkjkè; dks lacksfèkr gSaA ehjk
vius vkjkè; ls euqgkj Hkh djrh gaS] ykM+ Hkh yM+krh gSa rks volj vkus ij
mykguk nsus ls Hkh ugha pwdrhaA mudh {kerkvksa dk xq.kxku] Lej.k djrh gSa
rks mUgsa muosQ drZO; ;kn fnykus esa Hkh nsj ugha yxkrhaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
10 / Li'kZ
in
(1)
gfj  vki  gjks  tu  jh  HkhjA
nzksinh jh ykt jk[kh] vki c<+k;ks phjA
Hkxr dkj.k :i ujgfj] èkj~;ks vki ljhjA
cw<+rks xtjkt jk[;ks] dkVh oqQ.tj ihjA
nklh ehjk¡ yky fxjèkj] gjks Egkjh HkhjAA
(2)
L;ke Egkus pkdj jk[kks th]
fxjèkkjh ykyk Egk¡us pkdj jk[kksthA
pkdj jgL;w¡ ckx yxkL;w¡ fur mB njl.k ikL;w¡A
fcUnjkou jh oaqQt xyh esa] xksfoUn yhyk xkL;w¡A
pkdjh esa njl.k ikL;w¡] lqej.k ikL;w¡ [kjphA
Hkko Hkxrh tkxhjh ikL;w¡] rhuaw ckrk¡ ljlhA
eksj eqxV ihrkEcj lkSgs] xy oStUrh ekykA
fcUnjkou esa èksuq pjkos] eksgu eqjyh okykA
m¡Qpk m¡Qpk egy c.kkoa fcp fcp jk[kw¡ ckjhA
lk¡ofj;k jk njl.k ikL;w¡] igj oqQlqEch lkM+hA
vkèkh jkr izHkq njl.k] nhT;ks teukth js rhjkaA
ehjk¡ jk izHkq fxjèkj ukxj] fgoM+ks ?k.kks vèkhjk¡AA
  lanHkZ % ehjk¡ xzaFkkoyh&2] dY;k.k ¯lg 'ks[kkor
© NCERT
not to be republished
in / 11
iz'u&vH;kl
(d) fuEufyf[kr iz'uksa osQ mÙkj nhft,µ
1- igys in esa ehjk us gfj ls viuh ihM+k gjus dh fourh fdl izdkj dh gS\
2- nwljs in esa ehjkckbZ ';ke dh pkdjh D;ksa djuk pkgrh gSa\ Li"V dhft,A
3- ehjkckbZ us JhÑ".k osQ :i&lkSan;Z dk o.kZu oSQls fd;k gS\
4- ehjkckbZ dh Hkk"kk 'kSyh ij izdk'k Mkfy,A
5- os JhÑ".k dks ikus osQ fy, D;k&D;k dk;Z djus dks rS;kj gSa\
([k) fuEufyf[kr iafDr;ksa dk dkO;&lkSan;Z Li"V dhft,µ
1- gfj vki gjks tu jh HkhjA
nzksinh jh ykt jk[kh] vki c<+k;ks phjA
Hkxr dkj.k :i ujgfj] èkj~;ks vki ljhjA
2- cw<+rks xtjkt jk[;ks] dkVh oqQ.tj ihjA
nklh ehjk¡ yky fxjèkj] gjks Egkjh HkhjA
3- pkdjh esa njl.k ikL;w¡] lqej.k ikL;w¡ [kjphA
Hkko Hkxrh tkxhjh ikL;w¡] rhuwa ckrk¡ ljlhA
Hkk"kk vè;;u
1- mnkgj.k osQ vkèkkj ij ikB esa vk, fuEufyf[kr 'kCnksa osQ izpfyr :i fyf[k,µ
mnkgj.kµHkhj µ ihM+k @ d"V @ nq[k_ jh µ dh
phj
--------------------
cw<+rk
--------------------
èkj~;ks
--------------------
yxkL;w¡
--------------------
oqQ.tj
--------------------
?k.kk
--------------------
fcUnjkou
--------------------
ljlh
--------------------
jgL;¡w
--------------------
fgoM+k
--------------------
jk[kks
--------------------
oqQlqEch
--------------------
;ksX;rk foLrkj
1- ehjk osQ vU; inksa dks ;kn djosQ d{kk esa lqukb,A
2- ;fn vkidks ehjk osQ inksa osQ oSQlsV fey losaQ rks volj feyus ij mUgsa lqfu,A
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


8 / Li'kZ
ehjk
(1503-1546)
ehjkckbZ dk tUe tks/iqj osQ pksdM+h (oqQM+dh) xk¡o esa 1503 esa gqvk ekuk
tkrk gSA 13 o"kZ dh mez esa esokM+ osQ egkjk.kk lkaxk osQ oq¡Qoj Hkkstjkt ls
mudk fookg gqvkA mudk thou nq[kksa dh Nk;k esa gh chrkA ckY;koLFkk esa gh
ek¡ dk nsgkar gks x;k FkkA fookg osQ oqQN gh lky ckn igys ifr] fiQj firk
vkSj ,d ;q¼ osQ nkSjku 'olqj dk Hkh nsgkar gks x;kA HkkSfrd thou ls fujk'k
ehjk us ?kj&ifjokj R;kx fn;k vkSj oa`nkou esa Msjk Mky iwjh rjg fxjèkj xksiky
Ñ".k osQ izfr lefiZr gks xb±A
eè;dkyhu HkfDr vkanksyu dh vkè;kfRed izsj.kk us ftu dfo;ksa dks tUe
fn;k muesa ehjkckbZ dk fof'k"V LFkku gSA buosQ in iwjs mÙkj Hkkjr lfgr
xqtjkr] fcgkj vkSj caxky rd izpfyr gSaA ehjk ¯gnh vkSj xqtjkrh nksuksa dh
dof;=kh ekuh tkrh gSaA
lar jSnkl dh f'k";k ehjk dh oqQy lkr&vkB Ñfr;k¡ gh miyCèk gSaA ehjk
dh HkfDr nSU; vkSj ekèkq;ZHkko dh gSA bu ij ;ksfx;ksa] larksa vkSj oS".ko HkDrksa
dk lfEefyr izHkko iM+k gSA ehjk osQ inksa dh Hkk"kk esa jktLFkkuh] czt vkSj
xqtjkrh dk feJ.k ik;k tkrk gSA ogha iatkch] [kM+h cksyh vkSj iwohZ osQ iz;ksx
Hkh fey tkrs gSaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
in / 9
ikB izos'k
dgrs gSa ikfjokfjd larkiksa ls eqfDr ikus osQ fy, ehjk ?kj&}kj NksM+dj o`ankou
esa tk clh Fkha vkSj Ñ".ke; gks xbZ FkhaA budh jpukvksa eas buosQ vkjkè; dgha
fuxqZ.k fujkdkj czã] dgha lxq.k lkdkj xksihoYyHk JhÑ".k vkSj dgha fueksZgh
ijns'kh tksxh osQ :i esa ladfYir fd, x, gSaA os fxjèkj xksiky osQ vuU; vkSj
,dfu"B izse ls vfHkHkwr gks mBh FkhaA
izLrqr ikB esa ladfyr nksuksa in ehjk osQ bUgha vkjkè; dks lacksfèkr gSaA ehjk
vius vkjkè; ls euqgkj Hkh djrh gaS] ykM+ Hkh yM+krh gSa rks volj vkus ij
mykguk nsus ls Hkh ugha pwdrhaA mudh {kerkvksa dk xq.kxku] Lej.k djrh gSa
rks mUgsa muosQ drZO; ;kn fnykus esa Hkh nsj ugha yxkrhaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
10 / Li'kZ
in
(1)
gfj  vki  gjks  tu  jh  HkhjA
nzksinh jh ykt jk[kh] vki c<+k;ks phjA
Hkxr dkj.k :i ujgfj] èkj~;ks vki ljhjA
cw<+rks xtjkt jk[;ks] dkVh oqQ.tj ihjA
nklh ehjk¡ yky fxjèkj] gjks Egkjh HkhjAA
(2)
L;ke Egkus pkdj jk[kks th]
fxjèkkjh ykyk Egk¡us pkdj jk[kksthA
pkdj jgL;w¡ ckx yxkL;w¡ fur mB njl.k ikL;w¡A
fcUnjkou jh oaqQt xyh esa] xksfoUn yhyk xkL;w¡A
pkdjh esa njl.k ikL;w¡] lqej.k ikL;w¡ [kjphA
Hkko Hkxrh tkxhjh ikL;w¡] rhuaw ckrk¡ ljlhA
eksj eqxV ihrkEcj lkSgs] xy oStUrh ekykA
fcUnjkou esa èksuq pjkos] eksgu eqjyh okykA
m¡Qpk m¡Qpk egy c.kkoa fcp fcp jk[kw¡ ckjhA
lk¡ofj;k jk njl.k ikL;w¡] igj oqQlqEch lkM+hA
vkèkh jkr izHkq njl.k] nhT;ks teukth js rhjkaA
ehjk¡ jk izHkq fxjèkj ukxj] fgoM+ks ?k.kks vèkhjk¡AA
  lanHkZ % ehjk¡ xzaFkkoyh&2] dY;k.k ¯lg 'ks[kkor
© NCERT
not to be republished
in / 11
iz'u&vH;kl
(d) fuEufyf[kr iz'uksa osQ mÙkj nhft,µ
1- igys in esa ehjk us gfj ls viuh ihM+k gjus dh fourh fdl izdkj dh gS\
2- nwljs in esa ehjkckbZ ';ke dh pkdjh D;ksa djuk pkgrh gSa\ Li"V dhft,A
3- ehjkckbZ us JhÑ".k osQ :i&lkSan;Z dk o.kZu oSQls fd;k gS\
4- ehjkckbZ dh Hkk"kk 'kSyh ij izdk'k Mkfy,A
5- os JhÑ".k dks ikus osQ fy, D;k&D;k dk;Z djus dks rS;kj gSa\
([k) fuEufyf[kr iafDr;ksa dk dkO;&lkSan;Z Li"V dhft,µ
1- gfj vki gjks tu jh HkhjA
nzksinh jh ykt jk[kh] vki c<+k;ks phjA
Hkxr dkj.k :i ujgfj] èkj~;ks vki ljhjA
2- cw<+rks xtjkt jk[;ks] dkVh oqQ.tj ihjA
nklh ehjk¡ yky fxjèkj] gjks Egkjh HkhjA
3- pkdjh esa njl.k ikL;w¡] lqej.k ikL;w¡ [kjphA
Hkko Hkxrh tkxhjh ikL;w¡] rhuwa ckrk¡ ljlhA
Hkk"kk vè;;u
1- mnkgj.k osQ vkèkkj ij ikB esa vk, fuEufyf[kr 'kCnksa osQ izpfyr :i fyf[k,µ
mnkgj.kµHkhj µ ihM+k @ d"V @ nq[k_ jh µ dh
phj
--------------------
cw<+rk
--------------------
èkj~;ks
--------------------
yxkL;w¡
--------------------
oqQ.tj
--------------------
?k.kk
--------------------
fcUnjkou
--------------------
ljlh
--------------------
jgL;¡w
--------------------
fgoM+k
--------------------
jk[kks
--------------------
oqQlqEch
--------------------
;ksX;rk foLrkj
1- ehjk osQ vU; inksa dks ;kn djosQ d{kk esa lqukb,A
2- ;fn vkidks ehjk osQ inksa osQ oSQlsV fey losaQ rks volj feyus ij mUgsa lqfu,A
© NCERT
not to be republished
12 / Li'kZ
ifj;kstuk
1- ehjk osQ inksa dk ladyu djosQ mu inksa dks pkVZ ij fy[kdj fHkfÙk if=kdk ij yxkb,A
2- igys gekjs ;gk¡ nl vorkj ekus tkrs FksA fo".kq osQ vorkj jke vkSj o`Q".k izeq[k gSaA vU; vorkjksa osQ
ckjs esa tkudkjh izkIr djosQ ,d pkVZ cukb,A
'kCnkFkZ vkSj fVIif.k;k¡
c<+k;ks & c<+kuk
xtjkt &,sjkor
oqaQtj & gkFkh
ikL;w¡ &ikuk
yhyk & fofoèk :i
lqej.k & ;kn djuk @ Lej.k
tkxhjh & tkxhj @ lkezkT;
ihrkacj & ihyk oL=k
oStarh &,d iwQy
rhjka & fdukjk
vèkhjk¡ (vèkhj) & O;koqQy gksuk
æksinh jh ykt jk[kh & nq;ksZèku }kjk æzksinh dk phjgj.k djkus ij Jho`Q".k us phj dks c<+krs&c<+krs
bruk c<+k fn;k fd nq%'kklu dk gkFk Fkd x;k
dkVh oqaQtj ihj & oqaQtj dk d"V nwj djus osQ fy, exjePN dks ekjk
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