NCERT Textbook: पाठ 12 - तताँरा-वामीरो कथा, सपर्श II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 12 - तताँरा-वामीरो कथा, सपर्श II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


1954 dh tUek"Veh osQ fnu ¯NnokM+k f”kys osQ ,d NksVs ls xk¡o xq<+h esa
tUes yhyk/j eaMyksbZ dh f'k{kk&nh{kk Hkksiky vkSj jk;iqj esa gqbZA izlkj.k dh
mPp f'k{kk osQ fy, 1987 esa dkWeuosYFk fjys'kal VªLV] yanu dh vksj ls
vkeaf=kr fd, x,A bu fnuksa izlkj Hkkjrh nwjn'kZu osQ egkfuns'kd dk
dk;ZHkkj l¡Hkky jgs gSaA
yhyk/j eaMyksbZ ewyr% dfo gSaA mudh dforkvksa esa NÙkhlx<+ vapy dh
cksyh dh feBkl vkSj ogk¡ osQ tuthou dk ltho fp=k.k gSA vaneku fudksckj
}hilewg dh tutkfr;ksa ij fy[kk budk x| vius vki esa ,d lekt 'kkL=kh;
vè;;u Hkh gSA mudk dfo eu gh og lzksr gS tks mUgsa yksddFkk] yksdxhr]
;k=kk&o`Ùkkar] Mk;jh] ehfM;k] fjiksrkZ”k vkSj vkykspuk ys[ku dh vksj izo`Ùk
djrk gSA
vius jpukdeZ osQ fy, dbZ iqjLdkjksa ls lEekfur eaMyksbZ dh izeq[k
Ñfr;k¡ gSaµ?kj&?kj ?kwek] jkr&fcjkr] exj ,d vkok”k] ns[kk&vuns[kk vkSj
dkyk ikuhA
yhyk/j eaMyksbZ
(1954)
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


1954 dh tUek"Veh osQ fnu ¯NnokM+k f”kys osQ ,d NksVs ls xk¡o xq<+h esa
tUes yhyk/j eaMyksbZ dh f'k{kk&nh{kk Hkksiky vkSj jk;iqj esa gqbZA izlkj.k dh
mPp f'k{kk osQ fy, 1987 esa dkWeuosYFk fjys'kal VªLV] yanu dh vksj ls
vkeaf=kr fd, x,A bu fnuksa izlkj Hkkjrh nwjn'kZu osQ egkfuns'kd dk
dk;ZHkkj l¡Hkky jgs gSaA
yhyk/j eaMyksbZ ewyr% dfo gSaA mudh dforkvksa esa NÙkhlx<+ vapy dh
cksyh dh feBkl vkSj ogk¡ osQ tuthou dk ltho fp=k.k gSA vaneku fudksckj
}hilewg dh tutkfr;ksa ij fy[kk budk x| vius vki esa ,d lekt 'kkL=kh;
vè;;u Hkh gSA mudk dfo eu gh og lzksr gS tks mUgsa yksddFkk] yksdxhr]
;k=kk&o`Ùkkar] Mk;jh] ehfM;k] fjiksrkZ”k vkSj vkykspuk ys[ku dh vksj izo`Ùk
djrk gSA
vius jpukdeZ osQ fy, dbZ iqjLdkjksa ls lEekfur eaMyksbZ dh izeq[k
Ñfr;k¡ gSaµ?kj&?kj ?kwek] jkr&fcjkr] exj ,d vkok”k] ns[kk&vuns[kk vkSj
dkyk ikuhA
yhyk/j eaMyksbZ
(1954)
© NCERT
not to be republished
78 / Li'kZ
ikB izos'k
tks lH;rk ftruh iqjkuh gS] mlosQ ckjs esa mrus gh ”;knk fdLls&dgkfu;k¡ Hkh
lquus dks feyrh gSaA fdLls ”k:jh ugha fd lpeqp ml :i esa ?kfVr gq, gksa
ftl :i esa gesa lquus ;k i<+us dks feyrs gSaA bruk ”k:j gS fd bu fdLlksa
esa dksbZ u dksbZ lans'k ;k lh[k fufgr gksrh gSA vaneku fudksckj }hilewg esa
Hkh reke rjg osQ fdLls e'kgwj gSaA buesa ls oqQN dks yhyk/j eaMyksbZ us fiQj
ls fy[kk gSA
izLrqr ikB rrk¡jk&okehjks dFkk blh }hilewg osQ ,d NksVs ls }hi ij
osaQfnzr gSA mDr }hi esa fo}s"k xgjh tM+sa tek pqdk FkkA ml fo}s"k dks tM+ ewy
ls m[kkM+us osQ fy, ,d ;qxy dks vkRecfynku nsuk iM+k FkkA mlh ;qxy osQ
cfynku dh dFkk ;gk¡ c;ku dh xbZ gSA
izse lcdks tksM+rk gS vkSj ?k`.kk nwjh c<+krh gS] blls Hkyk dkSu budkj dj
ldrk gSA blhfy, tks lekt osQ fy, vius izse dk] vius thou rd dk
cfynku djrk gS] lekt mls u osQoy ;kn j[krk gS cfYd mlosQ cfynku
dks O;FkZ ugha tkus nsrkA ;gh otg gS fd rRdkyhu lekt osQ lkeus ,d
felky dk;e djus okys bl ;qxy dks vkt Hkh ml }hi osQ fuoklh xoZ vkSj
J¼k osQ lkFk ;kn djrs gSaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


1954 dh tUek"Veh osQ fnu ¯NnokM+k f”kys osQ ,d NksVs ls xk¡o xq<+h esa
tUes yhyk/j eaMyksbZ dh f'k{kk&nh{kk Hkksiky vkSj jk;iqj esa gqbZA izlkj.k dh
mPp f'k{kk osQ fy, 1987 esa dkWeuosYFk fjys'kal VªLV] yanu dh vksj ls
vkeaf=kr fd, x,A bu fnuksa izlkj Hkkjrh nwjn'kZu osQ egkfuns'kd dk
dk;ZHkkj l¡Hkky jgs gSaA
yhyk/j eaMyksbZ ewyr% dfo gSaA mudh dforkvksa esa NÙkhlx<+ vapy dh
cksyh dh feBkl vkSj ogk¡ osQ tuthou dk ltho fp=k.k gSA vaneku fudksckj
}hilewg dh tutkfr;ksa ij fy[kk budk x| vius vki esa ,d lekt 'kkL=kh;
vè;;u Hkh gSA mudk dfo eu gh og lzksr gS tks mUgsa yksddFkk] yksdxhr]
;k=kk&o`Ùkkar] Mk;jh] ehfM;k] fjiksrkZ”k vkSj vkykspuk ys[ku dh vksj izo`Ùk
djrk gSA
vius jpukdeZ osQ fy, dbZ iqjLdkjksa ls lEekfur eaMyksbZ dh izeq[k
Ñfr;k¡ gSaµ?kj&?kj ?kwek] jkr&fcjkr] exj ,d vkok”k] ns[kk&vuns[kk vkSj
dkyk ikuhA
yhyk/j eaMyksbZ
(1954)
© NCERT
not to be republished
78 / Li'kZ
ikB izos'k
tks lH;rk ftruh iqjkuh gS] mlosQ ckjs esa mrus gh ”;knk fdLls&dgkfu;k¡ Hkh
lquus dks feyrh gSaA fdLls ”k:jh ugha fd lpeqp ml :i esa ?kfVr gq, gksa
ftl :i esa gesa lquus ;k i<+us dks feyrs gSaA bruk ”k:j gS fd bu fdLlksa
esa dksbZ u dksbZ lans'k ;k lh[k fufgr gksrh gSA vaneku fudksckj }hilewg esa
Hkh reke rjg osQ fdLls e'kgwj gSaA buesa ls oqQN dks yhyk/j eaMyksbZ us fiQj
ls fy[kk gSA
izLrqr ikB rrk¡jk&okehjks dFkk blh }hilewg osQ ,d NksVs ls }hi ij
osaQfnzr gSA mDr }hi esa fo}s"k xgjh tM+sa tek pqdk FkkA ml fo}s"k dks tM+ ewy
ls m[kkM+us osQ fy, ,d ;qxy dks vkRecfynku nsuk iM+k FkkA mlh ;qxy osQ
cfynku dh dFkk ;gk¡ c;ku dh xbZ gSA
izse lcdks tksM+rk gS vkSj ?k`.kk nwjh c<+krh gS] blls Hkyk dkSu budkj dj
ldrk gSA blhfy, tks lekt osQ fy, vius izse dk] vius thou rd dk
cfynku djrk gS] lekt mls u osQoy ;kn j[krk gS cfYd mlosQ cfynku
dks O;FkZ ugha tkus nsrkA ;gh otg gS fd rRdkyhu lekt osQ lkeus ,d
felky dk;e djus okys bl ;qxy dks vkt Hkh ml }hi osQ fuoklh xoZ vkSj
J¼k osQ lkFk ;kn djrs gSaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
rrk¡jk&okehjks dFkk /79
rrk¡jk&okehjks dFkk
vaneku }hilewg dk vafre nf{k.kh }hi gS fyfVy vanekuA ;g iksVZ Cys;j ls yxHkx lkS fdyksehVj
nwj fLFkr gSA blosQ ckn fudksckj }hilewg dh  Ük`a[kyk vkjaHk gksrh gS tks fudksckjh tutkfr dh
vkfne laLÑfr osQ osaQnz gSaA fudksckj }hilewg dk igyk izeq[k }hi gS dkj&fudksckj tks fyfVy
vaneku ls 96 fd-eh- nwj gSA fudksckfj;ksa dk fo'okl gS fd izkphu dky esa ;s nksukas }hi ,d gh
FksA buosQ foHkDr gksus dh ,d yksddFkk gS tks vkt Hkh nksgjkbZ tkrh gSA
lfn;ksa iwoZ] tc fyfVy vaneku vkSj dkj&fudksckj vkil esa tqM+s gq, Fks rc ogk¡ ,d lqanj
lk xk¡o FkkA ikl esa ,d lqanj vkSj 'kfDr'kkyh ;qod jgk djrk FkkA mldk uke Fkk rrk¡jkA
fudksckjh mls csgn izse djrs FksA rrk¡jk ,d usd vkSj ennxkj O;fDr FkkA lnSo nwljksa dh lgk;rk
osQ fy, rRij jgrkA vius xk¡ookyksa dks gh ugha] vfirq lewps }hiokfl;ksa dh lsok djuk viuk
ije drZO; le>rk FkkA mlosQ bl R;kx dh otg ls og pfpZr FkkA lHkh mldk vknj djrsA
oDr eqlhcr esa mls Lej.k djrs vkSj og Hkkxk&Hkkxk ogk¡ igq¡p tkrkA nwljs xk¡oksa eas Hkh
ioZ&R;ksgkjksa osQ le; mls fo'ks"k :i ls vkeaf=kr fd;k tkrkA mldk O;fDrRo rks vkd"kZd Fkk
gh] lkFk gh vkReh; LoHkko dh otg ls yksx mlosQ djhc jguk pkgrsA ikjaifjd iks'kkd osQ lkFk
og viuh dej esa lnSo ,d ydM+h dh ryokj ck¡èks jgrkA yksxksa dk er Fkk] ckotwn ydM+h
dh gksus ij] ml ryokj esa vn~Hkqr nSoh; 'kfDr FkhA rrk¡jk viuh ryokj dks dHkh vyx u gksus
nsrkA mldk nwljksa osQ lkeus mi;ksx Hkh u djrkA ¯drq mlosQ pfpZr lkgfld dkjukeksa osQ dkj.k
yksx&ckx ryokj esa vn~Hkqr 'kfDr dk gksuk ekurs FksA rrk¡jk dh ryokj ,d foy{k.k jgL; FkhA
,d 'kke rrk¡jk fnuHkj osQ vFkd ifjJe osQ ckn leqnz fdukjs Vgyus fudy iM+kA lwjt
leqnz ls yxs f{kfrt rys Mwcus dks FkkA leqnz ls BaMh c;kjsa vk jgh FkhaA if{k;ksa dh lk;adkyhu
pgpgkgVsa 'kuS% 'kuS% {kh.k gksus dks FkhaA mldk eu 'kkar FkkA fopkjeXu rrk¡jk leqnzh ckyw ij
cSBdj lwjt dh vafre jax&fcjaxh fdj.kksa dks leqnz ij fugkjus yxkA rHkh dgha ikl ls mls eèkqj
xhr xw¡trk lqukbZ fn;kA xhr ekuks cgrk gqvk mldh rjI
+
kQ vk jgk gksA chp&chp esa ygjkas dk
laxhr lqukbZ nsrkA xk;u bruk izHkkoh Fkk fd og viuh lqèk&cqèk [kksus yxkA ygjksa osQ ,d izcy
osx us mldh ranzk Hkax dhA pSrU; gksrs gh og mèkj c<+us dks foo'k gks mBk ftèkj ls vc Hkh
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


1954 dh tUek"Veh osQ fnu ¯NnokM+k f”kys osQ ,d NksVs ls xk¡o xq<+h esa
tUes yhyk/j eaMyksbZ dh f'k{kk&nh{kk Hkksiky vkSj jk;iqj esa gqbZA izlkj.k dh
mPp f'k{kk osQ fy, 1987 esa dkWeuosYFk fjys'kal VªLV] yanu dh vksj ls
vkeaf=kr fd, x,A bu fnuksa izlkj Hkkjrh nwjn'kZu osQ egkfuns'kd dk
dk;ZHkkj l¡Hkky jgs gSaA
yhyk/j eaMyksbZ ewyr% dfo gSaA mudh dforkvksa esa NÙkhlx<+ vapy dh
cksyh dh feBkl vkSj ogk¡ osQ tuthou dk ltho fp=k.k gSA vaneku fudksckj
}hilewg dh tutkfr;ksa ij fy[kk budk x| vius vki esa ,d lekt 'kkL=kh;
vè;;u Hkh gSA mudk dfo eu gh og lzksr gS tks mUgsa yksddFkk] yksdxhr]
;k=kk&o`Ùkkar] Mk;jh] ehfM;k] fjiksrkZ”k vkSj vkykspuk ys[ku dh vksj izo`Ùk
djrk gSA
vius jpukdeZ osQ fy, dbZ iqjLdkjksa ls lEekfur eaMyksbZ dh izeq[k
Ñfr;k¡ gSaµ?kj&?kj ?kwek] jkr&fcjkr] exj ,d vkok”k] ns[kk&vuns[kk vkSj
dkyk ikuhA
yhyk/j eaMyksbZ
(1954)
© NCERT
not to be republished
78 / Li'kZ
ikB izos'k
tks lH;rk ftruh iqjkuh gS] mlosQ ckjs esa mrus gh ”;knk fdLls&dgkfu;k¡ Hkh
lquus dks feyrh gSaA fdLls ”k:jh ugha fd lpeqp ml :i esa ?kfVr gq, gksa
ftl :i esa gesa lquus ;k i<+us dks feyrs gSaA bruk ”k:j gS fd bu fdLlksa
esa dksbZ u dksbZ lans'k ;k lh[k fufgr gksrh gSA vaneku fudksckj }hilewg esa
Hkh reke rjg osQ fdLls e'kgwj gSaA buesa ls oqQN dks yhyk/j eaMyksbZ us fiQj
ls fy[kk gSA
izLrqr ikB rrk¡jk&okehjks dFkk blh }hilewg osQ ,d NksVs ls }hi ij
osaQfnzr gSA mDr }hi esa fo}s"k xgjh tM+sa tek pqdk FkkA ml fo}s"k dks tM+ ewy
ls m[kkM+us osQ fy, ,d ;qxy dks vkRecfynku nsuk iM+k FkkA mlh ;qxy osQ
cfynku dh dFkk ;gk¡ c;ku dh xbZ gSA
izse lcdks tksM+rk gS vkSj ?k`.kk nwjh c<+krh gS] blls Hkyk dkSu budkj dj
ldrk gSA blhfy, tks lekt osQ fy, vius izse dk] vius thou rd dk
cfynku djrk gS] lekt mls u osQoy ;kn j[krk gS cfYd mlosQ cfynku
dks O;FkZ ugha tkus nsrkA ;gh otg gS fd rRdkyhu lekt osQ lkeus ,d
felky dk;e djus okys bl ;qxy dks vkt Hkh ml }hi osQ fuoklh xoZ vkSj
J¼k osQ lkFk ;kn djrs gSaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
rrk¡jk&okehjks dFkk /79
rrk¡jk&okehjks dFkk
vaneku }hilewg dk vafre nf{k.kh }hi gS fyfVy vanekuA ;g iksVZ Cys;j ls yxHkx lkS fdyksehVj
nwj fLFkr gSA blosQ ckn fudksckj }hilewg dh  Ük`a[kyk vkjaHk gksrh gS tks fudksckjh tutkfr dh
vkfne laLÑfr osQ osaQnz gSaA fudksckj }hilewg dk igyk izeq[k }hi gS dkj&fudksckj tks fyfVy
vaneku ls 96 fd-eh- nwj gSA fudksckfj;ksa dk fo'okl gS fd izkphu dky esa ;s nksukas }hi ,d gh
FksA buosQ foHkDr gksus dh ,d yksddFkk gS tks vkt Hkh nksgjkbZ tkrh gSA
lfn;ksa iwoZ] tc fyfVy vaneku vkSj dkj&fudksckj vkil esa tqM+s gq, Fks rc ogk¡ ,d lqanj
lk xk¡o FkkA ikl esa ,d lqanj vkSj 'kfDr'kkyh ;qod jgk djrk FkkA mldk uke Fkk rrk¡jkA
fudksckjh mls csgn izse djrs FksA rrk¡jk ,d usd vkSj ennxkj O;fDr FkkA lnSo nwljksa dh lgk;rk
osQ fy, rRij jgrkA vius xk¡ookyksa dks gh ugha] vfirq lewps }hiokfl;ksa dh lsok djuk viuk
ije drZO; le>rk FkkA mlosQ bl R;kx dh otg ls og pfpZr FkkA lHkh mldk vknj djrsA
oDr eqlhcr esa mls Lej.k djrs vkSj og Hkkxk&Hkkxk ogk¡ igq¡p tkrkA nwljs xk¡oksa eas Hkh
ioZ&R;ksgkjksa osQ le; mls fo'ks"k :i ls vkeaf=kr fd;k tkrkA mldk O;fDrRo rks vkd"kZd Fkk
gh] lkFk gh vkReh; LoHkko dh otg ls yksx mlosQ djhc jguk pkgrsA ikjaifjd iks'kkd osQ lkFk
og viuh dej esa lnSo ,d ydM+h dh ryokj ck¡èks jgrkA yksxksa dk er Fkk] ckotwn ydM+h
dh gksus ij] ml ryokj esa vn~Hkqr nSoh; 'kfDr FkhA rrk¡jk viuh ryokj dks dHkh vyx u gksus
nsrkA mldk nwljksa osQ lkeus mi;ksx Hkh u djrkA ¯drq mlosQ pfpZr lkgfld dkjukeksa osQ dkj.k
yksx&ckx ryokj esa vn~Hkqr 'kfDr dk gksuk ekurs FksA rrk¡jk dh ryokj ,d foy{k.k jgL; FkhA
,d 'kke rrk¡jk fnuHkj osQ vFkd ifjJe osQ ckn leqnz fdukjs Vgyus fudy iM+kA lwjt
leqnz ls yxs f{kfrt rys Mwcus dks FkkA leqnz ls BaMh c;kjsa vk jgh FkhaA if{k;ksa dh lk;adkyhu
pgpgkgVsa 'kuS% 'kuS% {kh.k gksus dks FkhaA mldk eu 'kkar FkkA fopkjeXu rrk¡jk leqnzh ckyw ij
cSBdj lwjt dh vafre jax&fcjaxh fdj.kksa dks leqnz ij fugkjus yxkA rHkh dgha ikl ls mls eèkqj
xhr xw¡trk lqukbZ fn;kA xhr ekuks cgrk gqvk mldh rjI
+
kQ vk jgk gksA chp&chp esa ygjkas dk
laxhr lqukbZ nsrkA xk;u bruk izHkkoh Fkk fd og viuh lqèk&cqèk [kksus yxkA ygjksa osQ ,d izcy
osx us mldh ranzk Hkax dhA pSrU; gksrs gh og mèkj c<+us dks foo'k gks mBk ftèkj ls vc Hkh
© NCERT
not to be republished
80 / Li'kZ
xhr osQ Loj cg jgs FksA og fody lk ml rjI
+
kQ c<+rk x;kA varr% mldh u”kj ,d ;qorh ij
iM+h tks <yrh gqbZ 'kke osQ lkSan;Z esa cslqèk] ,dVd leqnz dh nsg ij Mwcrs vkd"kZd jaxksa dks
fugkjrs gq, xk jgh FkhA ;g ,d  Ük`axkj xhr FkkA
mls Kkr gh u gks ldk fd dksbZ vtuch ;qod mls fu%'kCn rkosQ tk jgk gSA ,dk,d ,d
m¡Qph ygj mBh vkSj mls fHkxks xbZA og gM+cM+kgV esa xkuk Hkwy xbZA blosQ igys fd og lkekU;
gks ikrh] mlus vius dkuksa eas xw¡trh xaHkhj vkd"kZd vkok”k lquhA
¶rqeus ,dk,d bruk eèkqj xkuk vèkwjk D;ksa NksM+ fn;k\¸ rrk¡jk us fouezrkiwoZd dgkA
vius lkeus ,d lqanj ;qod dks ns[kdj og fofLer gqbZA mlosQ Hkhrj fdlh dksey Hkkouk
dk lapkj gqvkA ¯drq vius dks la;rdj mlus cs#[kh osQ lkFk tokc fn;kA
¶igys crkvks! rqe dkSu gks] bl rjg eq>s ?kwjus vkSj bl vlaxr iz'u dk dkj.k\ vius
xk¡o osQ vykok fdlh vkSj xk¡o osQ ;qod osQ iz'uksa dk mÙkj nsus dks eSa ckè; ughaA ;g rqe
Hkh tkurs gksA¸
rrk¡jk ekuks lqèk&cqèk [kks, gq, FkkA tokc nsus osQ LFkku ij mlus iqu% viuk iz'u nksgjk;kA
¶rqeus xkuk D;ksa jksd fn;k\ xkvks] xhr iwjk djksA lpeqp rqeus cgqr lqjhyk oaQB ik;k gSA¸
¶;g rks esjs iz'u dk mÙkj u gqvk\¸ ;qorh us dgkA
¶lp crkvks rqe dkSu gks\ yikrh xk¡o esa rqEgsa dHkh ns[kk ughaA¸
rrk¡jk ekuks lEeksfgr FkkA mlosQ dkuksa esa ;qorh dh vkok”k Bhd ls igq¡p u ldhA mlus iqu%
fou; dh] ¶rqeus xkuk D;ksa jksd fn;k\ xkvks u\¸
;qorh >q¡>yk mBhA og oqQN vkSj lkspus yxhA varr% mlus fu'p;iwoZd ,d ckj iqu% yxHkx
fojksèk djrs gq, dM+s Loj esa dgkA
¶<hBrk dh gn gSA eSa tc ls ifjp; iwN jgh gw¡ vkSj rqe cl ,d gh jkx vyki jgs gksA
xhr xkvks&xhr xkvks] vkf[kj D;ksa\ D;k rqEgsa xk¡o dk fu;e ugha ekywe\¸ bruk cksydj og tkus
osQ fy, rs”kh ls eqM+hA rrk¡jk dks ekuks oqQN gks'k vk;kA mls viuh xyrh dk vglkl gqvkA og
mlosQ lkeus jkLrk jksddj] ekuks fxM+fxM+kus yxkA
¶eq>s ekI
+
kQ dj nksA thou esa igyh ckj eSa bl rjg fopfyr gqvk gw¡A rqEgsa ns[kdj esjh psruk
yqIr gks xbZ FkhA eSa rqEgkjk jkLrk NksM+ nw¡xkA cl viuk uke crk nksA¸ rrk¡jk us foo'krk esa vkxzg
fd;kA mldh vk¡[ksa ;qorh osQ psgjs ij osaQfnzr FkhaA mlosQ psgjs ij lPph fou; FkhA
¶ok--- eh--- jks--- ¸ ,d jl ?kksyrh vkok”k mlosQ dkuksa esa igq¡phA
¶okehjks--- ok--- eh--- jks--- okg fdruk lqanj uke gSA dy Hkh vkvksxh u ;gk¡\¸ rrk¡jk us
;kpuk Hkjs Loj esa dgkA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


1954 dh tUek"Veh osQ fnu ¯NnokM+k f”kys osQ ,d NksVs ls xk¡o xq<+h esa
tUes yhyk/j eaMyksbZ dh f'k{kk&nh{kk Hkksiky vkSj jk;iqj esa gqbZA izlkj.k dh
mPp f'k{kk osQ fy, 1987 esa dkWeuosYFk fjys'kal VªLV] yanu dh vksj ls
vkeaf=kr fd, x,A bu fnuksa izlkj Hkkjrh nwjn'kZu osQ egkfuns'kd dk
dk;ZHkkj l¡Hkky jgs gSaA
yhyk/j eaMyksbZ ewyr% dfo gSaA mudh dforkvksa esa NÙkhlx<+ vapy dh
cksyh dh feBkl vkSj ogk¡ osQ tuthou dk ltho fp=k.k gSA vaneku fudksckj
}hilewg dh tutkfr;ksa ij fy[kk budk x| vius vki esa ,d lekt 'kkL=kh;
vè;;u Hkh gSA mudk dfo eu gh og lzksr gS tks mUgsa yksddFkk] yksdxhr]
;k=kk&o`Ùkkar] Mk;jh] ehfM;k] fjiksrkZ”k vkSj vkykspuk ys[ku dh vksj izo`Ùk
djrk gSA
vius jpukdeZ osQ fy, dbZ iqjLdkjksa ls lEekfur eaMyksbZ dh izeq[k
Ñfr;k¡ gSaµ?kj&?kj ?kwek] jkr&fcjkr] exj ,d vkok”k] ns[kk&vuns[kk vkSj
dkyk ikuhA
yhyk/j eaMyksbZ
(1954)
© NCERT
not to be republished
78 / Li'kZ
ikB izos'k
tks lH;rk ftruh iqjkuh gS] mlosQ ckjs esa mrus gh ”;knk fdLls&dgkfu;k¡ Hkh
lquus dks feyrh gSaA fdLls ”k:jh ugha fd lpeqp ml :i esa ?kfVr gq, gksa
ftl :i esa gesa lquus ;k i<+us dks feyrs gSaA bruk ”k:j gS fd bu fdLlksa
esa dksbZ u dksbZ lans'k ;k lh[k fufgr gksrh gSA vaneku fudksckj }hilewg esa
Hkh reke rjg osQ fdLls e'kgwj gSaA buesa ls oqQN dks yhyk/j eaMyksbZ us fiQj
ls fy[kk gSA
izLrqr ikB rrk¡jk&okehjks dFkk blh }hilewg osQ ,d NksVs ls }hi ij
osaQfnzr gSA mDr }hi esa fo}s"k xgjh tM+sa tek pqdk FkkA ml fo}s"k dks tM+ ewy
ls m[kkM+us osQ fy, ,d ;qxy dks vkRecfynku nsuk iM+k FkkA mlh ;qxy osQ
cfynku dh dFkk ;gk¡ c;ku dh xbZ gSA
izse lcdks tksM+rk gS vkSj ?k`.kk nwjh c<+krh gS] blls Hkyk dkSu budkj dj
ldrk gSA blhfy, tks lekt osQ fy, vius izse dk] vius thou rd dk
cfynku djrk gS] lekt mls u osQoy ;kn j[krk gS cfYd mlosQ cfynku
dks O;FkZ ugha tkus nsrkA ;gh otg gS fd rRdkyhu lekt osQ lkeus ,d
felky dk;e djus okys bl ;qxy dks vkt Hkh ml }hi osQ fuoklh xoZ vkSj
J¼k osQ lkFk ;kn djrs gSaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
rrk¡jk&okehjks dFkk /79
rrk¡jk&okehjks dFkk
vaneku }hilewg dk vafre nf{k.kh }hi gS fyfVy vanekuA ;g iksVZ Cys;j ls yxHkx lkS fdyksehVj
nwj fLFkr gSA blosQ ckn fudksckj }hilewg dh  Ük`a[kyk vkjaHk gksrh gS tks fudksckjh tutkfr dh
vkfne laLÑfr osQ osaQnz gSaA fudksckj }hilewg dk igyk izeq[k }hi gS dkj&fudksckj tks fyfVy
vaneku ls 96 fd-eh- nwj gSA fudksckfj;ksa dk fo'okl gS fd izkphu dky esa ;s nksukas }hi ,d gh
FksA buosQ foHkDr gksus dh ,d yksddFkk gS tks vkt Hkh nksgjkbZ tkrh gSA
lfn;ksa iwoZ] tc fyfVy vaneku vkSj dkj&fudksckj vkil esa tqM+s gq, Fks rc ogk¡ ,d lqanj
lk xk¡o FkkA ikl esa ,d lqanj vkSj 'kfDr'kkyh ;qod jgk djrk FkkA mldk uke Fkk rrk¡jkA
fudksckjh mls csgn izse djrs FksA rrk¡jk ,d usd vkSj ennxkj O;fDr FkkA lnSo nwljksa dh lgk;rk
osQ fy, rRij jgrkA vius xk¡ookyksa dks gh ugha] vfirq lewps }hiokfl;ksa dh lsok djuk viuk
ije drZO; le>rk FkkA mlosQ bl R;kx dh otg ls og pfpZr FkkA lHkh mldk vknj djrsA
oDr eqlhcr esa mls Lej.k djrs vkSj og Hkkxk&Hkkxk ogk¡ igq¡p tkrkA nwljs xk¡oksa eas Hkh
ioZ&R;ksgkjksa osQ le; mls fo'ks"k :i ls vkeaf=kr fd;k tkrkA mldk O;fDrRo rks vkd"kZd Fkk
gh] lkFk gh vkReh; LoHkko dh otg ls yksx mlosQ djhc jguk pkgrsA ikjaifjd iks'kkd osQ lkFk
og viuh dej esa lnSo ,d ydM+h dh ryokj ck¡èks jgrkA yksxksa dk er Fkk] ckotwn ydM+h
dh gksus ij] ml ryokj esa vn~Hkqr nSoh; 'kfDr FkhA rrk¡jk viuh ryokj dks dHkh vyx u gksus
nsrkA mldk nwljksa osQ lkeus mi;ksx Hkh u djrkA ¯drq mlosQ pfpZr lkgfld dkjukeksa osQ dkj.k
yksx&ckx ryokj esa vn~Hkqr 'kfDr dk gksuk ekurs FksA rrk¡jk dh ryokj ,d foy{k.k jgL; FkhA
,d 'kke rrk¡jk fnuHkj osQ vFkd ifjJe osQ ckn leqnz fdukjs Vgyus fudy iM+kA lwjt
leqnz ls yxs f{kfrt rys Mwcus dks FkkA leqnz ls BaMh c;kjsa vk jgh FkhaA if{k;ksa dh lk;adkyhu
pgpgkgVsa 'kuS% 'kuS% {kh.k gksus dks FkhaA mldk eu 'kkar FkkA fopkjeXu rrk¡jk leqnzh ckyw ij
cSBdj lwjt dh vafre jax&fcjaxh fdj.kksa dks leqnz ij fugkjus yxkA rHkh dgha ikl ls mls eèkqj
xhr xw¡trk lqukbZ fn;kA xhr ekuks cgrk gqvk mldh rjI
+
kQ vk jgk gksA chp&chp esa ygjkas dk
laxhr lqukbZ nsrkA xk;u bruk izHkkoh Fkk fd og viuh lqèk&cqèk [kksus yxkA ygjksa osQ ,d izcy
osx us mldh ranzk Hkax dhA pSrU; gksrs gh og mèkj c<+us dks foo'k gks mBk ftèkj ls vc Hkh
© NCERT
not to be republished
80 / Li'kZ
xhr osQ Loj cg jgs FksA og fody lk ml rjI
+
kQ c<+rk x;kA varr% mldh u”kj ,d ;qorh ij
iM+h tks <yrh gqbZ 'kke osQ lkSan;Z esa cslqèk] ,dVd leqnz dh nsg ij Mwcrs vkd"kZd jaxksa dks
fugkjrs gq, xk jgh FkhA ;g ,d  Ük`axkj xhr FkkA
mls Kkr gh u gks ldk fd dksbZ vtuch ;qod mls fu%'kCn rkosQ tk jgk gSA ,dk,d ,d
m¡Qph ygj mBh vkSj mls fHkxks xbZA og gM+cM+kgV esa xkuk Hkwy xbZA blosQ igys fd og lkekU;
gks ikrh] mlus vius dkuksa eas xw¡trh xaHkhj vkd"kZd vkok”k lquhA
¶rqeus ,dk,d bruk eèkqj xkuk vèkwjk D;ksa NksM+ fn;k\¸ rrk¡jk us fouezrkiwoZd dgkA
vius lkeus ,d lqanj ;qod dks ns[kdj og fofLer gqbZA mlosQ Hkhrj fdlh dksey Hkkouk
dk lapkj gqvkA ¯drq vius dks la;rdj mlus cs#[kh osQ lkFk tokc fn;kA
¶igys crkvks! rqe dkSu gks] bl rjg eq>s ?kwjus vkSj bl vlaxr iz'u dk dkj.k\ vius
xk¡o osQ vykok fdlh vkSj xk¡o osQ ;qod osQ iz'uksa dk mÙkj nsus dks eSa ckè; ughaA ;g rqe
Hkh tkurs gksA¸
rrk¡jk ekuks lqèk&cqèk [kks, gq, FkkA tokc nsus osQ LFkku ij mlus iqu% viuk iz'u nksgjk;kA
¶rqeus xkuk D;ksa jksd fn;k\ xkvks] xhr iwjk djksA lpeqp rqeus cgqr lqjhyk oaQB ik;k gSA¸
¶;g rks esjs iz'u dk mÙkj u gqvk\¸ ;qorh us dgkA
¶lp crkvks rqe dkSu gks\ yikrh xk¡o esa rqEgsa dHkh ns[kk ughaA¸
rrk¡jk ekuks lEeksfgr FkkA mlosQ dkuksa esa ;qorh dh vkok”k Bhd ls igq¡p u ldhA mlus iqu%
fou; dh] ¶rqeus xkuk D;ksa jksd fn;k\ xkvks u\¸
;qorh >q¡>yk mBhA og oqQN vkSj lkspus yxhA varr% mlus fu'p;iwoZd ,d ckj iqu% yxHkx
fojksèk djrs gq, dM+s Loj esa dgkA
¶<hBrk dh gn gSA eSa tc ls ifjp; iwN jgh gw¡ vkSj rqe cl ,d gh jkx vyki jgs gksA
xhr xkvks&xhr xkvks] vkf[kj D;ksa\ D;k rqEgsa xk¡o dk fu;e ugha ekywe\¸ bruk cksydj og tkus
osQ fy, rs”kh ls eqM+hA rrk¡jk dks ekuks oqQN gks'k vk;kA mls viuh xyrh dk vglkl gqvkA og
mlosQ lkeus jkLrk jksddj] ekuks fxM+fxM+kus yxkA
¶eq>s ekI
+
kQ dj nksA thou esa igyh ckj eSa bl rjg fopfyr gqvk gw¡A rqEgsa ns[kdj esjh psruk
yqIr gks xbZ FkhA eSa rqEgkjk jkLrk NksM+ nw¡xkA cl viuk uke crk nksA¸ rrk¡jk us foo'krk esa vkxzg
fd;kA mldh vk¡[ksa ;qorh osQ psgjs ij osaQfnzr FkhaA mlosQ psgjs ij lPph fou; FkhA
¶ok--- eh--- jks--- ¸ ,d jl ?kksyrh vkok”k mlosQ dkuksa esa igq¡phA
¶okehjks--- ok--- eh--- jks--- okg fdruk lqanj uke gSA dy Hkh vkvksxh u ;gk¡\¸ rrk¡jk us
;kpuk Hkjs Loj esa dgkA
© NCERT
not to be republished
rrk¡jk&okehjks dFkk /81
¶ugha--- 'kk;n--- dHkh ughaA¸ okehjks us vU;euLdrkiwoZd dgk vkSj >VosQ ls yikrh dh
rjI
+
kQ cslqèk lh nkSM+ iM+hA ihNs rrk¡jk osQ okD; xw¡t jgs FksA
¶okehjks--- esjk uke rrk¡jk gSA dy eSa blh p^ku ij izrh{kk d:¡xk--- rqEgkjh ckV tksgw¡xk---
”k:j vkuk---¸
okehjks #dh ugha] Hkkxrh gh xbZA rrk¡jk mls tkrs gq, fugkjrk jgkA
okehjks ?kj igq¡pdj Hkhrj gh Hkhrj oqQN cspSuh eglwl djus yxhA mlosQ Hkhrj rrk¡jk ls
eqDr gksus dh ,d >wBh NViVkgV FkhA ,d >YykgV esa mlus njok”kk can fd;k vkSj eu dks
fdlh vkSj fn'kk esa ys tkus dk iz;kl fd;kA ckj&ckj rrk¡jk dk ;kpuk Hkjk psgjk mldh vk¡[kksa
esa rSj tkrkA mlus rrk¡jk osQ ckjs esa dbZ dgkfu;k¡ lqu j[kh FkhaA mldh dYiuk esa og ,d vn~Hkqr
lkglh ;qod FkkA ¯drq ogh rrk¡jk mlosQ lEeq[k ,d vyx :i esa vk;kA lqanj] cfy"B ¯drq
csgn 'kkar] lH; vkSj HkksykA mldk O;fDrRo dnkfpr oSlk gh Fkk tSlk og vius thou&lkFkh
osQ ckjs esa lksprh jgh FkhA ¯drq ,d nwljs xk¡o osQ ;qod osQ lkFk ;g lacaèk ijaijk osQ fo#¼ FkkA
vr,o mlus mls Hkwy tkuk gh Js;Ldj le>kA ¯drq ;g vlaHko tku iM+kA rrk¡jk ckj&ckj
mldh vk¡[kksa osQ lkeus FkkA fufuZes"k ;kpd dh rjg izrh{kk esa Mwck gqvkA
fdlh rjg jkr chrhA nksuksa osQ ân; O;fFkr FksA fdlh rjg vk¡pjfgr ,d BaMk vkSj mQckmQ
fnu xq”kjus yxkA 'kke dh izrh{kk FkhA rrk¡jk osQ fy, ekuks iwjs thou dh vosQyh izrh{kk FkhA mlosQ
xaHkhj vkSj 'kkar thou esa ,slk igyh ckj gqvk FkkA og vpafHkr Fkk] lkFk gh jksekafpr HkhA fnu
<yus osQ dkI
+
kQh igys og yikrh dh ml leqnzh p^ku ij igq¡p x;kA okehjks dh izrh{kk esa
,d&,d iy igkM+ dh rjg Hkkjh FkkA mlosQ Hkhrj ,d vk'kadk Hkh nkSM+ jgh FkhA vxj okehjks
u vkbZ rks\ og oqQN fu.kZ; ugha dj ik jgk FkkA flI
+
kZQ izrh{kkjr FkkA cl vkl dh ,d fdj.k
Fkh tks leqnz dh nsg ij Mwcrh fdj.kksa dh rjg dHkh Hkh Mwc ldrh FkhA og ckj&ckj yikrh
osQ jkLrs ij u”kjsa nkSM+krkA lglk ukfj;y osQ >qjeqVksa esa mls ,d vkÑfr oqQN lkI
+
kQ gqbZ--- oqQN
vkSj--- oqQN vkSjA mldh [kq'kh dk fBdkuk u jgkA lpeqp og okehjks FkhA yxk tSls og ?kcjkgV
esa FkhA og vius dks Nqikrs gq, c<+ jgh FkhA chp&chp esa bèkj&mèkj n`f"V nkSM+kuk u HkwyrhA fiQj
rs”k dneksa ls pyrh gqbZ rrk¡jk osQ lkeus vkdj fBBd xbZA nksuksa 'kCnghu FksA oqQN Fkk tks nksuksa
osQ Hkhrj cg jgk FkkA ,dVd fugkjrs gq, os tkus dc rd [kM+s jgsA lwjt leqnz dh ygjksa esa
dgha [kks x;k FkkA v¡èksjk c<+ jgk FkkA vpkud okehjks oqQN lpsr gqbZ vkSj ?kj dh rjI
+
kQ nkSM+ iM+hA
rrk¡jk vc Hkh ogha [kM+k Fkk--- fu'py--- 'kCnghu---A
nksuksa jks”k mlh txg igq¡prs vkSj ewfrZor ,d&nwljs dks fufuZes"k rkdrs jgrsA cl Hkhrj leiZ.k
Fkk tks vuojr xgjk jgk FkkA yikrh osQ oqQN ;qodksa us bl ewd izse dks Hkk¡i fy;k vkSj [kcj
gok dh rjg cg mBhA okehjks yikrh xzke dh Fkh vkSj rrk¡jk iklk dkA nksuksa dk lacaèk laHko u
© NCERT
not to be republished
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