NCERT Textbook: पाठ 3- साना-साना हाथ जोड़ि, कृतिका II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 3- साना-साना हाथ जोड़ि, कृतिका II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


1- bfUnz;ksa ls ijs  2- izdk'k] mtkyk
eSaus gSjku gksdj ns[kkµvkleku tSls myVk iM+k
Fkk vkSj lkjs rkjs fc[kjdj uhps fVefVek jgs FksA
nwj---<yku ysrh rjkbZ ij flrkjksa osQ xqPNs jks'kfu;ksa
dh ,d >kyj&lh cuk jgs FksA D;k Fkk og\
og jkr esa txexkrk xSaxVkWd 'kgj Fkkµbfrgkl
vkSj orZeku osQ lafèk&LFky ij [kM+k esgurd'k
ckn'kkgksa dk og ,d ,slk 'kgj Fkk ftldk lc
oqQN lqanj Fkkµlqcg] 'kke] jkrA
vkSj og jgL;e;h flrkjksa Hkjh jkr eq>esa
lEeksgu txk jgh Fkh] oqQN bl dnj fd mu tknw Hkjs {k.kksa esa esjk lc oqQN LFkfxr
Fkk] vFkZghu Fkk---eSa] esjh psruk] esjk vkl&iklA esjs Hkhrj&ckgj flI
+
kZQ 'kwU; Fkk vkSj Fkh
vrhafnz;rk
1
 esa Mwch jks'kuh dh og tknqbZ >kyjA
èkhjs&èkhjs ,d mtkl
2
 ml 'kwU; ls iwQVus yxk---,d izkFkZuk gkasBksa dks Nwus yxh---
lkuk&lkuk gkFk tksfM+] xnZgq izkFkZukA gkezks thou frezks dkSlsyh (NksVs&NksVs gkFk tksM+dj
izkFkZuk dj jgh gw¡ fd esjk lkjk thou vPNkb;ksa dks lefiZr gks)A vkt lqcg dh izkFkZuk
osQ ;s cksy eSaus ,d usikyh ;qorh ls lh[ks FksA
lqcg geas ;weFkkax osQ fy, fudy iM+uk Fkk] ij vk¡[k [kqyrs gh eSa ckyduh dh
rjI
+
kQ HkkxhA ;gk¡ osQ yksxksa us crk;k Fkk fd ;fn ekSle lkI
+
kQ gks rks ckYkduh ls Hkh
oaQputa?kk fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA fgeky; dh rhljh lcls cM+h pksVh oaQputa?kk! ij ekSle
vPNk gksus osQ cko”kwn vkleku gYkosQ&gYkosQ cknyksa ls <dk Fkk] fiNys o"kZ dh gh
eèkq dkadfj;k
3
lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+--- lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+--- lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+--- lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+--- lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+---
Page 2


1- bfUnz;ksa ls ijs  2- izdk'k] mtkyk
eSaus gSjku gksdj ns[kkµvkleku tSls myVk iM+k
Fkk vkSj lkjs rkjs fc[kjdj uhps fVefVek jgs FksA
nwj---<yku ysrh rjkbZ ij flrkjksa osQ xqPNs jks'kfu;ksa
dh ,d >kyj&lh cuk jgs FksA D;k Fkk og\
og jkr esa txexkrk xSaxVkWd 'kgj Fkkµbfrgkl
vkSj orZeku osQ lafèk&LFky ij [kM+k esgurd'k
ckn'kkgksa dk og ,d ,slk 'kgj Fkk ftldk lc
oqQN lqanj Fkkµlqcg] 'kke] jkrA
vkSj og jgL;e;h flrkjksa Hkjh jkr eq>esa
lEeksgu txk jgh Fkh] oqQN bl dnj fd mu tknw Hkjs {k.kksa esa esjk lc oqQN LFkfxr
Fkk] vFkZghu Fkk---eSa] esjh psruk] esjk vkl&iklA esjs Hkhrj&ckgj flI
+
kZQ 'kwU; Fkk vkSj Fkh
vrhafnz;rk
1
 esa Mwch jks'kuh dh og tknqbZ >kyjA
èkhjs&èkhjs ,d mtkl
2
 ml 'kwU; ls iwQVus yxk---,d izkFkZuk gkasBksa dks Nwus yxh---
lkuk&lkuk gkFk tksfM+] xnZgq izkFkZukA gkezks thou frezks dkSlsyh (NksVs&NksVs gkFk tksM+dj
izkFkZuk dj jgh gw¡ fd esjk lkjk thou vPNkb;ksa dks lefiZr gks)A vkt lqcg dh izkFkZuk
osQ ;s cksy eSaus ,d usikyh ;qorh ls lh[ks FksA
lqcg geas ;weFkkax osQ fy, fudy iM+uk Fkk] ij vk¡[k [kqyrs gh eSa ckyduh dh
rjI
+
kQ HkkxhA ;gk¡ osQ yksxksa us crk;k Fkk fd ;fn ekSle lkI
+
kQ gks rks ckYkduh ls Hkh
oaQputa?kk fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA fgeky; dh rhljh lcls cM+h pksVh oaQputa?kk! ij ekSle
vPNk gksus osQ cko”kwn vkleku gYkosQ&gYkosQ cknyksa ls <dk Fkk] fiNys o"kZ dh gh
eèkq dkadfj;k
3
lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+--- lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+--- lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+--- lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+--- lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+---
o`Qfrdk
18
3- rjg&rjg osQ
rjg bl ckj Hkh cknyksa osQ dikV BkoqQj th osQ dikV dh rjg can gh jgsA oaQputa?kk
u fn[kuh Fkh] u fn[khA ij lkeus gh jde&jde
3
 osQ jax&fcjaxs brus lkjs iwQy fn[kkbZ
iM+s fd yxk iwQyksa osQ ckx esa vk xbZ gw¡A
cgjgky---xSaxVkWd ls 149 fdyksehVj dh nwjh ij ;weFkkax FkkA ¶;weFkkax ;kuh
?kkfV;k¡---lkjs jkLrs fgeky; dh xgure ?kkfV;k¡ vkSj iwQyksa ls ynh okfn;k¡ feysaxh
vkidks¸ Mªkboj&de&xkbM ftrsu ukxsZ eq>s crk jgk FkkA ¶D;k ogk¡ cI
+
kZQ feysxh\¸ eSa
cpdkus mRlkg ls iwNus yxrh gw¡A
pfy, rks---A
txg&txg xnjk, ikbZu vkSj èkwih osQ [kwclwjr uqdhys isM+ksa dk tk;tk ysrs gq, ge
igkM+h jkLrksa ij vkxs c<+us yxs fd ,d txg fn[kkbZ nha---,d drkj esa yxh
lI
+
ksQn&lI
+
ksQn ckS¼ irkdk,¡A fdlh èot dh rjg ygjkrh---'kkafr vkSj v¯glk dh izrhd
;s irkdk,¡ ftu ij ea=k fy[ks gq, FksA ukxsZ us crk;kµ;gk¡ cq¼ dh cM+h ekU;rk gSA tc
Hkh fdlh cqf¼LV dh e`R;q gksrh gS] mldh vkRek dh 'kkafr osQ fy, 'kgj ls nwj fdlh
Hkh ifo=k LFkku ij ,d lkS vkB 'osr irkdk,¡ iQgjk nh tkrh gSaA ugha] bUgsa mrkjk ugha
tkrk gS] ;s èkhjs&èkhjs vius vki gh u"V gks tkrh gSaA dbZ ckj fdlh u, dk;Z dh
'kq#vkr esa Hkh ;s irkdk,¡ yxk nh tkrh gSa ij os jaxhu gksrh gSaA ukxsZ cksyrk tk jgk
Fkk vkSj esjh u”kj mldh thi esa yxh nykbZ ykek dh rlohj ij fVdh gqbZ FkhA dbZ
nqdkuksa ij Hkh eSaus nykbZ ykek dh ,slh gh rLkohj ns[kh FkhA
fgpdksys [kkrh gekjh thi FkksM+h vkSj vkxs c<+hA viuh yqHkkouh g¡lh fc[ksjrs gq,
ftrsu crkus yxk---bl txg dk uke gS doh&yksax LVkWdA ;gk¡ ^xkbM* fiQYe dh 'kw¯Vx
gqbZ FkhA frCcr osQ phl&[ks cElu us ysipkvksa osQ 'kksesu ls oaqQtrsd osQ lkFk lafèk&i=k
ij ;gha gLrk{kj fd, FksA ,d iRFkj ;gk¡ Lekjd osQ :i esa Hkh gSA (ysIkpk vkSj HkqfV;k
flfDde dh bu nksuksa LFkkuh; tkfr;ksa osQ chp pys lqnh?kZ >xM+ksa osQ ckn 'kkafr okrkZ
dk 'kq#vkrh LFkyA)
mUgha jkLrksa ij eSaus ns[kkµ,d oqQfV;k osQ Hkhrj ?kwerk pØA ;g D;k\ ukxsZ dgus
yxk---¶eSMe ;g èkeZ pØ gSA izs;j OghyA bldks ?kqekus ls lkjs iki èkqy tkrs gSaA¸
¶D;k\¸ pkgs eSnku gks ;k igkM+] reke oSKkfud izxfr;ksa osQ cko”kwn bl ns'k dh
vkRek ,d tSlhA yksxksa dh vkLFkk,¡] fo'okl] vaèkfo'okl] iki&iq.; dh voèkkj.kk,¡
vkSj dYiuk,¡ ,d tSlhA
Page 3


1- bfUnz;ksa ls ijs  2- izdk'k] mtkyk
eSaus gSjku gksdj ns[kkµvkleku tSls myVk iM+k
Fkk vkSj lkjs rkjs fc[kjdj uhps fVefVek jgs FksA
nwj---<yku ysrh rjkbZ ij flrkjksa osQ xqPNs jks'kfu;ksa
dh ,d >kyj&lh cuk jgs FksA D;k Fkk og\
og jkr esa txexkrk xSaxVkWd 'kgj Fkkµbfrgkl
vkSj orZeku osQ lafèk&LFky ij [kM+k esgurd'k
ckn'kkgksa dk og ,d ,slk 'kgj Fkk ftldk lc
oqQN lqanj Fkkµlqcg] 'kke] jkrA
vkSj og jgL;e;h flrkjksa Hkjh jkr eq>esa
lEeksgu txk jgh Fkh] oqQN bl dnj fd mu tknw Hkjs {k.kksa esa esjk lc oqQN LFkfxr
Fkk] vFkZghu Fkk---eSa] esjh psruk] esjk vkl&iklA esjs Hkhrj&ckgj flI
+
kZQ 'kwU; Fkk vkSj Fkh
vrhafnz;rk
1
 esa Mwch jks'kuh dh og tknqbZ >kyjA
èkhjs&èkhjs ,d mtkl
2
 ml 'kwU; ls iwQVus yxk---,d izkFkZuk gkasBksa dks Nwus yxh---
lkuk&lkuk gkFk tksfM+] xnZgq izkFkZukA gkezks thou frezks dkSlsyh (NksVs&NksVs gkFk tksM+dj
izkFkZuk dj jgh gw¡ fd esjk lkjk thou vPNkb;ksa dks lefiZr gks)A vkt lqcg dh izkFkZuk
osQ ;s cksy eSaus ,d usikyh ;qorh ls lh[ks FksA
lqcg geas ;weFkkax osQ fy, fudy iM+uk Fkk] ij vk¡[k [kqyrs gh eSa ckyduh dh
rjI
+
kQ HkkxhA ;gk¡ osQ yksxksa us crk;k Fkk fd ;fn ekSle lkI
+
kQ gks rks ckYkduh ls Hkh
oaQputa?kk fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA fgeky; dh rhljh lcls cM+h pksVh oaQputa?kk! ij ekSle
vPNk gksus osQ cko”kwn vkleku gYkosQ&gYkosQ cknyksa ls <dk Fkk] fiNys o"kZ dh gh
eèkq dkadfj;k
3
lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+--- lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+--- lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+--- lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+--- lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+---
o`Qfrdk
18
3- rjg&rjg osQ
rjg bl ckj Hkh cknyksa osQ dikV BkoqQj th osQ dikV dh rjg can gh jgsA oaQputa?kk
u fn[kuh Fkh] u fn[khA ij lkeus gh jde&jde
3
 osQ jax&fcjaxs brus lkjs iwQy fn[kkbZ
iM+s fd yxk iwQyksa osQ ckx esa vk xbZ gw¡A
cgjgky---xSaxVkWd ls 149 fdyksehVj dh nwjh ij ;weFkkax FkkA ¶;weFkkax ;kuh
?kkfV;k¡---lkjs jkLrs fgeky; dh xgure ?kkfV;k¡ vkSj iwQyksa ls ynh okfn;k¡ feysaxh
vkidks¸ Mªkboj&de&xkbM ftrsu ukxsZ eq>s crk jgk FkkA ¶D;k ogk¡ cI
+
kZQ feysxh\¸ eSa
cpdkus mRlkg ls iwNus yxrh gw¡A
pfy, rks---A
txg&txg xnjk, ikbZu vkSj èkwih osQ [kwclwjr uqdhys isM+ksa dk tk;tk ysrs gq, ge
igkM+h jkLrksa ij vkxs c<+us yxs fd ,d txg fn[kkbZ nha---,d drkj esa yxh
lI
+
ksQn&lI
+
ksQn ckS¼ irkdk,¡A fdlh èot dh rjg ygjkrh---'kkafr vkSj v¯glk dh izrhd
;s irkdk,¡ ftu ij ea=k fy[ks gq, FksA ukxsZ us crk;kµ;gk¡ cq¼ dh cM+h ekU;rk gSA tc
Hkh fdlh cqf¼LV dh e`R;q gksrh gS] mldh vkRek dh 'kkafr osQ fy, 'kgj ls nwj fdlh
Hkh ifo=k LFkku ij ,d lkS vkB 'osr irkdk,¡ iQgjk nh tkrh gSaA ugha] bUgsa mrkjk ugha
tkrk gS] ;s èkhjs&èkhjs vius vki gh u"V gks tkrh gSaA dbZ ckj fdlh u, dk;Z dh
'kq#vkr esa Hkh ;s irkdk,¡ yxk nh tkrh gSa ij os jaxhu gksrh gSaA ukxsZ cksyrk tk jgk
Fkk vkSj esjh u”kj mldh thi esa yxh nykbZ ykek dh rlohj ij fVdh gqbZ FkhA dbZ
nqdkuksa ij Hkh eSaus nykbZ ykek dh ,slh gh rLkohj ns[kh FkhA
fgpdksys [kkrh gekjh thi FkksM+h vkSj vkxs c<+hA viuh yqHkkouh g¡lh fc[ksjrs gq,
ftrsu crkus yxk---bl txg dk uke gS doh&yksax LVkWdA ;gk¡ ^xkbM* fiQYe dh 'kw¯Vx
gqbZ FkhA frCcr osQ phl&[ks cElu us ysipkvksa osQ 'kksesu ls oaqQtrsd osQ lkFk lafèk&i=k
ij ;gha gLrk{kj fd, FksA ,d iRFkj ;gk¡ Lekjd osQ :i esa Hkh gSA (ysIkpk vkSj HkqfV;k
flfDde dh bu nksuksa LFkkuh; tkfr;ksa osQ chp pys lqnh?kZ >xM+ksa osQ ckn 'kkafr okrkZ
dk 'kq#vkrh LFkyA)
mUgha jkLrksa ij eSaus ns[kkµ,d oqQfV;k osQ Hkhrj ?kwerk pØA ;g D;k\ ukxsZ dgus
yxk---¶eSMe ;g èkeZ pØ gSA izs;j OghyA bldks ?kqekus ls lkjs iki èkqy tkrs gSaA¸
¶D;k\¸ pkgs eSnku gks ;k igkM+] reke oSKkfud izxfr;ksa osQ cko”kwn bl ns'k dh
vkRek ,d tSlhA yksxksa dh vkLFkk,¡] fo'okl] vaèkfo'okl] iki&iq.; dh voèkkj.kk,¡
vkSj dYiuk,¡ ,d tSlhA
lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+---
19
4- èkhjs&èkhjs  5- rhozrk] izcyrk] vfèkdrk
jÝ
+
rk&jÝ
+
rk
4
 ge m¡QpkbZ dh vksj c<+us yxsA ck”kkj] yksx vkSj cfLr;k¡ ihNs NwVus
yxsA vc ifjn`'; ls pyrs&pyrs LosVj cqurh usikyh ;qofr;k¡ vkSj ihB ij
Hkkjh&Hkjde dkVwZu <ksrs ckSus ls fn[krs cgknqj usikyh vks>y gks jgs FksA vc uhps ns[kus
ij ?kkfV;ksa esa rk'k osQ ?kjksa dh rjg isM+&ikSèkksa osQ chp NksVs&NksVs ?kj fn[kkbZ ns jgs FksA
fgeky; Hkh vc NksVh&NksVh igkfM+;ksa osQ :i esa ugha oju~ vius fojkV :i ,oa oSHko
osQ lkFk lkeus vkus okyk FkkA u tkus fdrus n'kZdksa] ;kf=k;ksa vkSj rhFkkZVkfu;ksa dk dkE;
fgeky;A iy&iy ifjofrZr fgeky;!
vkSj ns[krs&ns[krs jkLrs ohjku] l¡djs vkSj tysch dh rjg ?kqekonkj gksus yxs FksA
fgeky; cM+k gksrs&gksrs fo'kkydk; gksus yxkA ?kVk,¡ xgjkrh&xgjkrh ikrky ukius yxhaA
okfn;k¡ pkSM+h gksus yxhaA chp&chp esa dfj'es dh rjg jax&fcjaxs iwQy f'kír
5
 ls
eqloQjkus yxsA mu Hkhedk; ioZrksa osQ chp vkSj ?kkfV;ksa osQ mQij cus ladjs dPps
&iDosQ jkLrksa ls xq”kjrs ;w¡ yx jgk Fkk tSls ge fdlh l?ku gfj;kyh okyh xqiQk osQ
chp fgpdksys [kkrs fudy jgs gksaA
Page 4


1- bfUnz;ksa ls ijs  2- izdk'k] mtkyk
eSaus gSjku gksdj ns[kkµvkleku tSls myVk iM+k
Fkk vkSj lkjs rkjs fc[kjdj uhps fVefVek jgs FksA
nwj---<yku ysrh rjkbZ ij flrkjksa osQ xqPNs jks'kfu;ksa
dh ,d >kyj&lh cuk jgs FksA D;k Fkk og\
og jkr esa txexkrk xSaxVkWd 'kgj Fkkµbfrgkl
vkSj orZeku osQ lafèk&LFky ij [kM+k esgurd'k
ckn'kkgksa dk og ,d ,slk 'kgj Fkk ftldk lc
oqQN lqanj Fkkµlqcg] 'kke] jkrA
vkSj og jgL;e;h flrkjksa Hkjh jkr eq>esa
lEeksgu txk jgh Fkh] oqQN bl dnj fd mu tknw Hkjs {k.kksa esa esjk lc oqQN LFkfxr
Fkk] vFkZghu Fkk---eSa] esjh psruk] esjk vkl&iklA esjs Hkhrj&ckgj flI
+
kZQ 'kwU; Fkk vkSj Fkh
vrhafnz;rk
1
 esa Mwch jks'kuh dh og tknqbZ >kyjA
èkhjs&èkhjs ,d mtkl
2
 ml 'kwU; ls iwQVus yxk---,d izkFkZuk gkasBksa dks Nwus yxh---
lkuk&lkuk gkFk tksfM+] xnZgq izkFkZukA gkezks thou frezks dkSlsyh (NksVs&NksVs gkFk tksM+dj
izkFkZuk dj jgh gw¡ fd esjk lkjk thou vPNkb;ksa dks lefiZr gks)A vkt lqcg dh izkFkZuk
osQ ;s cksy eSaus ,d usikyh ;qorh ls lh[ks FksA
lqcg geas ;weFkkax osQ fy, fudy iM+uk Fkk] ij vk¡[k [kqyrs gh eSa ckyduh dh
rjI
+
kQ HkkxhA ;gk¡ osQ yksxksa us crk;k Fkk fd ;fn ekSle lkI
+
kQ gks rks ckYkduh ls Hkh
oaQputa?kk fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA fgeky; dh rhljh lcls cM+h pksVh oaQputa?kk! ij ekSle
vPNk gksus osQ cko”kwn vkleku gYkosQ&gYkosQ cknyksa ls <dk Fkk] fiNys o"kZ dh gh
eèkq dkadfj;k
3
lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+--- lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+--- lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+--- lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+--- lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+---
o`Qfrdk
18
3- rjg&rjg osQ
rjg bl ckj Hkh cknyksa osQ dikV BkoqQj th osQ dikV dh rjg can gh jgsA oaQputa?kk
u fn[kuh Fkh] u fn[khA ij lkeus gh jde&jde
3
 osQ jax&fcjaxs brus lkjs iwQy fn[kkbZ
iM+s fd yxk iwQyksa osQ ckx esa vk xbZ gw¡A
cgjgky---xSaxVkWd ls 149 fdyksehVj dh nwjh ij ;weFkkax FkkA ¶;weFkkax ;kuh
?kkfV;k¡---lkjs jkLrs fgeky; dh xgure ?kkfV;k¡ vkSj iwQyksa ls ynh okfn;k¡ feysaxh
vkidks¸ Mªkboj&de&xkbM ftrsu ukxsZ eq>s crk jgk FkkA ¶D;k ogk¡ cI
+
kZQ feysxh\¸ eSa
cpdkus mRlkg ls iwNus yxrh gw¡A
pfy, rks---A
txg&txg xnjk, ikbZu vkSj èkwih osQ [kwclwjr uqdhys isM+ksa dk tk;tk ysrs gq, ge
igkM+h jkLrksa ij vkxs c<+us yxs fd ,d txg fn[kkbZ nha---,d drkj esa yxh
lI
+
ksQn&lI
+
ksQn ckS¼ irkdk,¡A fdlh èot dh rjg ygjkrh---'kkafr vkSj v¯glk dh izrhd
;s irkdk,¡ ftu ij ea=k fy[ks gq, FksA ukxsZ us crk;kµ;gk¡ cq¼ dh cM+h ekU;rk gSA tc
Hkh fdlh cqf¼LV dh e`R;q gksrh gS] mldh vkRek dh 'kkafr osQ fy, 'kgj ls nwj fdlh
Hkh ifo=k LFkku ij ,d lkS vkB 'osr irkdk,¡ iQgjk nh tkrh gSaA ugha] bUgsa mrkjk ugha
tkrk gS] ;s èkhjs&èkhjs vius vki gh u"V gks tkrh gSaA dbZ ckj fdlh u, dk;Z dh
'kq#vkr esa Hkh ;s irkdk,¡ yxk nh tkrh gSa ij os jaxhu gksrh gSaA ukxsZ cksyrk tk jgk
Fkk vkSj esjh u”kj mldh thi esa yxh nykbZ ykek dh rlohj ij fVdh gqbZ FkhA dbZ
nqdkuksa ij Hkh eSaus nykbZ ykek dh ,slh gh rLkohj ns[kh FkhA
fgpdksys [kkrh gekjh thi FkksM+h vkSj vkxs c<+hA viuh yqHkkouh g¡lh fc[ksjrs gq,
ftrsu crkus yxk---bl txg dk uke gS doh&yksax LVkWdA ;gk¡ ^xkbM* fiQYe dh 'kw¯Vx
gqbZ FkhA frCcr osQ phl&[ks cElu us ysipkvksa osQ 'kksesu ls oaqQtrsd osQ lkFk lafèk&i=k
ij ;gha gLrk{kj fd, FksA ,d iRFkj ;gk¡ Lekjd osQ :i esa Hkh gSA (ysIkpk vkSj HkqfV;k
flfDde dh bu nksuksa LFkkuh; tkfr;ksa osQ chp pys lqnh?kZ >xM+ksa osQ ckn 'kkafr okrkZ
dk 'kq#vkrh LFkyA)
mUgha jkLrksa ij eSaus ns[kkµ,d oqQfV;k osQ Hkhrj ?kwerk pØA ;g D;k\ ukxsZ dgus
yxk---¶eSMe ;g èkeZ pØ gSA izs;j OghyA bldks ?kqekus ls lkjs iki èkqy tkrs gSaA¸
¶D;k\¸ pkgs eSnku gks ;k igkM+] reke oSKkfud izxfr;ksa osQ cko”kwn bl ns'k dh
vkRek ,d tSlhA yksxksa dh vkLFkk,¡] fo'okl] vaèkfo'okl] iki&iq.; dh voèkkj.kk,¡
vkSj dYiuk,¡ ,d tSlhA
lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+---
19
4- èkhjs&èkhjs  5- rhozrk] izcyrk] vfèkdrk
jÝ
+
rk&jÝ
+
rk
4
 ge m¡QpkbZ dh vksj c<+us yxsA ck”kkj] yksx vkSj cfLr;k¡ ihNs NwVus
yxsA vc ifjn`'; ls pyrs&pyrs LosVj cqurh usikyh ;qofr;k¡ vkSj ihB ij
Hkkjh&Hkjde dkVwZu <ksrs ckSus ls fn[krs cgknqj usikyh vks>y gks jgs FksA vc uhps ns[kus
ij ?kkfV;ksa esa rk'k osQ ?kjksa dh rjg isM+&ikSèkksa osQ chp NksVs&NksVs ?kj fn[kkbZ ns jgs FksA
fgeky; Hkh vc NksVh&NksVh igkfM+;ksa osQ :i esa ugha oju~ vius fojkV :i ,oa oSHko
osQ lkFk lkeus vkus okyk FkkA u tkus fdrus n'kZdksa] ;kf=k;ksa vkSj rhFkkZVkfu;ksa dk dkE;
fgeky;A iy&iy ifjofrZr fgeky;!
vkSj ns[krs&ns[krs jkLrs ohjku] l¡djs vkSj tysch dh rjg ?kqekonkj gksus yxs FksA
fgeky; cM+k gksrs&gksrs fo'kkydk; gksus yxkA ?kVk,¡ xgjkrh&xgjkrh ikrky ukius yxhaA
okfn;k¡ pkSM+h gksus yxhaA chp&chp esa dfj'es dh rjg jax&fcjaxs iwQy f'kír
5
 ls
eqloQjkus yxsA mu Hkhedk; ioZrksa osQ chp vkSj ?kkfV;ksa osQ mQij cus ladjs dPps
&iDosQ jkLrksa ls xq”kjrs ;w¡ yx jgk Fkk tSls ge fdlh l?ku gfj;kyh okyh xqiQk osQ
chp fgpdksys [kkrs fudy jgs gksaA
o`Qfrdk
20
6- flj  7- O;Lr  8- 'kkfir] vfHk;qDr  9- lhek  10- reksxq.k ls ;qDr] oqQfVy  11- cqjh bPNk,¡
bl fc[kjh vlhe lqanjrk dk eu ij ;g izHkko iM+k fd lHkh lSykuh >we&>wedj
xkus yxsµ¶lqgkuk lI
+
kQj vkSj ;s ekSle g¡lh---A¸
ij eSa ekSu FkhA fdlh Íf"k dh rjg 'kkar FkhA eSa pkgrh Fkh fd bl lkjs ifjn`';
dks vius Hkhrj Hkj yw¡A ij esjs Hkhrj oqQN cw¡n&cw¡n fi?kyus yxk FkkA thi dh f[kM+dh
ls eqaMdh
6
 fudky&fudky eSa dHkh vkleku dks Nwrs ioZrksa osQ f'k[kj ns[krh rks dHkh
mQij ls nwèk dh èkkj dh rjg >j&>j fxjrs ty&izikrksa dksA rks dHkh uhps
fpdus&fpdus xqykch iRFkjksa osQ chp bByk&bByk dj cgrh] pk¡nh dh rjg dkSaèk
ekjrh cuh&Buh frLrk unh dksA flyhxqM+h ls gh gekjs lkFk Fkh ;g frLrk unhA ij ;gk¡
mldk lkSan;Z ijkdk"Bk ij FkkA bruh [kwclwjr unh eSaus igyh ckj ns[kh FkhA eSa jksekafpr
FkhA iqyfdr FkhA fpfM+;k osQ ia[kksa dh rjg gYkdh FkhA
¶esjs uxifr esjs fo'kky¸µeSaus fgeky; dks lykeh nsuh pkgh fd rHkh thi ,d
txg jQdh---[kwc m¡QpkbZ ls iwjs osx osQ lkFk mQij f'k[kjksa osQ Hkh f'k[kj ls fxjrk isQu
mxyrk >jukA bldk uke Fkkµ^lsou flLVlZ okWVj iQkWyA* Ý
+
yS'k pedus yxsA lHkh
lSykuh bu [kwclwjr yEgksa dh jaxr dks oSQejs esa oSQn djus esa e'kxwy
7
 FksA
vkfne ;qx dh fdlh vfHk'kIr
8
 jktoqQekjh&lh eSa Hkh uhps fc[kjs Hkkjh&Hkjde
iRFkjksa ij cSB >jus osQ laxhr osQ lkFk gh vkRek dk laxhr lquus yxhA FkksM+h nsj ckn
gh cgrh tyèkkjk esa ik¡o Mqcks;k rks Hkhrj rd Hkhx xbZA eu dkO;e; gks mBkA lR;
vkSj lkSan;Z dks Nwus yxkA
thou dh vuarrk dk izrhd og >juk---mu vn~Hkqr&vuwBs {k.kksa esa eq>esa thou
dh 'kfDr dk vglkl gks jgk FkkA bl dnj izrhr gqvk fd tSls eSa Lo;a Hkh ns'k vkSj
dky dh ljgnksa 9
 ls nwj cgrh èkkjk cu cgus yxh gw¡A Hkhrj dh lkjh rkefldrk,¡
10
vkSj
nq"V okluk,¡
11
 bl fueZy èkkjk esa cg xb±A eu gqvk fd vuar le; rd ,sls gh cgrh
jgw¡---lqurh jgw¡ bl >jus dh iqdkj dksA ij ftrsu eq>s Bsyus yxk---vkxs blls Hkh lqanj
u”kkjs feysaxsA
vueuh&lh eSa mBhA FkksM+h nsj ckn gh fiQj ogh u”kkjsµvk¡[kksa vkSj vkRek dks lq[k
nsus okysA dgha pVd gjs jax dk eksVk dkyhu vks<+s rks dgha gydk ihykiu fy,] rks
dgha iyLrj m[kM+h nhokj dh rjg iFkjhyk vkSj ns[krs gh ns[krs ifjn`'; ls lc
Nw&earj---tSls fdlh us tknw dh NM+h ?kqek nh gksA lc ij cknyksa dh ,d eksVh pknjA
lc oqQN cknye;A
Page 5


1- bfUnz;ksa ls ijs  2- izdk'k] mtkyk
eSaus gSjku gksdj ns[kkµvkleku tSls myVk iM+k
Fkk vkSj lkjs rkjs fc[kjdj uhps fVefVek jgs FksA
nwj---<yku ysrh rjkbZ ij flrkjksa osQ xqPNs jks'kfu;ksa
dh ,d >kyj&lh cuk jgs FksA D;k Fkk og\
og jkr esa txexkrk xSaxVkWd 'kgj Fkkµbfrgkl
vkSj orZeku osQ lafèk&LFky ij [kM+k esgurd'k
ckn'kkgksa dk og ,d ,slk 'kgj Fkk ftldk lc
oqQN lqanj Fkkµlqcg] 'kke] jkrA
vkSj og jgL;e;h flrkjksa Hkjh jkr eq>esa
lEeksgu txk jgh Fkh] oqQN bl dnj fd mu tknw Hkjs {k.kksa esa esjk lc oqQN LFkfxr
Fkk] vFkZghu Fkk---eSa] esjh psruk] esjk vkl&iklA esjs Hkhrj&ckgj flI
+
kZQ 'kwU; Fkk vkSj Fkh
vrhafnz;rk
1
 esa Mwch jks'kuh dh og tknqbZ >kyjA
èkhjs&èkhjs ,d mtkl
2
 ml 'kwU; ls iwQVus yxk---,d izkFkZuk gkasBksa dks Nwus yxh---
lkuk&lkuk gkFk tksfM+] xnZgq izkFkZukA gkezks thou frezks dkSlsyh (NksVs&NksVs gkFk tksM+dj
izkFkZuk dj jgh gw¡ fd esjk lkjk thou vPNkb;ksa dks lefiZr gks)A vkt lqcg dh izkFkZuk
osQ ;s cksy eSaus ,d usikyh ;qorh ls lh[ks FksA
lqcg geas ;weFkkax osQ fy, fudy iM+uk Fkk] ij vk¡[k [kqyrs gh eSa ckyduh dh
rjI
+
kQ HkkxhA ;gk¡ osQ yksxksa us crk;k Fkk fd ;fn ekSle lkI
+
kQ gks rks ckYkduh ls Hkh
oaQputa?kk fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA fgeky; dh rhljh lcls cM+h pksVh oaQputa?kk! ij ekSle
vPNk gksus osQ cko”kwn vkleku gYkosQ&gYkosQ cknyksa ls <dk Fkk] fiNys o"kZ dh gh
eèkq dkadfj;k
3
lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+--- lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+--- lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+--- lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+--- lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+---
o`Qfrdk
18
3- rjg&rjg osQ
rjg bl ckj Hkh cknyksa osQ dikV BkoqQj th osQ dikV dh rjg can gh jgsA oaQputa?kk
u fn[kuh Fkh] u fn[khA ij lkeus gh jde&jde
3
 osQ jax&fcjaxs brus lkjs iwQy fn[kkbZ
iM+s fd yxk iwQyksa osQ ckx esa vk xbZ gw¡A
cgjgky---xSaxVkWd ls 149 fdyksehVj dh nwjh ij ;weFkkax FkkA ¶;weFkkax ;kuh
?kkfV;k¡---lkjs jkLrs fgeky; dh xgure ?kkfV;k¡ vkSj iwQyksa ls ynh okfn;k¡ feysaxh
vkidks¸ Mªkboj&de&xkbM ftrsu ukxsZ eq>s crk jgk FkkA ¶D;k ogk¡ cI
+
kZQ feysxh\¸ eSa
cpdkus mRlkg ls iwNus yxrh gw¡A
pfy, rks---A
txg&txg xnjk, ikbZu vkSj èkwih osQ [kwclwjr uqdhys isM+ksa dk tk;tk ysrs gq, ge
igkM+h jkLrksa ij vkxs c<+us yxs fd ,d txg fn[kkbZ nha---,d drkj esa yxh
lI
+
ksQn&lI
+
ksQn ckS¼ irkdk,¡A fdlh èot dh rjg ygjkrh---'kkafr vkSj v¯glk dh izrhd
;s irkdk,¡ ftu ij ea=k fy[ks gq, FksA ukxsZ us crk;kµ;gk¡ cq¼ dh cM+h ekU;rk gSA tc
Hkh fdlh cqf¼LV dh e`R;q gksrh gS] mldh vkRek dh 'kkafr osQ fy, 'kgj ls nwj fdlh
Hkh ifo=k LFkku ij ,d lkS vkB 'osr irkdk,¡ iQgjk nh tkrh gSaA ugha] bUgsa mrkjk ugha
tkrk gS] ;s èkhjs&èkhjs vius vki gh u"V gks tkrh gSaA dbZ ckj fdlh u, dk;Z dh
'kq#vkr esa Hkh ;s irkdk,¡ yxk nh tkrh gSa ij os jaxhu gksrh gSaA ukxsZ cksyrk tk jgk
Fkk vkSj esjh u”kj mldh thi esa yxh nykbZ ykek dh rlohj ij fVdh gqbZ FkhA dbZ
nqdkuksa ij Hkh eSaus nykbZ ykek dh ,slh gh rLkohj ns[kh FkhA
fgpdksys [kkrh gekjh thi FkksM+h vkSj vkxs c<+hA viuh yqHkkouh g¡lh fc[ksjrs gq,
ftrsu crkus yxk---bl txg dk uke gS doh&yksax LVkWdA ;gk¡ ^xkbM* fiQYe dh 'kw¯Vx
gqbZ FkhA frCcr osQ phl&[ks cElu us ysipkvksa osQ 'kksesu ls oaqQtrsd osQ lkFk lafèk&i=k
ij ;gha gLrk{kj fd, FksA ,d iRFkj ;gk¡ Lekjd osQ :i esa Hkh gSA (ysIkpk vkSj HkqfV;k
flfDde dh bu nksuksa LFkkuh; tkfr;ksa osQ chp pys lqnh?kZ >xM+ksa osQ ckn 'kkafr okrkZ
dk 'kq#vkrh LFkyA)
mUgha jkLrksa ij eSaus ns[kkµ,d oqQfV;k osQ Hkhrj ?kwerk pØA ;g D;k\ ukxsZ dgus
yxk---¶eSMe ;g èkeZ pØ gSA izs;j OghyA bldks ?kqekus ls lkjs iki èkqy tkrs gSaA¸
¶D;k\¸ pkgs eSnku gks ;k igkM+] reke oSKkfud izxfr;ksa osQ cko”kwn bl ns'k dh
vkRek ,d tSlhA yksxksa dh vkLFkk,¡] fo'okl] vaèkfo'okl] iki&iq.; dh voèkkj.kk,¡
vkSj dYiuk,¡ ,d tSlhA
lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+---
19
4- èkhjs&èkhjs  5- rhozrk] izcyrk] vfèkdrk
jÝ
+
rk&jÝ
+
rk
4
 ge m¡QpkbZ dh vksj c<+us yxsA ck”kkj] yksx vkSj cfLr;k¡ ihNs NwVus
yxsA vc ifjn`'; ls pyrs&pyrs LosVj cqurh usikyh ;qofr;k¡ vkSj ihB ij
Hkkjh&Hkjde dkVwZu <ksrs ckSus ls fn[krs cgknqj usikyh vks>y gks jgs FksA vc uhps ns[kus
ij ?kkfV;ksa esa rk'k osQ ?kjksa dh rjg isM+&ikSèkksa osQ chp NksVs&NksVs ?kj fn[kkbZ ns jgs FksA
fgeky; Hkh vc NksVh&NksVh igkfM+;ksa osQ :i esa ugha oju~ vius fojkV :i ,oa oSHko
osQ lkFk lkeus vkus okyk FkkA u tkus fdrus n'kZdksa] ;kf=k;ksa vkSj rhFkkZVkfu;ksa dk dkE;
fgeky;A iy&iy ifjofrZr fgeky;!
vkSj ns[krs&ns[krs jkLrs ohjku] l¡djs vkSj tysch dh rjg ?kqekonkj gksus yxs FksA
fgeky; cM+k gksrs&gksrs fo'kkydk; gksus yxkA ?kVk,¡ xgjkrh&xgjkrh ikrky ukius yxhaA
okfn;k¡ pkSM+h gksus yxhaA chp&chp esa dfj'es dh rjg jax&fcjaxs iwQy f'kír
5
 ls
eqloQjkus yxsA mu Hkhedk; ioZrksa osQ chp vkSj ?kkfV;ksa osQ mQij cus ladjs dPps
&iDosQ jkLrksa ls xq”kjrs ;w¡ yx jgk Fkk tSls ge fdlh l?ku gfj;kyh okyh xqiQk osQ
chp fgpdksys [kkrs fudy jgs gksaA
o`Qfrdk
20
6- flj  7- O;Lr  8- 'kkfir] vfHk;qDr  9- lhek  10- reksxq.k ls ;qDr] oqQfVy  11- cqjh bPNk,¡
bl fc[kjh vlhe lqanjrk dk eu ij ;g izHkko iM+k fd lHkh lSykuh >we&>wedj
xkus yxsµ¶lqgkuk lI
+
kQj vkSj ;s ekSle g¡lh---A¸
ij eSa ekSu FkhA fdlh Íf"k dh rjg 'kkar FkhA eSa pkgrh Fkh fd bl lkjs ifjn`';
dks vius Hkhrj Hkj yw¡A ij esjs Hkhrj oqQN cw¡n&cw¡n fi?kyus yxk FkkA thi dh f[kM+dh
ls eqaMdh
6
 fudky&fudky eSa dHkh vkleku dks Nwrs ioZrksa osQ f'k[kj ns[krh rks dHkh
mQij ls nwèk dh èkkj dh rjg >j&>j fxjrs ty&izikrksa dksA rks dHkh uhps
fpdus&fpdus xqykch iRFkjksa osQ chp bByk&bByk dj cgrh] pk¡nh dh rjg dkSaèk
ekjrh cuh&Buh frLrk unh dksA flyhxqM+h ls gh gekjs lkFk Fkh ;g frLrk unhA ij ;gk¡
mldk lkSan;Z ijkdk"Bk ij FkkA bruh [kwclwjr unh eSaus igyh ckj ns[kh FkhA eSa jksekafpr
FkhA iqyfdr FkhA fpfM+;k osQ ia[kksa dh rjg gYkdh FkhA
¶esjs uxifr esjs fo'kky¸µeSaus fgeky; dks lykeh nsuh pkgh fd rHkh thi ,d
txg jQdh---[kwc m¡QpkbZ ls iwjs osx osQ lkFk mQij f'k[kjksa osQ Hkh f'k[kj ls fxjrk isQu
mxyrk >jukA bldk uke Fkkµ^lsou flLVlZ okWVj iQkWyA* Ý
+
yS'k pedus yxsA lHkh
lSykuh bu [kwclwjr yEgksa dh jaxr dks oSQejs esa oSQn djus esa e'kxwy
7
 FksA
vkfne ;qx dh fdlh vfHk'kIr
8
 jktoqQekjh&lh eSa Hkh uhps fc[kjs Hkkjh&Hkjde
iRFkjksa ij cSB >jus osQ laxhr osQ lkFk gh vkRek dk laxhr lquus yxhA FkksM+h nsj ckn
gh cgrh tyèkkjk esa ik¡o Mqcks;k rks Hkhrj rd Hkhx xbZA eu dkO;e; gks mBkA lR;
vkSj lkSan;Z dks Nwus yxkA
thou dh vuarrk dk izrhd og >juk---mu vn~Hkqr&vuwBs {k.kksa esa eq>esa thou
dh 'kfDr dk vglkl gks jgk FkkA bl dnj izrhr gqvk fd tSls eSa Lo;a Hkh ns'k vkSj
dky dh ljgnksa 9
 ls nwj cgrh èkkjk cu cgus yxh gw¡A Hkhrj dh lkjh rkefldrk,¡
10
vkSj
nq"V okluk,¡
11
 bl fueZy èkkjk esa cg xb±A eu gqvk fd vuar le; rd ,sls gh cgrh
jgw¡---lqurh jgw¡ bl >jus dh iqdkj dksA ij ftrsu eq>s Bsyus yxk---vkxs blls Hkh lqanj
u”kkjs feysaxsA
vueuh&lh eSa mBhA FkksM+h nsj ckn gh fiQj ogh u”kkjsµvk¡[kksa vkSj vkRek dks lq[k
nsus okysA dgha pVd gjs jax dk eksVk dkyhu vks<+s rks dgha gydk ihykiu fy,] rks
dgha iyLrj m[kM+h nhokj dh rjg iFkjhyk vkSj ns[krs gh ns[krs ifjn`'; ls lc
Nw&earj---tSls fdlh us tknw dh NM+h ?kqek nh gksA lc ij cknyksa dh ,d eksVh pknjA
lc oqQN cknye;A
lkuk lkuk gkFk tksfM+---
21
12- le>nkj] prqj   13- LoxZ  14- pyrs jgks] pyrs jgks  15-  vfLrRo
fp=kfyf[kr&lh eSa ^ek;k* vkSj ^Nk;k* osQ bl vuwBs [ksy dks Hkj&Hkj vk¡[kksa ns[krh
tk jgh FkhA izÑfr tSls eq>s l;kuh
12
 cukus osQ fy, thou jgL;ksa dk mn~?kkVu djus
ij rqyh gqbZ FkhA
èkhjs&èkhjs èkqaèk dh pknj FkksM+h N¡VhA vc ogk¡ igkM+ ugha] nks foijhr fn'kkvksa ls
vkrs Nk;k&igkM+ Fks vkSj FkksM+h nsj ckn gh os Nk;k&igkM+ vius Js"Bre :i esa esjs
lkeus FksA thi FkksM+h nsj osQ fy, #dok nh xbZ FkhA eSaus xnZu ?kqekbZ---lc vksj tSls
tUur
13
 fc[kjh iM+h FkhA u”kjksa osQ Nksj rd [kwclwjrh gh [kwclwjrhA vius dks fujarj
ns nsus dh vuqHkwfr djkrs ioZr] >jus] iwQyksa] ?kkfV;ksa vkSj okfn;ksa osQ nqyZHk u”kkjs! ogha
dgha fy[kk Fkk---^¯Fkd xzhuA*
vk'p;Z! iyHkj esa czãkaM esa fdruk oqQN ?kfVr gks jgk FkkA lrr izokgeku >jus]
uhps osx ls cgrh frLrk unhA lkeus mBrh èkaqèkA mQij e¡Mjkrs vkokjk cknyA
ef¼e&ef¼e gok esa fgyksjs ysrs fiz;qrk vkSj :MksMsaMªks osQ iwQyA lc viuh&viuh y;
rku vkSj izokg esa cgrs gq,A pSjosfr&pSjosfr
14
A vkSj le; osQ blh lrr izokg esa
fruosQ&lk cgrk gekjk o”kwn
15
A
igyh ckj vglkl gqvk---thou dk vkuan gS ;gh pyk;eku lkSan;ZA
laiw.kZrk osQ mu {k.kksa esa eu bl fc[kjs lkSan;Z ls bl dnj ,dkRe gks jgk Fkk fd
Hkhrj&ckgj dh js[kk feV xbZ Fkh] vkRek dh lkjh f[kM+fd;k¡ [kqyus yxh Fkha---eSa lpeqp
bZ'oj osQ fudV FkhA lqcg lh[kh izkFkZuk fiQj gksBksa dks Nwus yxh Fkh---lkuk&lkuk gkFk
tksfM+---fd rHkh og vrhafnz; lalkj [kaM&[kaM gks x;k! og egkHkko lw[kh Vguh&lk
VwV x;kA
njvly ea=keqXèk&lh eSa rafnzy voLFkk esa gh FkksM+h nwj rd fudy vkbZ Fkh fd
vpkud ik¡oksa ij czsd lh yxh---tSls lekfèkLFk Hkko esa u`R; djrh fdlh vkReyhu
u`R;kaxuk osQ uqiwj vpkud VwV x, gksaA eSaus ns[kk bl vf}rh; lkSan;Z ls fujis{k oqQN
igkM+h vkSjrsa iRFkjksa ij cSBha iRFkj rksM+ jgh FkhaA x¡qFks vkVs&lh dksey dk;k ij gkFkksa
esa oqQnky vkSj gFkkSM+s! dbZ;ksa dh ihB ij c¡èkh Mksdks (cM+h Vksdjh) esa muosQ cPps Hkh
c¡èks gq, FksA oqQN oqQnky dks Hkjiwj rkdr osQ lkFk ”kehu ij ekj jgh FkhaA
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