NCERT Textbook: पाठ 4 - आत्मकथ्य, क्षितिज II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 4 - आत्मकथ्य, क्षितिज II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


f{kfrt
26
t;'kadj
izlkn
t
4
;'kadj izlkn dk tUe lu~ 1889 esa okjk.klh esa
gqvkA dk'kh osQ izfl¼ Dohal dkWyst esa os i<+us x,
ijarq fLFkfr;k¡ vuqowQy u gksus osQ dkj.k vkBoha ls vkxs
ugha i<+ ik,A ckn esa ?kj ij gh laLo`Qr] ¯gnh] I
+
kQkjlh dk
vè;;u fd;kA Nk;koknh dkO; izo`fÙk osQ izeq[k dfo;ksa esa
ls ,d t;'kadj izlkn dk lu~ 1937 esa fu/u gks x;kA
mudh izeq[k dkO;&o`Qfr;k¡ gSaµfp=kk/kj] dkuu&oqQlqe]
>juk] vk¡lw] ygj vkSj dkek;uhA vk/qfud ¯gnh dh
Js"Bre dkO;&o`Qfr ekuh tkus okyh dkek;uh ij mUgsa
eaxykizlkn ikfjrksf"kd fn;k x;kA os dfo osQ lkFk&lkFk
liQy x|dkj Hkh FksA vtkr'k=kq] panzxqIr] LoaQnxqIr vkSj
èkzqoLokfeuh muosQ ukVd gSSa rks dadky] frryh vkSj
bjkorh miU;klA vkdk'knhi] vk¡/h vkSj baætky muosQ
dgkuh laxzg gSaA
izlkn dk lkfgR; thou dh dkseyrk] ek/q;Z] 'kfDr
vkSj vkst dk lkfgR; ekuk tkrk gSA Nk;koknh dfork dh
vfr'k; dkYifudrk] lkSan;Z dk lw{e fp=k.k] izo`Qfr&izse]
ns'k&izse vkSj 'kSyh dh yk{kf.kdrk mudh dfork dh
izeq[k fo'ks"krk,¡ gSaA bfrgkl vkSj n'kZu esa mudh xgjh #fp
Fkh tks muosQ lkfgR; esa Li"V fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA
Page 2


f{kfrt
26
t;'kadj
izlkn
t
4
;'kadj izlkn dk tUe lu~ 1889 esa okjk.klh esa
gqvkA dk'kh osQ izfl¼ Dohal dkWyst esa os i<+us x,
ijarq fLFkfr;k¡ vuqowQy u gksus osQ dkj.k vkBoha ls vkxs
ugha i<+ ik,A ckn esa ?kj ij gh laLo`Qr] ¯gnh] I
+
kQkjlh dk
vè;;u fd;kA Nk;koknh dkO; izo`fÙk osQ izeq[k dfo;ksa esa
ls ,d t;'kadj izlkn dk lu~ 1937 esa fu/u gks x;kA
mudh izeq[k dkO;&o`Qfr;k¡ gSaµfp=kk/kj] dkuu&oqQlqe]
>juk] vk¡lw] ygj vkSj dkek;uhA vk/qfud ¯gnh dh
Js"Bre dkO;&o`Qfr ekuh tkus okyh dkek;uh ij mUgsa
eaxykizlkn ikfjrksf"kd fn;k x;kA os dfo osQ lkFk&lkFk
liQy x|dkj Hkh FksA vtkr'k=kq] panzxqIr] LoaQnxqIr vkSj
èkzqoLokfeuh muosQ ukVd gSSa rks dadky] frryh vkSj
bjkorh miU;klA vkdk'knhi] vk¡/h vkSj baætky muosQ
dgkuh laxzg gSaA
izlkn dk lkfgR; thou dh dkseyrk] ek/q;Z] 'kfDr
vkSj vkst dk lkfgR; ekuk tkrk gSA Nk;koknh dfork dh
vfr'k; dkYifudrk] lkSan;Z dk lw{e fp=k.k] izo`Qfr&izse]
ns'k&izse vkSj 'kSyh dh yk{kf.kdrk mudh dfork dh
izeq[k fo'ks"krk,¡ gSaA bfrgkl vkSj n'kZu esa mudh xgjh #fp
Fkh tks muosQ lkfgR; esa Li"V fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA
t;'kadj izlkn
27
izsepan osQ laiknu esa gal (if=kdk) dk ,d vkRedFkk fo'ks"kkad fudyuk r; gqvk
FkkA izlkn th osQ fe=kksa us vkxzg fd;k fd os Hkh vkRedFkk fy[ksaA izlkn th blls
lger u FksA blh vlgefr osQ roZQ ls iSnk gqbZ dfork gSµvkRedF;A ;g dfork
igyh ckj 1932 esa gal osQ vkRedFkk fo'ks"kkad esa izdkf'kr gqbZ FkhA Nk;koknh
'kSyh esa fy[kh xbZ bl dfork esa t;'kadj izlkn us thou osQ ;FkkFkZ ,oa vHkko
i{k dh ekfeZd vfHkO;fDr dh gSA Nk;koknh lw{erk osQ vuq:i gh vius euksHkkoksa
dks vfHkO;Dr djus osQ fy, t;'kadj izlkn us yfyr] lqanj ,oa uohu 'kCnksa vkSSj
¯ccksa dk iz;ksx fd;k gSA bUgha 'kCnksa ,oa ¯ccksa osQ lgkjs mUgksaus crk;k gS fd muosQ
thou dh dFkk ,d lkekU; O;fDr osQ thou dh dFkk gSA blesa ,slk oqQN Hkh ugha
gS ftls egku vkSj jkspd ekudj yksx okg&okg djsaxsA oqQy feykdj bl dfork
esa ,d rjI
+
kQ dfo }kjk ;FkkFkZ dh LohÑfr gS rks nwljh rjI
+
kQ ,d egku dfo dh
fouezrk HkhA
Page 3


f{kfrt
26
t;'kadj
izlkn
t
4
;'kadj izlkn dk tUe lu~ 1889 esa okjk.klh esa
gqvkA dk'kh osQ izfl¼ Dohal dkWyst esa os i<+us x,
ijarq fLFkfr;k¡ vuqowQy u gksus osQ dkj.k vkBoha ls vkxs
ugha i<+ ik,A ckn esa ?kj ij gh laLo`Qr] ¯gnh] I
+
kQkjlh dk
vè;;u fd;kA Nk;koknh dkO; izo`fÙk osQ izeq[k dfo;ksa esa
ls ,d t;'kadj izlkn dk lu~ 1937 esa fu/u gks x;kA
mudh izeq[k dkO;&o`Qfr;k¡ gSaµfp=kk/kj] dkuu&oqQlqe]
>juk] vk¡lw] ygj vkSj dkek;uhA vk/qfud ¯gnh dh
Js"Bre dkO;&o`Qfr ekuh tkus okyh dkek;uh ij mUgsa
eaxykizlkn ikfjrksf"kd fn;k x;kA os dfo osQ lkFk&lkFk
liQy x|dkj Hkh FksA vtkr'k=kq] panzxqIr] LoaQnxqIr vkSj
èkzqoLokfeuh muosQ ukVd gSSa rks dadky] frryh vkSj
bjkorh miU;klA vkdk'knhi] vk¡/h vkSj baætky muosQ
dgkuh laxzg gSaA
izlkn dk lkfgR; thou dh dkseyrk] ek/q;Z] 'kfDr
vkSj vkst dk lkfgR; ekuk tkrk gSA Nk;koknh dfork dh
vfr'k; dkYifudrk] lkSan;Z dk lw{e fp=k.k] izo`Qfr&izse]
ns'k&izse vkSj 'kSyh dh yk{kf.kdrk mudh dfork dh
izeq[k fo'ks"krk,¡ gSaA bfrgkl vkSj n'kZu esa mudh xgjh #fp
Fkh tks muosQ lkfgR; esa Li"V fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA
t;'kadj izlkn
27
izsepan osQ laiknu esa gal (if=kdk) dk ,d vkRedFkk fo'ks"kkad fudyuk r; gqvk
FkkA izlkn th osQ fe=kksa us vkxzg fd;k fd os Hkh vkRedFkk fy[ksaA izlkn th blls
lger u FksA blh vlgefr osQ roZQ ls iSnk gqbZ dfork gSµvkRedF;A ;g dfork
igyh ckj 1932 esa gal osQ vkRedFkk fo'ks"kkad esa izdkf'kr gqbZ FkhA Nk;koknh
'kSyh esa fy[kh xbZ bl dfork esa t;'kadj izlkn us thou osQ ;FkkFkZ ,oa vHkko
i{k dh ekfeZd vfHkO;fDr dh gSA Nk;koknh lw{erk osQ vuq:i gh vius euksHkkoksa
dks vfHkO;Dr djus osQ fy, t;'kadj izlkn us yfyr] lqanj ,oa uohu 'kCnksa vkSSj
¯ccksa dk iz;ksx fd;k gSA bUgha 'kCnksa ,oa ¯ccksa osQ lgkjs mUgksaus crk;k gS fd muosQ
thou dh dFkk ,d lkekU; O;fDr osQ thou dh dFkk gSA blesa ,slk oqQN Hkh ugha
gS ftls egku vkSj jkspd ekudj yksx okg&okg djsaxsA oqQy feykdj bl dfork
esa ,d rjI
+
kQ dfo }kjk ;FkkFkZ dh LohÑfr gS rks nwljh rjI
+
kQ ,d egku dfo dh
fouezrk HkhA
f{kfrt
28
vkRedF;
eèkqi xqu&xquk dj dg tkrk dkSu dgkuh ;g viuh]
eqj>kdj fxj jgha ifÙk;k¡ ns[kks fdruh vkt ?kuhA
bl  xaHkhj  vuar&uhfyek  esa  vla[;  thou&bfrgkl
;g yks] djrs gh jgrs gSa viuk O;aX;&efyu migkl
rc  Hkh  dgrs  gksµdg  Mkyw¡  nqcZyrk  viuh  chrhA
rqe lqudj lq[k ikvksxs] ns[kksxsµ;g xkxj jhrhA
¯drq dgha ,slk u gks fd rqe gh [kkyh djus okysµ
vius dks le>ks] esjk jl ys viuh Hkjus okysA
;g  foMacuk!  vjh  ljyrs  rsjh  g¡lh  mM+kÅ¡  eSaA
Hkwysa  viuh  ;k  izoapuk  vkSjksa  dh  fn[kykm¡Q  eSaA
mTToy  xkFkk  oSQls  xkm¡Q]  eèkqj  pk¡nuh  jkrksa  dhA
vjs f[ky&f[kyk dj g¡lrs gksus okyh mu ckrksa dhA
feyk dgk¡ og lq[k ftldk eSa LoIu ns[kdj tkx x;kA
vk¯yxu esa vkrs&vkrs eqlD;k dj tks Hkkx x;kA
ftlosQ v#.k&diksyksa dh erokyh lqanj Nk;k esaA
vuqjkfxuh m"kk ysrh Fkh fut lqgkx eèkqek;k esaA
mldh Le`fr ikFks; cuh gS FkosQ ifFkd dh iaFkk dhA
lhou dks mèksM+ dj ns[kksxs D;ksa esjh oaQFkk dh\
NksVs  ls  thou  dh  oSQls  cM+h  dFkk,¡  vkt  dgw¡\
D;k ;g vPNk ugha fd vkSjksa dh lqurk eSa ekSu jgw¡\
lqudj D;k rqe Hkyk djksxs esjh Hkksyh vkRe&dFkk\
vHkh le; Hkh ugha] Fkdh lksbZ gS esjh ekSu O;FkkA
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