NCERT Textbook: पाठ 16 - पतझर में टूटी पत्तियाँ, सपर्श II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 16 - पतझर में टूटी पत्तियाँ, सपर्श II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


7 ekpZ 1925 dks dksad.k {ks=k esa tUes johanz osQysdj Nk=k thou ls gh xksok
eqfDr vkanksyu esa 'kkfey gks x, FksA xka/hoknh ¯prd osQ :i esa fo[;kr
osQysdj us vius ys[ku esa tu&thou osQ fofo/ i{kksa] ekU;rkvksa vkSj
O;fDrxr fopkjksa dks ns'k vkSj lekt osQ ifjizs{; esa izLrqr fd;k gSA budh
vuqHkotU; fVIif.k;ksa esa vius ¯pru dh ekSfydrk osQ lkFk gh ekuoh; lR;
rd igq¡pus dh lgt ps"Vk jgrh gSA
dksad.kh vkSj ejkBh osQ 'kh"kZLFk ys[kd vkSj i=kdkj johanz osQysdj dh
dksad.kh esa iPphl] ejkBh esa rhu] ¯gnh vkSj xqtjkrh esa Hkh oqQNsd iqLrosaQ
izdkf'kr gSaA osQysdj us dkdk dkysydj dh vusd iqLrdksa dk laiknu vkSj
vuqokn Hkh fd;k gSA
xksok dyk vdkneh osQ lkfgR; iqjLdkj lfgr dbZ iqjLdkjksa ls lEekfur
osQysdj dh izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSaµdksad.kh esa mtok<kps lwj] lfe/k] lkaxyh]
vksFkkacs_ ejkBh esa dksad.khpsa jktdj.k] tkiku tlk fnlyk vkSj ¯gnh esa ir>j
esa VwVh ifÙk;k¡A
johaæ osQysdj
(1925 - 2010)
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


7 ekpZ 1925 dks dksad.k {ks=k esa tUes johanz osQysdj Nk=k thou ls gh xksok
eqfDr vkanksyu esa 'kkfey gks x, FksA xka/hoknh ¯prd osQ :i esa fo[;kr
osQysdj us vius ys[ku esa tu&thou osQ fofo/ i{kksa] ekU;rkvksa vkSj
O;fDrxr fopkjksa dks ns'k vkSj lekt osQ ifjizs{; esa izLrqr fd;k gSA budh
vuqHkotU; fVIif.k;ksa esa vius ¯pru dh ekSfydrk osQ lkFk gh ekuoh; lR;
rd igq¡pus dh lgt ps"Vk jgrh gSA
dksad.kh vkSj ejkBh osQ 'kh"kZLFk ys[kd vkSj i=kdkj johanz osQysdj dh
dksad.kh esa iPphl] ejkBh esa rhu] ¯gnh vkSj xqtjkrh esa Hkh oqQNsd iqLrosaQ
izdkf'kr gSaA osQysdj us dkdk dkysydj dh vusd iqLrdksa dk laiknu vkSj
vuqokn Hkh fd;k gSA
xksok dyk vdkneh osQ lkfgR; iqjLdkj lfgr dbZ iqjLdkjksa ls lEekfur
osQysdj dh izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSaµdksad.kh esa mtok<kps lwj] lfe/k] lkaxyh]
vksFkkacs_ ejkBh esa dksad.khpsa jktdj.k] tkiku tlk fnlyk vkSj ¯gnh esa ir>j
esa VwVh ifÙk;k¡A
johaæ osQysdj
(1925 - 2010)
© NCERT
not to be republished
ikB izos'k
,slk ekuk tkrk gS fd FkksM+s eas cgqr oqQN dg nsuk dfork dk xq.k gSA tc dHkh
;g xq.k fdlh x| jpuk esa Hkh fn[kkbZ nsrk gS rc mls i<+us okys dks ;g
eqgkojk ;kn ugha j[kuk iM+rk fd ^lkj&lkj dks xfg jgs] FkksFkk ns; mM+k;*A
ljy fy[kuk] FkksM+s 'kCnksa esa fy[kuk ”;knk dfBu dke gSA fiQj Hkh ;g dke
gksrk jgk gSA lwfDr dFkk,¡] vkxe dFkk,¡] tkrd dFkk,¡] iapra=k dh dgkfu;k¡
mlh ys[ku osQ izek.k gSaA ;gh dke dksad.kh esa johanz osQysdj us fd;k gSA
izLrqr ikB osQ izlax i<+us okyksa ls FkksM+k dgk cgqr le>uk dh ek¡x djrs
gSaA ;s izlax egt i<+us&xquus dh ugha] ,d tkx:d vkSj lfØ; ukxfjd cuus
dh izsj.kk Hkh nsrs gSaA igyk izlax fxUuh dk lksuk thou esa vius fy,
lq[k&lk/u tqVkus okyksa ls ugha cfYd mu yksxksa ls ifjfpr djkrk gS tks bl
txr dks thus vkSj jgus ;ksX; cuk, gq, gSaA
nwljk izlax >su dh nsu ckS¼ n'kZu esa of.kZr è;ku dh ml i¼fr dh ;kn
fnykrk gS ftlosQ dkj.k tkiku osQ yksx vkt Hkh viuh O;Lrre fnup;kZ osQ
chp oqQN pSu Hkjs iy ik tkrs gSaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


7 ekpZ 1925 dks dksad.k {ks=k esa tUes johanz osQysdj Nk=k thou ls gh xksok
eqfDr vkanksyu esa 'kkfey gks x, FksA xka/hoknh ¯prd osQ :i esa fo[;kr
osQysdj us vius ys[ku esa tu&thou osQ fofo/ i{kksa] ekU;rkvksa vkSj
O;fDrxr fopkjksa dks ns'k vkSj lekt osQ ifjizs{; esa izLrqr fd;k gSA budh
vuqHkotU; fVIif.k;ksa esa vius ¯pru dh ekSfydrk osQ lkFk gh ekuoh; lR;
rd igq¡pus dh lgt ps"Vk jgrh gSA
dksad.kh vkSj ejkBh osQ 'kh"kZLFk ys[kd vkSj i=kdkj johanz osQysdj dh
dksad.kh esa iPphl] ejkBh esa rhu] ¯gnh vkSj xqtjkrh esa Hkh oqQNsd iqLrosaQ
izdkf'kr gSaA osQysdj us dkdk dkysydj dh vusd iqLrdksa dk laiknu vkSj
vuqokn Hkh fd;k gSA
xksok dyk vdkneh osQ lkfgR; iqjLdkj lfgr dbZ iqjLdkjksa ls lEekfur
osQysdj dh izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSaµdksad.kh esa mtok<kps lwj] lfe/k] lkaxyh]
vksFkkacs_ ejkBh esa dksad.khpsa jktdj.k] tkiku tlk fnlyk vkSj ¯gnh esa ir>j
esa VwVh ifÙk;k¡A
johaæ osQysdj
(1925 - 2010)
© NCERT
not to be republished
ikB izos'k
,slk ekuk tkrk gS fd FkksM+s eas cgqr oqQN dg nsuk dfork dk xq.k gSA tc dHkh
;g xq.k fdlh x| jpuk esa Hkh fn[kkbZ nsrk gS rc mls i<+us okys dks ;g
eqgkojk ;kn ugha j[kuk iM+rk fd ^lkj&lkj dks xfg jgs] FkksFkk ns; mM+k;*A
ljy fy[kuk] FkksM+s 'kCnksa esa fy[kuk ”;knk dfBu dke gSA fiQj Hkh ;g dke
gksrk jgk gSA lwfDr dFkk,¡] vkxe dFkk,¡] tkrd dFkk,¡] iapra=k dh dgkfu;k¡
mlh ys[ku osQ izek.k gSaA ;gh dke dksad.kh esa johanz osQysdj us fd;k gSA
izLrqr ikB osQ izlax i<+us okyksa ls FkksM+k dgk cgqr le>uk dh ek¡x djrs
gSaA ;s izlax egt i<+us&xquus dh ugha] ,d tkx:d vkSj lfØ; ukxfjd cuus
dh izsj.kk Hkh nsrs gSaA igyk izlax fxUuh dk lksuk thou esa vius fy,
lq[k&lk/u tqVkus okyksa ls ugha cfYd mu yksxksa ls ifjfpr djkrk gS tks bl
txr dks thus vkSj jgus ;ksX; cuk, gq, gSaA
nwljk izlax >su dh nsu ckS¼ n'kZu esa of.kZr è;ku dh ml i¼fr dh ;kn
fnykrk gS ftlosQ dkj.k tkiku osQ yksx vkt Hkh viuh O;Lrre fnup;kZ osQ
chp oqQN pSu Hkjs iy ik tkrs gSaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
ir>j esa VwVh ifÙk;k¡
(I) fxUuh dk lksuk
'kq¼ lksuk vyx gS vkSj fxUuh dk lksuk vyxA fxUuh osQ lksus esa FkksM+k&lk rk¡ck feyk;k gqvk gksrk
gS] blfy, og ”;knk pedrk gS vkSj 'kq¼ lksus ls e”kcwr Hkh gksrk gSA vkSjrsa vdlj blh lksus
osQ xgus cuok ysrh gSaA
fiQj Hkh gksrk rks og gS fxUuh dk gh lksukA
'kq¼ vkn'kZ Hkh 'kq¼ lksus osQ tSls gh gksrs gSaA pan yksx muesa O;kogkfjdrk dk FkksM+k&lk rk¡ck
feyk nsrs gSa vkSj pykdj fn[kkrs gSaA rc ge yksx mUgsa ^izSfDVdy vkbfM;kfyLV* dgdj mudk
c[kku djrs gSaA
ij ckr u Hkwysa fd c[kku vkn'kks± dk ugha gksrk] cfYd O;kogkfjdrk dk gksrk gSA vkSj tc
O;kogkfjdrk dk c[kku gksus yxrk gS rc ^izSfDVdy vkbfM;kfyLVksa* osQ thou ls vkn'kZ
èkhjs&èkhjs ihNs gVus yxrs gSa vkSj mudh O;kogkfjd lw>cw> gh vkxs vkus yxrh gSA
lksuk ihNs jgdj rk¡ck gh vkxs vkrk gSA
pan yksx dgrs gSa] xkaèkhth ^izSfDVdy vkbfM;kfyLV* FksA O;kogkfjdrk dks igpkurs FksA
mldh dher tkurs FksA blhfy, os vius foy{k.k vkn'kZ pyk losQA ojuk gok esa gh mM+rs jgrsA
ns'k muosQ ihNs u tkrkA
gk¡] ij xkaèkhth dHkh vkn'kks± dks O;kogkfjdrk osQ Lrj ij mrjus ugha nsrs FksA cfYd
O;kogkfjdrk dks vkn'kks± osQ Lrj ij p<+krs FksA os lksus esa rk¡ck ugha cfYd rk¡cs esa lksuk feykdj
mldh dher c<+krs FksA
blfy, lksuk gh ges'kk vkxs vkrk jgrk FkkA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


7 ekpZ 1925 dks dksad.k {ks=k esa tUes johanz osQysdj Nk=k thou ls gh xksok
eqfDr vkanksyu esa 'kkfey gks x, FksA xka/hoknh ¯prd osQ :i esa fo[;kr
osQysdj us vius ys[ku esa tu&thou osQ fofo/ i{kksa] ekU;rkvksa vkSj
O;fDrxr fopkjksa dks ns'k vkSj lekt osQ ifjizs{; esa izLrqr fd;k gSA budh
vuqHkotU; fVIif.k;ksa esa vius ¯pru dh ekSfydrk osQ lkFk gh ekuoh; lR;
rd igq¡pus dh lgt ps"Vk jgrh gSA
dksad.kh vkSj ejkBh osQ 'kh"kZLFk ys[kd vkSj i=kdkj johanz osQysdj dh
dksad.kh esa iPphl] ejkBh esa rhu] ¯gnh vkSj xqtjkrh esa Hkh oqQNsd iqLrosaQ
izdkf'kr gSaA osQysdj us dkdk dkysydj dh vusd iqLrdksa dk laiknu vkSj
vuqokn Hkh fd;k gSA
xksok dyk vdkneh osQ lkfgR; iqjLdkj lfgr dbZ iqjLdkjksa ls lEekfur
osQysdj dh izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSaµdksad.kh esa mtok<kps lwj] lfe/k] lkaxyh]
vksFkkacs_ ejkBh esa dksad.khpsa jktdj.k] tkiku tlk fnlyk vkSj ¯gnh esa ir>j
esa VwVh ifÙk;k¡A
johaæ osQysdj
(1925 - 2010)
© NCERT
not to be republished
ikB izos'k
,slk ekuk tkrk gS fd FkksM+s eas cgqr oqQN dg nsuk dfork dk xq.k gSA tc dHkh
;g xq.k fdlh x| jpuk esa Hkh fn[kkbZ nsrk gS rc mls i<+us okys dks ;g
eqgkojk ;kn ugha j[kuk iM+rk fd ^lkj&lkj dks xfg jgs] FkksFkk ns; mM+k;*A
ljy fy[kuk] FkksM+s 'kCnksa esa fy[kuk ”;knk dfBu dke gSA fiQj Hkh ;g dke
gksrk jgk gSA lwfDr dFkk,¡] vkxe dFkk,¡] tkrd dFkk,¡] iapra=k dh dgkfu;k¡
mlh ys[ku osQ izek.k gSaA ;gh dke dksad.kh esa johanz osQysdj us fd;k gSA
izLrqr ikB osQ izlax i<+us okyksa ls FkksM+k dgk cgqr le>uk dh ek¡x djrs
gSaA ;s izlax egt i<+us&xquus dh ugha] ,d tkx:d vkSj lfØ; ukxfjd cuus
dh izsj.kk Hkh nsrs gSaA igyk izlax fxUuh dk lksuk thou esa vius fy,
lq[k&lk/u tqVkus okyksa ls ugha cfYd mu yksxksa ls ifjfpr djkrk gS tks bl
txr dks thus vkSj jgus ;ksX; cuk, gq, gSaA
nwljk izlax >su dh nsu ckS¼ n'kZu esa of.kZr è;ku dh ml i¼fr dh ;kn
fnykrk gS ftlosQ dkj.k tkiku osQ yksx vkt Hkh viuh O;Lrre fnup;kZ osQ
chp oqQN pSu Hkjs iy ik tkrs gSaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
ir>j esa VwVh ifÙk;k¡
(I) fxUuh dk lksuk
'kq¼ lksuk vyx gS vkSj fxUuh dk lksuk vyxA fxUuh osQ lksus esa FkksM+k&lk rk¡ck feyk;k gqvk gksrk
gS] blfy, og ”;knk pedrk gS vkSj 'kq¼ lksus ls e”kcwr Hkh gksrk gSA vkSjrsa vdlj blh lksus
osQ xgus cuok ysrh gSaA
fiQj Hkh gksrk rks og gS fxUuh dk gh lksukA
'kq¼ vkn'kZ Hkh 'kq¼ lksus osQ tSls gh gksrs gSaA pan yksx muesa O;kogkfjdrk dk FkksM+k&lk rk¡ck
feyk nsrs gSa vkSj pykdj fn[kkrs gSaA rc ge yksx mUgsa ^izSfDVdy vkbfM;kfyLV* dgdj mudk
c[kku djrs gSaA
ij ckr u Hkwysa fd c[kku vkn'kks± dk ugha gksrk] cfYd O;kogkfjdrk dk gksrk gSA vkSj tc
O;kogkfjdrk dk c[kku gksus yxrk gS rc ^izSfDVdy vkbfM;kfyLVksa* osQ thou ls vkn'kZ
èkhjs&èkhjs ihNs gVus yxrs gSa vkSj mudh O;kogkfjd lw>cw> gh vkxs vkus yxrh gSA
lksuk ihNs jgdj rk¡ck gh vkxs vkrk gSA
pan yksx dgrs gSa] xkaèkhth ^izSfDVdy vkbfM;kfyLV* FksA O;kogkfjdrk dks igpkurs FksA
mldh dher tkurs FksA blhfy, os vius foy{k.k vkn'kZ pyk losQA ojuk gok esa gh mM+rs jgrsA
ns'k muosQ ihNs u tkrkA
gk¡] ij xkaèkhth dHkh vkn'kks± dks O;kogkfjdrk osQ Lrj ij mrjus ugha nsrs FksA cfYd
O;kogkfjdrk dks vkn'kks± osQ Lrj ij p<+krs FksA os lksus esa rk¡ck ugha cfYd rk¡cs esa lksuk feykdj
mldh dher c<+krs FksA
blfy, lksuk gh ges'kk vkxs vkrk jgrk FkkA
© NCERT
not to be republished
120 / Li'kZ
O;ogkjoknh yksx ges'kk ltx jgrs gSaA ykHk&gkfu dk fglkc yxkdj gh dne mBkrs gSaA os
thou esa liQy gksrs gSa] vU;ksa ls vkxs Hkh tkrs gSa ij D;k os mQij p<+rs gSaA [kqn mQij p<+sa vkSj
vius lkFk nwljksa dks Hkh mQij ys pysa] ;gh egÙo dh ckr gSA ;g dke rks ges'kk vkn'kZoknh
yksxksa us gh fd;k gSA lekt osQ ikl vxj 'kk'or ewY;ksa tSlk oqQN gS rks og vkn'kZoknh yksxksa
dk gh fn;k gqvk gSA O;ogkjoknh yksxksa us rks lekt dks fxjk;k gh gSA
(II) >su dh nsu
tkiku esa eSaus vius ,d fe=k ls iwNk] ¶;gk¡ osQ yksxksa dks dkSu&lh chekfj;k¡ vfèkd gksrh gSa\¸
¶ekufld¸] mUgksaus tokc fn;k] ¶;gk¡ osQ vLlh I
+
kQhlnh yksx euks#X.k gSaA¸
¶bldh D;k otg gS\¸
dgus yxs] ¶gekjs thou dh jÝ
+
rkj c<+ xbZ gSA ;gk¡ dksbZ pyrk ugha] cfYd nkSM+rk gSA dksbZ
cksyrk ugha] cdrk gSA ge tc vosQys iM+rs gSa rc vius vkils yxkrkj cM+cM+krs jgrs gSaA
---vesfjdk ls ge izfrLièkkZ djus yxsA ,d eghus esa iwjk gksus okyk dke ,d fnu esa gh iwjk
djus dh dksf'k'k djus yxsA oSls Hkh fnekx dh jÝ
+
rkj ges'kk rs”k gh jgrh gSA mls ^LihM*
dk batu yxkus ij og g”kkj xquk vfèkd jÝ
+
rkj ls nkSM+us yxrk gSA fiQj ,d {k.k ,slk vkrk
gS tc fnekx dk ruko c<+ tkrk gS vkSj iwjk batu VwV tkrk gSA ---;gh dkj.k gS ftlls
ekufld jksx ;gk¡ c<+ x, gSaA---¸
'kke dks og eq>s ,d ^Vh&lsjseuh* esa ys x,A pk; ihus dh ;g ,d fofèk gSA tkikuh esa mls
pk&uks&;w dgrs gaSA
og ,d N% eaftyh bekjr Fkh ftldh Nr ij nÝ
+
rh dh nhokjksaokyh vkSj rkrkeh (pVkbZ) dh
”kehuokyh ,d lqanj i.kZoqQVh FkhA ckgj cs<c&lk ,d fe^h dk cjru FkkA mlesa ikuh Hkjk gqvk FkkA
geus vius gkFk&ik¡o bl ikuh ls èkks,A rkSfy, ls iksaNs vkSj vanj x,A vanj ^pkthu* cSBk FkkA gesa
ns[kdj og [kM+k gqvkA dej >qdkdj mlus gesa iz.kke fd;kA nks--->ks---(vkb,] r'kjhI
+
kQ ykb,)
dgdj Lokxr fd;kA cSBus dh txg gesa fn[kkbZA v¡xhBh lqyxkbZA ml ij pk;nkuh j[khA cxy osQ
dejs esa tkdj oqQN cjru ys vk;kA rkSfy, ls cjru lkI
+
kQ fd,A lHkh fØ;k,¡ bruh xfjekiw.kZ <ax
ls dha fd mldh gj Hkafxek ls yxrk Fkk ekuks t;t;oarh osQ lqj xw¡t jgs gksaA ogk¡ dk okrkoj.k
bruk 'kkar Fkk fd pk;nkuh osQ ikuh dk [kncnkuk Hkh lqukbZ ns jgk FkkA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


7 ekpZ 1925 dks dksad.k {ks=k esa tUes johanz osQysdj Nk=k thou ls gh xksok
eqfDr vkanksyu esa 'kkfey gks x, FksA xka/hoknh ¯prd osQ :i esa fo[;kr
osQysdj us vius ys[ku esa tu&thou osQ fofo/ i{kksa] ekU;rkvksa vkSj
O;fDrxr fopkjksa dks ns'k vkSj lekt osQ ifjizs{; esa izLrqr fd;k gSA budh
vuqHkotU; fVIif.k;ksa esa vius ¯pru dh ekSfydrk osQ lkFk gh ekuoh; lR;
rd igq¡pus dh lgt ps"Vk jgrh gSA
dksad.kh vkSj ejkBh osQ 'kh"kZLFk ys[kd vkSj i=kdkj johanz osQysdj dh
dksad.kh esa iPphl] ejkBh esa rhu] ¯gnh vkSj xqtjkrh esa Hkh oqQNsd iqLrosaQ
izdkf'kr gSaA osQysdj us dkdk dkysydj dh vusd iqLrdksa dk laiknu vkSj
vuqokn Hkh fd;k gSA
xksok dyk vdkneh osQ lkfgR; iqjLdkj lfgr dbZ iqjLdkjksa ls lEekfur
osQysdj dh izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSaµdksad.kh esa mtok<kps lwj] lfe/k] lkaxyh]
vksFkkacs_ ejkBh esa dksad.khpsa jktdj.k] tkiku tlk fnlyk vkSj ¯gnh esa ir>j
esa VwVh ifÙk;k¡A
johaæ osQysdj
(1925 - 2010)
© NCERT
not to be republished
ikB izos'k
,slk ekuk tkrk gS fd FkksM+s eas cgqr oqQN dg nsuk dfork dk xq.k gSA tc dHkh
;g xq.k fdlh x| jpuk esa Hkh fn[kkbZ nsrk gS rc mls i<+us okys dks ;g
eqgkojk ;kn ugha j[kuk iM+rk fd ^lkj&lkj dks xfg jgs] FkksFkk ns; mM+k;*A
ljy fy[kuk] FkksM+s 'kCnksa esa fy[kuk ”;knk dfBu dke gSA fiQj Hkh ;g dke
gksrk jgk gSA lwfDr dFkk,¡] vkxe dFkk,¡] tkrd dFkk,¡] iapra=k dh dgkfu;k¡
mlh ys[ku osQ izek.k gSaA ;gh dke dksad.kh esa johanz osQysdj us fd;k gSA
izLrqr ikB osQ izlax i<+us okyksa ls FkksM+k dgk cgqr le>uk dh ek¡x djrs
gSaA ;s izlax egt i<+us&xquus dh ugha] ,d tkx:d vkSj lfØ; ukxfjd cuus
dh izsj.kk Hkh nsrs gSaA igyk izlax fxUuh dk lksuk thou esa vius fy,
lq[k&lk/u tqVkus okyksa ls ugha cfYd mu yksxksa ls ifjfpr djkrk gS tks bl
txr dks thus vkSj jgus ;ksX; cuk, gq, gSaA
nwljk izlax >su dh nsu ckS¼ n'kZu esa of.kZr è;ku dh ml i¼fr dh ;kn
fnykrk gS ftlosQ dkj.k tkiku osQ yksx vkt Hkh viuh O;Lrre fnup;kZ osQ
chp oqQN pSu Hkjs iy ik tkrs gSaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
ir>j esa VwVh ifÙk;k¡
(I) fxUuh dk lksuk
'kq¼ lksuk vyx gS vkSj fxUuh dk lksuk vyxA fxUuh osQ lksus esa FkksM+k&lk rk¡ck feyk;k gqvk gksrk
gS] blfy, og ”;knk pedrk gS vkSj 'kq¼ lksus ls e”kcwr Hkh gksrk gSA vkSjrsa vdlj blh lksus
osQ xgus cuok ysrh gSaA
fiQj Hkh gksrk rks og gS fxUuh dk gh lksukA
'kq¼ vkn'kZ Hkh 'kq¼ lksus osQ tSls gh gksrs gSaA pan yksx muesa O;kogkfjdrk dk FkksM+k&lk rk¡ck
feyk nsrs gSa vkSj pykdj fn[kkrs gSaA rc ge yksx mUgsa ^izSfDVdy vkbfM;kfyLV* dgdj mudk
c[kku djrs gSaA
ij ckr u Hkwysa fd c[kku vkn'kks± dk ugha gksrk] cfYd O;kogkfjdrk dk gksrk gSA vkSj tc
O;kogkfjdrk dk c[kku gksus yxrk gS rc ^izSfDVdy vkbfM;kfyLVksa* osQ thou ls vkn'kZ
èkhjs&èkhjs ihNs gVus yxrs gSa vkSj mudh O;kogkfjd lw>cw> gh vkxs vkus yxrh gSA
lksuk ihNs jgdj rk¡ck gh vkxs vkrk gSA
pan yksx dgrs gSa] xkaèkhth ^izSfDVdy vkbfM;kfyLV* FksA O;kogkfjdrk dks igpkurs FksA
mldh dher tkurs FksA blhfy, os vius foy{k.k vkn'kZ pyk losQA ojuk gok esa gh mM+rs jgrsA
ns'k muosQ ihNs u tkrkA
gk¡] ij xkaèkhth dHkh vkn'kks± dks O;kogkfjdrk osQ Lrj ij mrjus ugha nsrs FksA cfYd
O;kogkfjdrk dks vkn'kks± osQ Lrj ij p<+krs FksA os lksus esa rk¡ck ugha cfYd rk¡cs esa lksuk feykdj
mldh dher c<+krs FksA
blfy, lksuk gh ges'kk vkxs vkrk jgrk FkkA
© NCERT
not to be republished
120 / Li'kZ
O;ogkjoknh yksx ges'kk ltx jgrs gSaA ykHk&gkfu dk fglkc yxkdj gh dne mBkrs gSaA os
thou esa liQy gksrs gSa] vU;ksa ls vkxs Hkh tkrs gSa ij D;k os mQij p<+rs gSaA [kqn mQij p<+sa vkSj
vius lkFk nwljksa dks Hkh mQij ys pysa] ;gh egÙo dh ckr gSA ;g dke rks ges'kk vkn'kZoknh
yksxksa us gh fd;k gSA lekt osQ ikl vxj 'kk'or ewY;ksa tSlk oqQN gS rks og vkn'kZoknh yksxksa
dk gh fn;k gqvk gSA O;ogkjoknh yksxksa us rks lekt dks fxjk;k gh gSA
(II) >su dh nsu
tkiku esa eSaus vius ,d fe=k ls iwNk] ¶;gk¡ osQ yksxksa dks dkSu&lh chekfj;k¡ vfèkd gksrh gSa\¸
¶ekufld¸] mUgksaus tokc fn;k] ¶;gk¡ osQ vLlh I
+
kQhlnh yksx euks#X.k gSaA¸
¶bldh D;k otg gS\¸
dgus yxs] ¶gekjs thou dh jÝ
+
rkj c<+ xbZ gSA ;gk¡ dksbZ pyrk ugha] cfYd nkSM+rk gSA dksbZ
cksyrk ugha] cdrk gSA ge tc vosQys iM+rs gSa rc vius vkils yxkrkj cM+cM+krs jgrs gSaA
---vesfjdk ls ge izfrLièkkZ djus yxsA ,d eghus esa iwjk gksus okyk dke ,d fnu esa gh iwjk
djus dh dksf'k'k djus yxsA oSls Hkh fnekx dh jÝ
+
rkj ges'kk rs”k gh jgrh gSA mls ^LihM*
dk batu yxkus ij og g”kkj xquk vfèkd jÝ
+
rkj ls nkSM+us yxrk gSA fiQj ,d {k.k ,slk vkrk
gS tc fnekx dk ruko c<+ tkrk gS vkSj iwjk batu VwV tkrk gSA ---;gh dkj.k gS ftlls
ekufld jksx ;gk¡ c<+ x, gSaA---¸
'kke dks og eq>s ,d ^Vh&lsjseuh* esa ys x,A pk; ihus dh ;g ,d fofèk gSA tkikuh esa mls
pk&uks&;w dgrs gaSA
og ,d N% eaftyh bekjr Fkh ftldh Nr ij nÝ
+
rh dh nhokjksaokyh vkSj rkrkeh (pVkbZ) dh
”kehuokyh ,d lqanj i.kZoqQVh FkhA ckgj cs<c&lk ,d fe^h dk cjru FkkA mlesa ikuh Hkjk gqvk FkkA
geus vius gkFk&ik¡o bl ikuh ls èkks,A rkSfy, ls iksaNs vkSj vanj x,A vanj ^pkthu* cSBk FkkA gesa
ns[kdj og [kM+k gqvkA dej >qdkdj mlus gesa iz.kke fd;kA nks--->ks---(vkb,] r'kjhI
+
kQ ykb,)
dgdj Lokxr fd;kA cSBus dh txg gesa fn[kkbZA v¡xhBh lqyxkbZA ml ij pk;nkuh j[khA cxy osQ
dejs esa tkdj oqQN cjru ys vk;kA rkSfy, ls cjru lkI
+
kQ fd,A lHkh fØ;k,¡ bruh xfjekiw.kZ <ax
ls dha fd mldh gj Hkafxek ls yxrk Fkk ekuks t;t;oarh osQ lqj xw¡t jgs gksaA ogk¡ dk okrkoj.k
bruk 'kkar Fkk fd pk;nkuh osQ ikuh dk [kncnkuk Hkh lqukbZ ns jgk FkkA
© NCERT
not to be republished
ir>j esa VwVh ifÙk;k¡/ 121
pk; rS;kj gqbZA mlus og I;kyksa eas HkjhA fiQj os I;kys gekjs lkeus j[k fn, x,A ogk¡ ge
rhu fe=k gh FksA bl fofèk esa 'kkafr eq[; ckr gksrh gSA blfy, ogk¡ rhu ls vfèkd vknfe;ksa dks
izos'k ugha fn;k tkrkA I;kys esa nks ?kw¡V ls vfèkd pk; ugha FkhA ge vksBksa ls I;kyk yxkdj
,d&,d cw¡n pk; ihrs jgsA djhc Ms<+ ?kaVs rd pqlfd;ksa dk ;g flyflyk pyrk jgkA
igys nl&ianzg feuV rks eSa my>u esa iM+kA fiQj ns[kk] fnekx dh jÝ
+
rkj èkhjs&èkhjs èkheh
iM+rh tk jgh gSA FkksM+h nsj esa fcyoqQy can Hkh gks xbZA eq>s yxk] ekuks vuardky esa eSa th jgk
gw¡A ;gk¡ rd fd lUukVk Hkh eq>s lqukbZ nsus yxkA
vdlj ge ;k rks xq”kjs gq, fnuksa dh [k^h&ehBh ;knksa esa my>s jgrs gSa ;k Hkfo"; osQ jaxhu
lius ns[krs jgrs gSaA ge ;k rks Hkwrdky esa jgrs gSa ;k Hkfo";dky esaA vly esa nksuksa dky feF;k
gSaA ,d pyk x;k gS] nwljk vk;k ugha gSA gekjs lkeus tks orZeku {k.k gS] ogh lR; gSA mlh esa
thuk pkfg,A pk; ihrs&ihrs ml fnu esjs fnekx ls Hkwr vkSj Hkfo"; nksuksa dky mM+ x, FksA osQoy
orZeku {k.k lkeus FkkA vkSj og vuardky ftruk foLr`r FkkA
thuk fdls dgrs gSa] ml fnu ekywe gqvkA
>su ijaijk dh ;g cM+h nsu feyh gS tkikfu;ksa dks!
© NCERT
not to be republished
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