NCERT Textbook: पाठ 11 - डायरी का एक पन्ना, सपर्श II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 11 - डायरी का एक पन्ना, सपर्श II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


lhrkjke lsdlfj;k
(1892-1982)
1892 eas jktLFkku osQ uoyx<+ eas tUes lhrkjke lsdlfj;k dk vf/dka'k
thou dydÙkk (dksydkrk) esa chrkA O;kikj&O;olk; ls tqM+s lsdlfj;k
vusd lkfgfR;d] lkaLÑfrd vkSj ukjh f'k{k.k laLFkkvksa osQ izsjd] laLFkkid]
lapkyd jgsA egkRek xka/h osQ vkàku ij Lora=krk vkanksyu esa c<+&p<+dj
fgLlsnkjh dhA xqjQnso johanzukFk BkoqQj] egkRek xka/h] usrkth lqHkk"kpanz cksl osQ
djhch jgsA lR;kxzg vkanksyu osQ nkSjku tsy ;k=kk Hkh dhA oqQN lky rd
vk”kkn ¯gn I
+
kQkSt osQ ea=kh Hkh jgsA Hkkjr ljdkj us mUgsa 1962 esa iÁJh lEeku
ls lEekfur fd;kA
lhrkjke lsdlfj;k dks fo|ky;h f'k{kk ikus dk volj ugha feykA
Lokè;k; ls gh i<+uk&fy[kuk lh[kkA Le`frd.k] eu dh ckr] chrk ;qx] u;h
;kn vkSj nks Hkkxksa esa ,d dk;ZdrkZ dh Mk;jh mudh mYys[kuh; Ñfr;k¡ gSaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


lhrkjke lsdlfj;k
(1892-1982)
1892 eas jktLFkku osQ uoyx<+ eas tUes lhrkjke lsdlfj;k dk vf/dka'k
thou dydÙkk (dksydkrk) esa chrkA O;kikj&O;olk; ls tqM+s lsdlfj;k
vusd lkfgfR;d] lkaLÑfrd vkSj ukjh f'k{k.k laLFkkvksa osQ izsjd] laLFkkid]
lapkyd jgsA egkRek xka/h osQ vkàku ij Lora=krk vkanksyu esa c<+&p<+dj
fgLlsnkjh dhA xqjQnso johanzukFk BkoqQj] egkRek xka/h] usrkth lqHkk"kpanz cksl osQ
djhch jgsA lR;kxzg vkanksyu osQ nkSjku tsy ;k=kk Hkh dhA oqQN lky rd
vk”kkn ¯gn I
+
kQkSt osQ ea=kh Hkh jgsA Hkkjr ljdkj us mUgsa 1962 esa iÁJh lEeku
ls lEekfur fd;kA
lhrkjke lsdlfj;k dks fo|ky;h f'k{kk ikus dk volj ugha feykA
Lokè;k; ls gh i<+uk&fy[kuk lh[kkA Le`frd.k] eu dh ckr] chrk ;qx] u;h
;kn vkSj nks Hkkxksa esa ,d dk;ZdrkZ dh Mk;jh mudh mYys[kuh; Ñfr;k¡ gSaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
ikB izos'k
vaxzs”kksa ls ns'k dks eqfDr fnykus osQ fy, egkRek xka/h us lR;kxzg vkanksyu NsM+k
FkkA bl vkanksyu us turk esa vk”kknh dh vy[k txkbZA ns'k Hkj ls ,sls yk[kksa
yksx lkeus vk, tks bl egklaxzke esa viuk loZLo U;ksNkoj djus dks rRij
FksA 26 tuojh 1930 dks xqyke Hkkjr esa igyh ckj Lora=krk fnol euk;k x;k
FkkA ;g flyflyk vkxs Hkh tkjh jgkA vk”kknh osQ <kbZ lky ckn] 1950 esa ;gh
fnu gekjs vius x.kra=k osQ ykxw gksus dk fnu Hkh cukA
izLrqr ikB osQ ys[kd lhrkjke lsdlfj;k vk”kknh dh dkeuk djus okys
mUgha vuar yksxksa esa ls ,d FksA og fnu&izfrfnu tks Hkh ns[krs] lqurs vkSj
eglwl djrs Fks] mls viuh futh Mk;jh esa n”kZ dj ysrs FksA ;g Øe dbZ o"kks±
rd pykA bl ikB esa mudh Mk;jh dk 26 tuojh 1931 dk ys[kktks[kk gSA
usrkth lqHkk"kpanz cksl vkSj Lo;a ys[kd lfgr dydÙkk (dksydkrk) osQ
yksxksa us ns'k dk nwljk Lora=krk fnol fdl tks'k&[kjks'k ls euk;k] vaxsz”k
iz'kkldksa us bls mudk vijk/ ekurs gq, mu ij vkSj fo'ks"kdj efgyk
dk;ZdrkZvksa ij oSQls&oSQls ”kqYe <k,] ;gh lc bl ikB esa of.kZr gSA ;g ikB
gekjs ozQkafrdkfj;ksa dh oqQckZfu;ksa dh ;kn rks fnykrk gh gS] lkFk gh ;g Hkh
mtkxj djrk gS fd ,d laxfBr lekt o`QrladYi gks rks ,slk oqQN Hkh ugha
tks og u dj losQA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


lhrkjke lsdlfj;k
(1892-1982)
1892 eas jktLFkku osQ uoyx<+ eas tUes lhrkjke lsdlfj;k dk vf/dka'k
thou dydÙkk (dksydkrk) esa chrkA O;kikj&O;olk; ls tqM+s lsdlfj;k
vusd lkfgfR;d] lkaLÑfrd vkSj ukjh f'k{k.k laLFkkvksa osQ izsjd] laLFkkid]
lapkyd jgsA egkRek xka/h osQ vkàku ij Lora=krk vkanksyu esa c<+&p<+dj
fgLlsnkjh dhA xqjQnso johanzukFk BkoqQj] egkRek xka/h] usrkth lqHkk"kpanz cksl osQ
djhch jgsA lR;kxzg vkanksyu osQ nkSjku tsy ;k=kk Hkh dhA oqQN lky rd
vk”kkn ¯gn I
+
kQkSt osQ ea=kh Hkh jgsA Hkkjr ljdkj us mUgsa 1962 esa iÁJh lEeku
ls lEekfur fd;kA
lhrkjke lsdlfj;k dks fo|ky;h f'k{kk ikus dk volj ugha feykA
Lokè;k; ls gh i<+uk&fy[kuk lh[kkA Le`frd.k] eu dh ckr] chrk ;qx] u;h
;kn vkSj nks Hkkxksa esa ,d dk;ZdrkZ dh Mk;jh mudh mYys[kuh; Ñfr;k¡ gSaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
ikB izos'k
vaxzs”kksa ls ns'k dks eqfDr fnykus osQ fy, egkRek xka/h us lR;kxzg vkanksyu NsM+k
FkkA bl vkanksyu us turk esa vk”kknh dh vy[k txkbZA ns'k Hkj ls ,sls yk[kksa
yksx lkeus vk, tks bl egklaxzke esa viuk loZLo U;ksNkoj djus dks rRij
FksA 26 tuojh 1930 dks xqyke Hkkjr esa igyh ckj Lora=krk fnol euk;k x;k
FkkA ;g flyflyk vkxs Hkh tkjh jgkA vk”kknh osQ <kbZ lky ckn] 1950 esa ;gh
fnu gekjs vius x.kra=k osQ ykxw gksus dk fnu Hkh cukA
izLrqr ikB osQ ys[kd lhrkjke lsdlfj;k vk”kknh dh dkeuk djus okys
mUgha vuar yksxksa esa ls ,d FksA og fnu&izfrfnu tks Hkh ns[krs] lqurs vkSj
eglwl djrs Fks] mls viuh futh Mk;jh esa n”kZ dj ysrs FksA ;g Øe dbZ o"kks±
rd pykA bl ikB esa mudh Mk;jh dk 26 tuojh 1931 dk ys[kktks[kk gSA
usrkth lqHkk"kpanz cksl vkSj Lo;a ys[kd lfgr dydÙkk (dksydkrk) osQ
yksxksa us ns'k dk nwljk Lora=krk fnol fdl tks'k&[kjks'k ls euk;k] vaxsz”k
iz'kkldksa us bls mudk vijk/ ekurs gq, mu ij vkSj fo'ks"kdj efgyk
dk;ZdrkZvksa ij oSQls&oSQls ”kqYe <k,] ;gh lc bl ikB esa of.kZr gSA ;g ikB
gekjs ozQkafrdkfj;ksa dh oqQckZfu;ksa dh ;kn rks fnykrk gh gS] lkFk gh ;g Hkh
mtkxj djrk gS fd ,d laxfBr lekt o`QrladYi gks rks ,slk oqQN Hkh ugha
tks og u dj losQA
© NCERT
not to be republished
70 / Li'kZ
Mk;jh dk ,d iUuk
26 tuojh 1931
26 tuojh % vkt dk fnu rks vej fnu gSA vkt osQ gh fnu lkjs ¯gnqLrku
esa Lora=krk fnol euk;k x;k FkkA vkSj bl o"kZ Hkh mldh iqujko`fÙk Fkh ftlosQ
fy, dkI
+
kQh rS;kfj;k¡ igys ls dh xbZ FkhaA xr o"kZ viuk fgLlk cgqr lkèkkj.k
FkkA bl o"kZ ftruk vius ns ldrs Fks] fn;k FkkA osQoy izpkj esa nks g”kkj #i;k
[kpZ fd;k x;k FkkA lkjs dke dk Hkkj vius le>rs Fks vius mQij gS] vkSj blh
rjg tks dk;ZdrkZ Fks muosQ ?kj tk&tkdj le>k;k FkkA
cM+s ck”kkj osQ izk;% edkuksa ij jk"Vªh; >aMk iQgjk jgk Fkk vkSj dbZ edku
rks ,sls ltk, x, Fks fd ,slk ekywe gksrk Fkk fd ekuks Lora=krk fey xbZ gksA
dydÙks osQ izR;sd Hkkx esa gh >aMs yxk, x, FksA ftl jkLrs ls euq"; tkrs Fks
mlh jkLrs esa mRlkg vkSj uohurk ekywe gksrh FkhA yksxksa dk dguk Fkk fd ,slh
ltkoV igys ugha gqbZA iqfyl Hkh viuh iwjh rkdr ls 'kgj esa x'r nsdj izn'kZu
dj jgh FkhA eksVj ykfj;ksa esa xksj[ks rFkk lkjtsaV izR;sd eksM+ ij rSukr FksA fdruh
gh ykfj;k¡ 'kgj esa ?kqekbZ tk jgh FkhaA ?kqM+lokjksa dk izcaèk FkkA dgha Hkh VªSfI
+
kQd
iqfyl ugha Fkh] lkjh iqfyl dks blh dke esa yxk;k x;k FkkA cM+s&cM+s ikdks± rFkk
eSnkuksa dks iqfyl us losjs ls gh ?ksj fy;k FkkA
eksuqesaV osQ uhps tgk¡ 'kke dks lHkk gksus okyh Fkh ml txg dks rks Hkksj esa
Ng cts ls gh iqfyl us cM+h la[;k esa ?ksj fy;k Fkk ij rc Hkh dbZ txg rks
Hkksj esa gh >aMk iQgjk;k x;kA J¼kuan ikoZQ esa caxky izkarh; fo|kFkhZ la?k osQ ea=kh
vfouk'k ckcw us >aMk xkM+k rks iqfyl us mudks
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


lhrkjke lsdlfj;k
(1892-1982)
1892 eas jktLFkku osQ uoyx<+ eas tUes lhrkjke lsdlfj;k dk vf/dka'k
thou dydÙkk (dksydkrk) esa chrkA O;kikj&O;olk; ls tqM+s lsdlfj;k
vusd lkfgfR;d] lkaLÑfrd vkSj ukjh f'k{k.k laLFkkvksa osQ izsjd] laLFkkid]
lapkyd jgsA egkRek xka/h osQ vkàku ij Lora=krk vkanksyu esa c<+&p<+dj
fgLlsnkjh dhA xqjQnso johanzukFk BkoqQj] egkRek xka/h] usrkth lqHkk"kpanz cksl osQ
djhch jgsA lR;kxzg vkanksyu osQ nkSjku tsy ;k=kk Hkh dhA oqQN lky rd
vk”kkn ¯gn I
+
kQkSt osQ ea=kh Hkh jgsA Hkkjr ljdkj us mUgsa 1962 esa iÁJh lEeku
ls lEekfur fd;kA
lhrkjke lsdlfj;k dks fo|ky;h f'k{kk ikus dk volj ugha feykA
Lokè;k; ls gh i<+uk&fy[kuk lh[kkA Le`frd.k] eu dh ckr] chrk ;qx] u;h
;kn vkSj nks Hkkxksa esa ,d dk;ZdrkZ dh Mk;jh mudh mYys[kuh; Ñfr;k¡ gSaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
ikB izos'k
vaxzs”kksa ls ns'k dks eqfDr fnykus osQ fy, egkRek xka/h us lR;kxzg vkanksyu NsM+k
FkkA bl vkanksyu us turk esa vk”kknh dh vy[k txkbZA ns'k Hkj ls ,sls yk[kksa
yksx lkeus vk, tks bl egklaxzke esa viuk loZLo U;ksNkoj djus dks rRij
FksA 26 tuojh 1930 dks xqyke Hkkjr esa igyh ckj Lora=krk fnol euk;k x;k
FkkA ;g flyflyk vkxs Hkh tkjh jgkA vk”kknh osQ <kbZ lky ckn] 1950 esa ;gh
fnu gekjs vius x.kra=k osQ ykxw gksus dk fnu Hkh cukA
izLrqr ikB osQ ys[kd lhrkjke lsdlfj;k vk”kknh dh dkeuk djus okys
mUgha vuar yksxksa esa ls ,d FksA og fnu&izfrfnu tks Hkh ns[krs] lqurs vkSj
eglwl djrs Fks] mls viuh futh Mk;jh esa n”kZ dj ysrs FksA ;g Øe dbZ o"kks±
rd pykA bl ikB esa mudh Mk;jh dk 26 tuojh 1931 dk ys[kktks[kk gSA
usrkth lqHkk"kpanz cksl vkSj Lo;a ys[kd lfgr dydÙkk (dksydkrk) osQ
yksxksa us ns'k dk nwljk Lora=krk fnol fdl tks'k&[kjks'k ls euk;k] vaxsz”k
iz'kkldksa us bls mudk vijk/ ekurs gq, mu ij vkSj fo'ks"kdj efgyk
dk;ZdrkZvksa ij oSQls&oSQls ”kqYe <k,] ;gh lc bl ikB esa of.kZr gSA ;g ikB
gekjs ozQkafrdkfj;ksa dh oqQckZfu;ksa dh ;kn rks fnykrk gh gS] lkFk gh ;g Hkh
mtkxj djrk gS fd ,d laxfBr lekt o`QrladYi gks rks ,slk oqQN Hkh ugha
tks og u dj losQA
© NCERT
not to be republished
70 / Li'kZ
Mk;jh dk ,d iUuk
26 tuojh 1931
26 tuojh % vkt dk fnu rks vej fnu gSA vkt osQ gh fnu lkjs ¯gnqLrku
esa Lora=krk fnol euk;k x;k FkkA vkSj bl o"kZ Hkh mldh iqujko`fÙk Fkh ftlosQ
fy, dkI
+
kQh rS;kfj;k¡ igys ls dh xbZ FkhaA xr o"kZ viuk fgLlk cgqr lkèkkj.k
FkkA bl o"kZ ftruk vius ns ldrs Fks] fn;k FkkA osQoy izpkj esa nks g”kkj #i;k
[kpZ fd;k x;k FkkA lkjs dke dk Hkkj vius le>rs Fks vius mQij gS] vkSj blh
rjg tks dk;ZdrkZ Fks muosQ ?kj tk&tkdj le>k;k FkkA
cM+s ck”kkj osQ izk;% edkuksa ij jk"Vªh; >aMk iQgjk jgk Fkk vkSj dbZ edku
rks ,sls ltk, x, Fks fd ,slk ekywe gksrk Fkk fd ekuks Lora=krk fey xbZ gksA
dydÙks osQ izR;sd Hkkx esa gh >aMs yxk, x, FksA ftl jkLrs ls euq"; tkrs Fks
mlh jkLrs esa mRlkg vkSj uohurk ekywe gksrh FkhA yksxksa dk dguk Fkk fd ,slh
ltkoV igys ugha gqbZA iqfyl Hkh viuh iwjh rkdr ls 'kgj esa x'r nsdj izn'kZu
dj jgh FkhA eksVj ykfj;ksa esa xksj[ks rFkk lkjtsaV izR;sd eksM+ ij rSukr FksA fdruh
gh ykfj;k¡ 'kgj esa ?kqekbZ tk jgh FkhaA ?kqM+lokjksa dk izcaèk FkkA dgha Hkh VªSfI
+
kQd
iqfyl ugha Fkh] lkjh iqfyl dks blh dke esa yxk;k x;k FkkA cM+s&cM+s ikdks± rFkk
eSnkuksa dks iqfyl us losjs ls gh ?ksj fy;k FkkA
eksuqesaV osQ uhps tgk¡ 'kke dks lHkk gksus okyh Fkh ml txg dks rks Hkksj esa
Ng cts ls gh iqfyl us cM+h la[;k esa ?ksj fy;k Fkk ij rc Hkh dbZ txg rks
Hkksj esa gh >aMk iQgjk;k x;kA J¼kuan ikoZQ esa caxky izkarh; fo|kFkhZ la?k osQ ea=kh
vfouk'k ckcw us >aMk xkM+k rks iqfyl us mudks
© NCERT
not to be republished
Mk;jh dk ,d iUuk / 71
idM+ fy;k rFkk vkSj yksxksa dks ekjk ;k gVk fn;kA rkjk lqanjh ikoZQ esa cM+k&ck”kkj dkaxzsl desVh
osQ ;q¼ ea=kh gfj'panz ¯lg >aMk iQgjkus x, ij os Hkhrj u tk losQA ogk¡ ij dkI
+
kQh ekjihV gqbZ
vkSj nks&pkj vknfe;ksa osQ flj iQV x,A xqtjkrh lsfodk la?k dh vksj ls tqywl fudyk ftlesa
cgqr&lh yM+fd;k¡ Fkha mudks fxjÝ
+
rkj dj fy;kA
11 cts ekjokM+h ckfydk fo|ky; dh yM+fd;ksa us vius fo|ky; esa >aMksRlo euk;kA
tkudhnsoh] enkylk (enkylk ctkt&ukjk;.k) vkfn Hkh xbZ FkhaA yM+fd;ksa dks] mRlo dk D;k
eryc gS] le>k;k x;kA ,d ckj eksVj esa cSBdj lc rjI
+
kQ ?kwedj ns[kk rks cgqr vPNk ekywe
gks jgk FkkA txg&txg I
+
kQksVks mrj jgs FksA vius Hkh I
+
kQksVks dk dkI
+
kQh izcaèk fd;k FkkA nks&rhu cts
dbZ vknfe;ksa dks idM+ fy;k x;kA ftlesa eq[; iw.kksZnkl vkSj iq#"kksÙke jk; FksA
lqHkk"k ckcw osQ tqywl dk Hkkj iw.kksZnkl ij Fkk ij ;g izcaèk dj pqdk FkkA L=kh lekt viuh
rS;kjh esa yxk FkkA txg&txg ls fL=k;k¡ viuk tqywl fudkyus dh rFkk Bhd LFkku ij ig¡qpus dh
dksf'k'k dj jgh FkhaA eksuqesaV osQ ikl tSlk izcaèk Hkksj esa Fkk oSlk djhc ,d cts ugha jgkA blls
yksxksa dks vk'kk gksus yxh fd 'kk;n iqfyl viuk jax u fn[kykos ij og dc #dus okyh FkhA
rhu cts ls gh eSnku esa g”kkjksa vknfe;ksa dh HkhM+ gksus yxh vkSj yksx Vksfy;k¡ cuk&cukdj eSnku
esa ?kweus yxsA vkt tks ckr Fkh og fujkyh FkhA
tc ls dkuwu Hkax dk dke 'kq: gqvk gS rc ls vkt rd bruh cM+h lHkk ,sls eSnku esa ugha
dh xbZ Fkh vkSj ;g lHkk rks dguk pkfg, fd vksiu yM+kbZ FkhA iqfyl dfe'uj dk uksfVl fudy
pqdk Fkk fd veqd&veqd èkkjk osQ vuqlkj dksbZ lHkk ugha gks ldrhA tks yksx dke djus okys
Fks mu lcoQks balisDVjksa osQ }kjk uksfVl vkSj lwpuk ns nh xbZ Fkh fd vki ;fn lHkk esa Hkkx ysaxs
rks nks"kh le>s tk,¡xsA bèkj dkSafly dh rjI
+
kQ ls uksfVl fudy x;k Fkk fd eksuqesaV osQ uhps Bhd
pkj ctdj pkSchl feuV ij >aMk iQgjk;k tk,xk rFkk Lora=krk dh izfrKk i<+h tk,xhA
loZlkèkkj.k dh mifLFkfr gksuh pkfg,A [kqyk pSysat nsdj ,slh lHkk igys ugha dh xbZ FkhA
Bhd pkj ctdj nl feuV ij lqHkk"k ckcw tqywl ysdj vk,A mudks pkSjaxh ij gh jksdk x;k]
ij HkhM+ dh vfèkdrk osQ dkj.k iqfyl tqywl dks jksd ugha ldhA eSnku osQ eksM+ ij igq¡prs gh
iqfyl us ykfB;k¡ pykuh 'kq: dj nha] cgqr vkneh ?kk;y gq,] lqHkk"k ckcw ij Hkh ykfB;k¡ iM+haA
lqHkk"k ckcw cgqr ”kksjksa ls oans ekrje~ cksy jgs FksA T;ksfreZ; xkaxqyh us lqHkk"k ckcw ls dgk] vki
bèkj vk tkb,A ij lqHkk"k ckcw us dgk] vkxs c<+uk gSA
;g lc rks vius lquh gqbZ fy[k jgs gSa ij lqHkk"k ckcw dk vkSj viuk fo'ks"k I
+
kQklyk ugha
FkkA lqHkk"k ckcw cM+s ”kksj ls oans ekrje~ cksyrs Fks] ;g viuh vk¡[k ls ns[kkA iqfyl Hk;kud :i
ls ykfB;k¡ pyk jgh FkhA f{krh'k pVthZ dk iQVk gqvk flj ns[kdj rFkk mldk cgrk gqvk [kwu
ns[kdj vk¡[k ¯ep tkrh FkhA bèkj ;g gkyr gks jgh Fkh fd mèkj fL=k;k¡ eksuqesaV dh lhf<+;ksa ij
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


lhrkjke lsdlfj;k
(1892-1982)
1892 eas jktLFkku osQ uoyx<+ eas tUes lhrkjke lsdlfj;k dk vf/dka'k
thou dydÙkk (dksydkrk) esa chrkA O;kikj&O;olk; ls tqM+s lsdlfj;k
vusd lkfgfR;d] lkaLÑfrd vkSj ukjh f'k{k.k laLFkkvksa osQ izsjd] laLFkkid]
lapkyd jgsA egkRek xka/h osQ vkàku ij Lora=krk vkanksyu esa c<+&p<+dj
fgLlsnkjh dhA xqjQnso johanzukFk BkoqQj] egkRek xka/h] usrkth lqHkk"kpanz cksl osQ
djhch jgsA lR;kxzg vkanksyu osQ nkSjku tsy ;k=kk Hkh dhA oqQN lky rd
vk”kkn ¯gn I
+
kQkSt osQ ea=kh Hkh jgsA Hkkjr ljdkj us mUgsa 1962 esa iÁJh lEeku
ls lEekfur fd;kA
lhrkjke lsdlfj;k dks fo|ky;h f'k{kk ikus dk volj ugha feykA
Lokè;k; ls gh i<+uk&fy[kuk lh[kkA Le`frd.k] eu dh ckr] chrk ;qx] u;h
;kn vkSj nks Hkkxksa esa ,d dk;ZdrkZ dh Mk;jh mudh mYys[kuh; Ñfr;k¡ gSaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
ikB izos'k
vaxzs”kksa ls ns'k dks eqfDr fnykus osQ fy, egkRek xka/h us lR;kxzg vkanksyu NsM+k
FkkA bl vkanksyu us turk esa vk”kknh dh vy[k txkbZA ns'k Hkj ls ,sls yk[kksa
yksx lkeus vk, tks bl egklaxzke esa viuk loZLo U;ksNkoj djus dks rRij
FksA 26 tuojh 1930 dks xqyke Hkkjr esa igyh ckj Lora=krk fnol euk;k x;k
FkkA ;g flyflyk vkxs Hkh tkjh jgkA vk”kknh osQ <kbZ lky ckn] 1950 esa ;gh
fnu gekjs vius x.kra=k osQ ykxw gksus dk fnu Hkh cukA
izLrqr ikB osQ ys[kd lhrkjke lsdlfj;k vk”kknh dh dkeuk djus okys
mUgha vuar yksxksa esa ls ,d FksA og fnu&izfrfnu tks Hkh ns[krs] lqurs vkSj
eglwl djrs Fks] mls viuh futh Mk;jh esa n”kZ dj ysrs FksA ;g Øe dbZ o"kks±
rd pykA bl ikB esa mudh Mk;jh dk 26 tuojh 1931 dk ys[kktks[kk gSA
usrkth lqHkk"kpanz cksl vkSj Lo;a ys[kd lfgr dydÙkk (dksydkrk) osQ
yksxksa us ns'k dk nwljk Lora=krk fnol fdl tks'k&[kjks'k ls euk;k] vaxsz”k
iz'kkldksa us bls mudk vijk/ ekurs gq, mu ij vkSj fo'ks"kdj efgyk
dk;ZdrkZvksa ij oSQls&oSQls ”kqYe <k,] ;gh lc bl ikB esa of.kZr gSA ;g ikB
gekjs ozQkafrdkfj;ksa dh oqQckZfu;ksa dh ;kn rks fnykrk gh gS] lkFk gh ;g Hkh
mtkxj djrk gS fd ,d laxfBr lekt o`QrladYi gks rks ,slk oqQN Hkh ugha
tks og u dj losQA
© NCERT
not to be republished
70 / Li'kZ
Mk;jh dk ,d iUuk
26 tuojh 1931
26 tuojh % vkt dk fnu rks vej fnu gSA vkt osQ gh fnu lkjs ¯gnqLrku
esa Lora=krk fnol euk;k x;k FkkA vkSj bl o"kZ Hkh mldh iqujko`fÙk Fkh ftlosQ
fy, dkI
+
kQh rS;kfj;k¡ igys ls dh xbZ FkhaA xr o"kZ viuk fgLlk cgqr lkèkkj.k
FkkA bl o"kZ ftruk vius ns ldrs Fks] fn;k FkkA osQoy izpkj esa nks g”kkj #i;k
[kpZ fd;k x;k FkkA lkjs dke dk Hkkj vius le>rs Fks vius mQij gS] vkSj blh
rjg tks dk;ZdrkZ Fks muosQ ?kj tk&tkdj le>k;k FkkA
cM+s ck”kkj osQ izk;% edkuksa ij jk"Vªh; >aMk iQgjk jgk Fkk vkSj dbZ edku
rks ,sls ltk, x, Fks fd ,slk ekywe gksrk Fkk fd ekuks Lora=krk fey xbZ gksA
dydÙks osQ izR;sd Hkkx esa gh >aMs yxk, x, FksA ftl jkLrs ls euq"; tkrs Fks
mlh jkLrs esa mRlkg vkSj uohurk ekywe gksrh FkhA yksxksa dk dguk Fkk fd ,slh
ltkoV igys ugha gqbZA iqfyl Hkh viuh iwjh rkdr ls 'kgj esa x'r nsdj izn'kZu
dj jgh FkhA eksVj ykfj;ksa esa xksj[ks rFkk lkjtsaV izR;sd eksM+ ij rSukr FksA fdruh
gh ykfj;k¡ 'kgj esa ?kqekbZ tk jgh FkhaA ?kqM+lokjksa dk izcaèk FkkA dgha Hkh VªSfI
+
kQd
iqfyl ugha Fkh] lkjh iqfyl dks blh dke esa yxk;k x;k FkkA cM+s&cM+s ikdks± rFkk
eSnkuksa dks iqfyl us losjs ls gh ?ksj fy;k FkkA
eksuqesaV osQ uhps tgk¡ 'kke dks lHkk gksus okyh Fkh ml txg dks rks Hkksj esa
Ng cts ls gh iqfyl us cM+h la[;k esa ?ksj fy;k Fkk ij rc Hkh dbZ txg rks
Hkksj esa gh >aMk iQgjk;k x;kA J¼kuan ikoZQ esa caxky izkarh; fo|kFkhZ la?k osQ ea=kh
vfouk'k ckcw us >aMk xkM+k rks iqfyl us mudks
© NCERT
not to be republished
Mk;jh dk ,d iUuk / 71
idM+ fy;k rFkk vkSj yksxksa dks ekjk ;k gVk fn;kA rkjk lqanjh ikoZQ esa cM+k&ck”kkj dkaxzsl desVh
osQ ;q¼ ea=kh gfj'panz ¯lg >aMk iQgjkus x, ij os Hkhrj u tk losQA ogk¡ ij dkI
+
kQh ekjihV gqbZ
vkSj nks&pkj vknfe;ksa osQ flj iQV x,A xqtjkrh lsfodk la?k dh vksj ls tqywl fudyk ftlesa
cgqr&lh yM+fd;k¡ Fkha mudks fxjÝ
+
rkj dj fy;kA
11 cts ekjokM+h ckfydk fo|ky; dh yM+fd;ksa us vius fo|ky; esa >aMksRlo euk;kA
tkudhnsoh] enkylk (enkylk ctkt&ukjk;.k) vkfn Hkh xbZ FkhaA yM+fd;ksa dks] mRlo dk D;k
eryc gS] le>k;k x;kA ,d ckj eksVj esa cSBdj lc rjI
+
kQ ?kwedj ns[kk rks cgqr vPNk ekywe
gks jgk FkkA txg&txg I
+
kQksVks mrj jgs FksA vius Hkh I
+
kQksVks dk dkI
+
kQh izcaèk fd;k FkkA nks&rhu cts
dbZ vknfe;ksa dks idM+ fy;k x;kA ftlesa eq[; iw.kksZnkl vkSj iq#"kksÙke jk; FksA
lqHkk"k ckcw osQ tqywl dk Hkkj iw.kksZnkl ij Fkk ij ;g izcaèk dj pqdk FkkA L=kh lekt viuh
rS;kjh esa yxk FkkA txg&txg ls fL=k;k¡ viuk tqywl fudkyus dh rFkk Bhd LFkku ij ig¡qpus dh
dksf'k'k dj jgh FkhaA eksuqesaV osQ ikl tSlk izcaèk Hkksj esa Fkk oSlk djhc ,d cts ugha jgkA blls
yksxksa dks vk'kk gksus yxh fd 'kk;n iqfyl viuk jax u fn[kykos ij og dc #dus okyh FkhA
rhu cts ls gh eSnku esa g”kkjksa vknfe;ksa dh HkhM+ gksus yxh vkSj yksx Vksfy;k¡ cuk&cukdj eSnku
esa ?kweus yxsA vkt tks ckr Fkh og fujkyh FkhA
tc ls dkuwu Hkax dk dke 'kq: gqvk gS rc ls vkt rd bruh cM+h lHkk ,sls eSnku esa ugha
dh xbZ Fkh vkSj ;g lHkk rks dguk pkfg, fd vksiu yM+kbZ FkhA iqfyl dfe'uj dk uksfVl fudy
pqdk Fkk fd veqd&veqd èkkjk osQ vuqlkj dksbZ lHkk ugha gks ldrhA tks yksx dke djus okys
Fks mu lcoQks balisDVjksa osQ }kjk uksfVl vkSj lwpuk ns nh xbZ Fkh fd vki ;fn lHkk esa Hkkx ysaxs
rks nks"kh le>s tk,¡xsA bèkj dkSafly dh rjI
+
kQ ls uksfVl fudy x;k Fkk fd eksuqesaV osQ uhps Bhd
pkj ctdj pkSchl feuV ij >aMk iQgjk;k tk,xk rFkk Lora=krk dh izfrKk i<+h tk,xhA
loZlkèkkj.k dh mifLFkfr gksuh pkfg,A [kqyk pSysat nsdj ,slh lHkk igys ugha dh xbZ FkhA
Bhd pkj ctdj nl feuV ij lqHkk"k ckcw tqywl ysdj vk,A mudks pkSjaxh ij gh jksdk x;k]
ij HkhM+ dh vfèkdrk osQ dkj.k iqfyl tqywl dks jksd ugha ldhA eSnku osQ eksM+ ij igq¡prs gh
iqfyl us ykfB;k¡ pykuh 'kq: dj nha] cgqr vkneh ?kk;y gq,] lqHkk"k ckcw ij Hkh ykfB;k¡ iM+haA
lqHkk"k ckcw cgqr ”kksjksa ls oans ekrje~ cksy jgs FksA T;ksfreZ; xkaxqyh us lqHkk"k ckcw ls dgk] vki
bèkj vk tkb,A ij lqHkk"k ckcw us dgk] vkxs c<+uk gSA
;g lc rks vius lquh gqbZ fy[k jgs gSa ij lqHkk"k ckcw dk vkSj viuk fo'ks"k I
+
kQklyk ugha
FkkA lqHkk"k ckcw cM+s ”kksj ls oans ekrje~ cksyrs Fks] ;g viuh vk¡[k ls ns[kkA iqfyl Hk;kud :i
ls ykfB;k¡ pyk jgh FkhA f{krh'k pVthZ dk iQVk gqvk flj ns[kdj rFkk mldk cgrk gqvk [kwu
ns[kdj vk¡[k ¯ep tkrh FkhA bèkj ;g gkyr gks jgh Fkh fd mèkj fL=k;k¡ eksuqesaV dh lhf<+;ksa ij
© NCERT
not to be republished
72 / Li'kZ
p<+ >aMk iQgjk jgh Fkha vkSj ?kks"k.kk i<+ jgh FkhaA fL=k;k¡ cgqr cM+h la[;k esa igq¡p xbZ FkhaA izk;%
lcosQ ikl >aMk FkkA tks okyasfV;j x, Fks os vius LFkku ls ykfB;k¡ iM+us ij Hkh gVrs ugha FksA
lqHkk"k ckcw dks idM+ fy;k x;k vkSj xkM+h esa cSBkdj ykyck”kkj ykWdvi esa Hkst fn;k x;kA
oqQN nsj ckn gh fL=k;k¡ tqywl cukdj ogk¡ ls pyhaA lkFk esa cgqr cM+h HkhM+ bd_h gks xbZA chp
esa iqfyl oqQN BaMh iM+h Fkh] mlus fiQj MaMs pykus 'kq: dj fn,A vcdh ckj HkhM+ ”;knk gksus
osQ dkj.k cgqr vkneh ?kk;y gq,A èkeZrYys osQ eksM+ ij vkdj tqywl VwV x;k vkSj djhc 50&60
fL=k;k¡ ogha eksM+ ij cSB xb±A iqfyl us mudks idM+dj ykyck”kkj Hkst fn;kA fL=k;ksa dk ,d Hkkx
vkxs c<+k ftldk usr`Ro foey izfrHkk dj jgh FkhaA mudks cgw ck”kkj osQ eksM+ ij jksdk x;k vkSj
os ogha eksM+ ij cSB xb±A vkl&ikl cgqr cM+h HkhM+ bd_h gks xbZ] ftl ij iqfyl chp&chp
esa ykBh pykrh FkhA
bl izdkj djhc ikSu ?kaVs osQ ckn iqfyl dh ykjh vkbZ vkSj mudks ykyck”kkj ys tk;k x;kA
vkSj Hkh dbZ vknfe;ksa dks idM+k x;kA o`tyky xks;udk tks dbZ fnu ls vius lkFk dke dj
jgk Fkk vkSj nene tsy esa Hkh vius lkFk Fkk] idM+k x;kA igys rks og >aMk ysdj oans ekrje~
cksyrk gqvk eksuqesaV dh vksj brus ”kksj ls nkSM+k fd vius vki gh fxj iM+k vkSj mls ,d vaxzs”kh
?kqM+lokj us ykBh ekjh fiQj idM+dj oqQN nwj ys tkus osQ ckn NksM+ fn;kA bl ij og fL=k;ksa osQ
tqywl esa 'kkfey gks x;k vkSj ogk¡ ij Hkh mldks NksM+ fn;k rc og nks lkS vknfe;ksa dk tqywl
cukdj ykyck”kkj x;k vkSj ogk¡ ij fxjÝ
+
rkj gks x;kA enkylk Hkh idM+h xbZ FkhA mlls ekywe
gqvk fd mldks Fkkus esa Hkh ekjk FkkA lc feykdj 105 fL=k;k¡ idM+h xbZ FkhaA ckn esa jkr dks
ukS cts lcdks NksM+ fn;k x;kA dydÙkk esa vkt rd bruh fL=k;k¡ ,d lkFk fxjÝ
+
rkj ugha dh
xbZ FkhaA djhc vkB cts [kknh HkaMkj vk, rks dkaxzsl vkWfI
+
kQl ls I
+
kQksu vk;k fd ;gk¡ cgqr vkneh
pksV [kkdj vk, gSa vkSj dbZ dh gkyr laxhu gS muosQ fy, xkM+h pkfg,A tkudhnsoh osQ lkFk
ogk¡ x,] cgqr yksxksa dks pksV yxh gqbZ FkhA MkWDVj nklxqIrk mudh ns[k&js[k rFkk I
+
kQksVks mrjok jgs
FksA ml le; rd 67 vkneh ogk¡ vk pqosQ FksA ckn esa rks 103 rd vk igq¡psA
vLirky x,] yksxksa dks ns[kus ls ekywe gqvk fd 160 vkneh rks vLirkyksa esa igq¡ps vkSj tks
yksx ?kjksa eas pys x,] os vyx gSaA bl izdkj nks lkS ?kk;y ”k:j gq, gaSA idM+s x, vknfe;ksa dh
la[;k dk irk ugha pyk] ij ykyck”kkj osQ ykWdvi esa fL=k;kas dh la[;k 105 FkhA vkt rks tks
oqQN gqvk og viwoZ gqvk gSA caxky osQ uke ;k dydÙkk osQ uke ij dyad Fkk fd ;gk¡ dke
ugha gks jgk gS og vkt cgqr va'k esa èkqy x;k vkSj yksx lkspus yx x, fd ;gk¡ Hkh cgqr lk
dke gks ldrk gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
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