NCERT Textbook: पाठ 4 - मनुष्यता, सपर्श II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 4 - मनुष्यता, सपर्श II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


1886 esa >k¡lh osQ djhc fpjxk¡o eas tUes eSfFkyh'kj.k xqIr vius thoudky
esa gh jk"Vªdfo osQ :i eas fo[;kr gq,A budh f'k{kk&nh{kk ?kj ij gh gqbZA
laLÑr] ckaXyk] ejkBh vkSj vaxzs”kh ij budk leku vfèkdkj FkkA
xqIr th jkeHkDr dfo gSaA jke dk dhfrZxku budh fpjlafpr vfHkyk"kk
jghA bUgksaus Hkkjrh; thou dks lexzrk esa le>us vkSj izLrqr djus dk Hkh
iz;kl fd;kA
xqIr th dh dfork dh Hkk"kk fo'kq¼ [kM+h cksyh gSA Hkk"kk ij laLÑr dk
izHkko gSA dkO; dh dFkkoLrq Hkkjrh; bfrgkl osQ ,sls va'kksa ls yh xbZ gS tks
Hkkjr osQ vrhr dk Lo.kZ fp=k ikBd osQ lkeus mifLFkr djrs gSaA
xqIr th dh izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSaµlkosQr] ;'kksèkjk] t;nzFk oèkA
xqIr th osQ firk lsB jkepj.k nkl Hkh dfo Fks vkSj buosQ NksVs HkkbZ
fl;kjke'kj.k xqIr Hkh izfl¼ dfo gq,A
eSfFkyh'kj.k xqIr
(1886-1964)
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


1886 esa >k¡lh osQ djhc fpjxk¡o eas tUes eSfFkyh'kj.k xqIr vius thoudky
esa gh jk"Vªdfo osQ :i eas fo[;kr gq,A budh f'k{kk&nh{kk ?kj ij gh gqbZA
laLÑr] ckaXyk] ejkBh vkSj vaxzs”kh ij budk leku vfèkdkj FkkA
xqIr th jkeHkDr dfo gSaA jke dk dhfrZxku budh fpjlafpr vfHkyk"kk
jghA bUgksaus Hkkjrh; thou dks lexzrk esa le>us vkSj izLrqr djus dk Hkh
iz;kl fd;kA
xqIr th dh dfork dh Hkk"kk fo'kq¼ [kM+h cksyh gSA Hkk"kk ij laLÑr dk
izHkko gSA dkO; dh dFkkoLrq Hkkjrh; bfrgkl osQ ,sls va'kksa ls yh xbZ gS tks
Hkkjr osQ vrhr dk Lo.kZ fp=k ikBd osQ lkeus mifLFkr djrs gSaA
xqIr th dh izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSaµlkosQr] ;'kksèkjk] t;nzFk oèkA
xqIr th osQ firk lsB jkepj.k nkl Hkh dfo Fks vkSj buosQ NksVs HkkbZ
fl;kjke'kj.k xqIr Hkh izfl¼ dfo gq,A
eSfFkyh'kj.k xqIr
(1886-1964)
© NCERT
not to be republished
ikB izos'k
izÑfr osQ vU; izkf.k;ksa dh rqyuk esa euq"; esa psruk&'kfDr dh izcyrk gksrh
gh gSA og vius gh ugha vkSjksa osQ fgrkfgr dk Hkh [k;ky j[kus esa] vkSjksa osQ
fy, Hkh oqQN dj ldus esa leFkZ gksrk gSA i'kq pjkxkg esa tkrs gSa] vius&vius
fgLls dk pj vkrs gSa] ij euq"; ,slk ugha djrkA og tks dekrk gS] tks Hkh
oqQN mRikfnr djrk gS] og vkSjksa osQ fy, Hkh djrk gS] vkSjksa osQ lg;ksx ls
djrk gSA
izLrqr ikB dk dfo viuksa osQ fy, thus&ejus okyksa dks euq"; rks ekurk
gS ysfdu ;g ekuus dks rS;kj ugha gS fd ,sls euq";ksa esa euq";rk osQ iwjs&iwjs
y{k.k Hkh gSaA og rks mu euq";ksa dks gh egku ekusxk ftuesa vius vkSj viuksa
osQ fgr ¯pru ls dgha igys vkSj loksZifj nwljksa dk fgr ¯pru gksA mlesa os
xq.k gksa ftuosQ dkj.k dksbZ euq"; bl e`R;qyksd ls xeu dj tkus osQ ckotwn
;qxksa rd vkSjksa dh ;knksa esa Hkh cuk jg ikrk gSA mldh e`R;q Hkh lqe`R;q gks tkrh
gSA vkf[kj D;k gSa os xq.k\
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


1886 esa >k¡lh osQ djhc fpjxk¡o eas tUes eSfFkyh'kj.k xqIr vius thoudky
esa gh jk"Vªdfo osQ :i eas fo[;kr gq,A budh f'k{kk&nh{kk ?kj ij gh gqbZA
laLÑr] ckaXyk] ejkBh vkSj vaxzs”kh ij budk leku vfèkdkj FkkA
xqIr th jkeHkDr dfo gSaA jke dk dhfrZxku budh fpjlafpr vfHkyk"kk
jghA bUgksaus Hkkjrh; thou dks lexzrk esa le>us vkSj izLrqr djus dk Hkh
iz;kl fd;kA
xqIr th dh dfork dh Hkk"kk fo'kq¼ [kM+h cksyh gSA Hkk"kk ij laLÑr dk
izHkko gSA dkO; dh dFkkoLrq Hkkjrh; bfrgkl osQ ,sls va'kksa ls yh xbZ gS tks
Hkkjr osQ vrhr dk Lo.kZ fp=k ikBd osQ lkeus mifLFkr djrs gSaA
xqIr th dh izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSaµlkosQr] ;'kksèkjk] t;nzFk oèkA
xqIr th osQ firk lsB jkepj.k nkl Hkh dfo Fks vkSj buosQ NksVs HkkbZ
fl;kjke'kj.k xqIr Hkh izfl¼ dfo gq,A
eSfFkyh'kj.k xqIr
(1886-1964)
© NCERT
not to be republished
ikB izos'k
izÑfr osQ vU; izkf.k;ksa dh rqyuk esa euq"; esa psruk&'kfDr dh izcyrk gksrh
gh gSA og vius gh ugha vkSjksa osQ fgrkfgr dk Hkh [k;ky j[kus esa] vkSjksa osQ
fy, Hkh oqQN dj ldus esa leFkZ gksrk gSA i'kq pjkxkg esa tkrs gSa] vius&vius
fgLls dk pj vkrs gSa] ij euq"; ,slk ugha djrkA og tks dekrk gS] tks Hkh
oqQN mRikfnr djrk gS] og vkSjksa osQ fy, Hkh djrk gS] vkSjksa osQ lg;ksx ls
djrk gSA
izLrqr ikB dk dfo viuksa osQ fy, thus&ejus okyksa dks euq"; rks ekurk
gS ysfdu ;g ekuus dks rS;kj ugha gS fd ,sls euq";ksa esa euq";rk osQ iwjs&iwjs
y{k.k Hkh gSaA og rks mu euq";ksa dks gh egku ekusxk ftuesa vius vkSj viuksa
osQ fgr ¯pru ls dgha igys vkSj loksZifj nwljksa dk fgr ¯pru gksA mlesa os
xq.k gksa ftuosQ dkj.k dksbZ euq"; bl e`R;qyksd ls xeu dj tkus osQ ckotwn
;qxksa rd vkSjksa dh ;knksa esa Hkh cuk jg ikrk gSA mldh e`R;q Hkh lqe`R;q gks tkrh
gSA vkf[kj D;k gSa os xq.k\
© NCERT
not to be republished
20 / Li'kZ
euq";rk
fopkj yks fd eR;Z gks u e`R;q ls Mjks dHkh]
ejks] ijarq ;ksa ejks fd ;kn tks djsa lHkhA
gqbZ u ;ksa lqe`R;q rks o`Fkk ejs] o`Fkk ft,]
ejk ugha ogh fd tks ft;k u vkiosQ fy,A
ogh i'kq&izo`fÙk gS fd vki vki gh pjs]
ogh euq"; gS fd tks euq"; osQ fy, ejsAA
mlh  mnkj  dh  dFkk  ljLorh  c[kkurh]
mlh  mnkj  ls  èkjk  ÑrkFkZ  Hkko  ekurhA
mlh mnkj dh lnk ltho dhfrZ owQtrh_
rFkk  mlh  mnkj  dks  leLr  l`f"V  iwtrhA
v[kaM vkRe Hkko tks vlhe fo'o esa Hkjs]
ogh euq"; gS fd tks euq"; osQ fy, ejsAA
{kqèkkrZ  jafrnso  us  fn;k  djLFk  Fkky  Hkh]
rFkk nèkhfp us fn;k ijkFkZ vfLFktky HkhA
m'khuj f{krh'k us Loekal nku Hkh fd;k]
lg"kZ ohj  d.kZ  us 'kjhj&peZ  Hkh fn;kA
vfuR; nsg osQ fy, vukfn tho D;k Mjs\
ogh euq"; gS fd tks euq"; osQ fy, ejsAA
lgkuqHkwfr  pkfg,]  egkfoHkwfr  gS  ;gh_
o'khÑrk  lnSo  gS  cuh  gqbZ  Lo;a  eghA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


1886 esa >k¡lh osQ djhc fpjxk¡o eas tUes eSfFkyh'kj.k xqIr vius thoudky
esa gh jk"Vªdfo osQ :i eas fo[;kr gq,A budh f'k{kk&nh{kk ?kj ij gh gqbZA
laLÑr] ckaXyk] ejkBh vkSj vaxzs”kh ij budk leku vfèkdkj FkkA
xqIr th jkeHkDr dfo gSaA jke dk dhfrZxku budh fpjlafpr vfHkyk"kk
jghA bUgksaus Hkkjrh; thou dks lexzrk esa le>us vkSj izLrqr djus dk Hkh
iz;kl fd;kA
xqIr th dh dfork dh Hkk"kk fo'kq¼ [kM+h cksyh gSA Hkk"kk ij laLÑr dk
izHkko gSA dkO; dh dFkkoLrq Hkkjrh; bfrgkl osQ ,sls va'kksa ls yh xbZ gS tks
Hkkjr osQ vrhr dk Lo.kZ fp=k ikBd osQ lkeus mifLFkr djrs gSaA
xqIr th dh izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSaµlkosQr] ;'kksèkjk] t;nzFk oèkA
xqIr th osQ firk lsB jkepj.k nkl Hkh dfo Fks vkSj buosQ NksVs HkkbZ
fl;kjke'kj.k xqIr Hkh izfl¼ dfo gq,A
eSfFkyh'kj.k xqIr
(1886-1964)
© NCERT
not to be republished
ikB izos'k
izÑfr osQ vU; izkf.k;ksa dh rqyuk esa euq"; esa psruk&'kfDr dh izcyrk gksrh
gh gSA og vius gh ugha vkSjksa osQ fgrkfgr dk Hkh [k;ky j[kus esa] vkSjksa osQ
fy, Hkh oqQN dj ldus esa leFkZ gksrk gSA i'kq pjkxkg esa tkrs gSa] vius&vius
fgLls dk pj vkrs gSa] ij euq"; ,slk ugha djrkA og tks dekrk gS] tks Hkh
oqQN mRikfnr djrk gS] og vkSjksa osQ fy, Hkh djrk gS] vkSjksa osQ lg;ksx ls
djrk gSA
izLrqr ikB dk dfo viuksa osQ fy, thus&ejus okyksa dks euq"; rks ekurk
gS ysfdu ;g ekuus dks rS;kj ugha gS fd ,sls euq";ksa esa euq";rk osQ iwjs&iwjs
y{k.k Hkh gSaA og rks mu euq";ksa dks gh egku ekusxk ftuesa vius vkSj viuksa
osQ fgr ¯pru ls dgha igys vkSj loksZifj nwljksa dk fgr ¯pru gksA mlesa os
xq.k gksa ftuosQ dkj.k dksbZ euq"; bl e`R;qyksd ls xeu dj tkus osQ ckotwn
;qxksa rd vkSjksa dh ;knksa esa Hkh cuk jg ikrk gSA mldh e`R;q Hkh lqe`R;q gks tkrh
gSA vkf[kj D;k gSa os xq.k\
© NCERT
not to be republished
20 / Li'kZ
euq";rk
fopkj yks fd eR;Z gks u e`R;q ls Mjks dHkh]
ejks] ijarq ;ksa ejks fd ;kn tks djsa lHkhA
gqbZ u ;ksa lqe`R;q rks o`Fkk ejs] o`Fkk ft,]
ejk ugha ogh fd tks ft;k u vkiosQ fy,A
ogh i'kq&izo`fÙk gS fd vki vki gh pjs]
ogh euq"; gS fd tks euq"; osQ fy, ejsAA
mlh  mnkj  dh  dFkk  ljLorh  c[kkurh]
mlh  mnkj  ls  èkjk  ÑrkFkZ  Hkko  ekurhA
mlh mnkj dh lnk ltho dhfrZ owQtrh_
rFkk  mlh  mnkj  dks  leLr  l`f"V  iwtrhA
v[kaM vkRe Hkko tks vlhe fo'o esa Hkjs]
ogh euq"; gS fd tks euq"; osQ fy, ejsAA
{kqèkkrZ  jafrnso  us  fn;k  djLFk  Fkky  Hkh]
rFkk nèkhfp us fn;k ijkFkZ vfLFktky HkhA
m'khuj f{krh'k us Loekal nku Hkh fd;k]
lg"kZ ohj  d.kZ  us 'kjhj&peZ  Hkh fn;kA
vfuR; nsg osQ fy, vukfn tho D;k Mjs\
ogh euq"; gS fd tks euq"; osQ fy, ejsAA
lgkuqHkwfr  pkfg,]  egkfoHkwfr  gS  ;gh_
o'khÑrk  lnSo  gS  cuh  gqbZ  Lo;a  eghA
© NCERT
not to be republished
euq";rk/ 21
fojQ¼okn  cq¼  dk  n;k&izokg  esa  cgk]
fouhr yksdoxZ D;k u lkeus >qdk jgk\
vgk!  ogh  mnkj  gS  ijksidkj  tks  djs]
ogh euq"; gS fd tks euq"; osQ fy, ejsAA
jgks u Hkwy osQ dHkh enkaèk rqPN foÙk esa]
lukFk tku vkidks djks u xoZ fpÙk esaA
vukFk  dkSu  gS  ;gk¡\  f=kyksdukFk  lkFk  gSa]
n;kyq  nhucaèkq  osQ  cM+s  fo'kky  gkFk  gSaA
vrho HkkX;ghu gS vèkhj Hkko tks djs]
ogh euq"; gS fd tks euq"; osQ fy, ejsAA
vuar  varfj{k  esa  vuar  nso  gSa  [kM+s]
le{k gh Lockgq tks c<+k jgs cM+s&cM+sA
ijLijkoyac  ls  mBks  rFkk  c<+ks  lHkh]
vHkh veR;Z&vad esa viad gks p<+ks lHkhA
jgks u ;kas fd ,d ls u dke vkSj dk ljs]
ogh euq"; gS fd tks euq"; osQ fy, ejsAA
^euq";  ek=k  caèkq  gS*  ;gh  cM+k  foosd  gS]
iqjk.kiqjQ"k  Lo;aHkw  firk  izfl¼  ,d  gSA
iQykuqlkj  deZ  osQ vo';  cká Hksn gSa]
ijarq   varjSD;   esa   izek.kHkwr   osn   gSaA
vuFkZ gS fd caèkq gh u caèkq dh O;Fkk gjs]
ogh euq"; gS fd tks euq"; osQ fy, ejsAA
pyks  vHkh"V  ekxZ  esa  lg"kZ  [ksyrs  gq,]
foifÙk]  fo?u  tks  iMs+sa  mUgsa  <osQyrs  gq,A
?kVs u gsyesy gk¡] c<+s u fHkUurk dHkh]
vroZQ  ,d  iaFk  osQ  lroZQ  iaFk  gkas  lHkhA
rHkh  leFkZ  Hkko  gS  fd  rkjrk  gqvk  rjs]
ogh euq"; gS fd tks euq"; osQ fy, ejsAA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


1886 esa >k¡lh osQ djhc fpjxk¡o eas tUes eSfFkyh'kj.k xqIr vius thoudky
esa gh jk"Vªdfo osQ :i eas fo[;kr gq,A budh f'k{kk&nh{kk ?kj ij gh gqbZA
laLÑr] ckaXyk] ejkBh vkSj vaxzs”kh ij budk leku vfèkdkj FkkA
xqIr th jkeHkDr dfo gSaA jke dk dhfrZxku budh fpjlafpr vfHkyk"kk
jghA bUgksaus Hkkjrh; thou dks lexzrk esa le>us vkSj izLrqr djus dk Hkh
iz;kl fd;kA
xqIr th dh dfork dh Hkk"kk fo'kq¼ [kM+h cksyh gSA Hkk"kk ij laLÑr dk
izHkko gSA dkO; dh dFkkoLrq Hkkjrh; bfrgkl osQ ,sls va'kksa ls yh xbZ gS tks
Hkkjr osQ vrhr dk Lo.kZ fp=k ikBd osQ lkeus mifLFkr djrs gSaA
xqIr th dh izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSaµlkosQr] ;'kksèkjk] t;nzFk oèkA
xqIr th osQ firk lsB jkepj.k nkl Hkh dfo Fks vkSj buosQ NksVs HkkbZ
fl;kjke'kj.k xqIr Hkh izfl¼ dfo gq,A
eSfFkyh'kj.k xqIr
(1886-1964)
© NCERT
not to be republished
ikB izos'k
izÑfr osQ vU; izkf.k;ksa dh rqyuk esa euq"; esa psruk&'kfDr dh izcyrk gksrh
gh gSA og vius gh ugha vkSjksa osQ fgrkfgr dk Hkh [k;ky j[kus esa] vkSjksa osQ
fy, Hkh oqQN dj ldus esa leFkZ gksrk gSA i'kq pjkxkg esa tkrs gSa] vius&vius
fgLls dk pj vkrs gSa] ij euq"; ,slk ugha djrkA og tks dekrk gS] tks Hkh
oqQN mRikfnr djrk gS] og vkSjksa osQ fy, Hkh djrk gS] vkSjksa osQ lg;ksx ls
djrk gSA
izLrqr ikB dk dfo viuksa osQ fy, thus&ejus okyksa dks euq"; rks ekurk
gS ysfdu ;g ekuus dks rS;kj ugha gS fd ,sls euq";ksa esa euq";rk osQ iwjs&iwjs
y{k.k Hkh gSaA og rks mu euq";ksa dks gh egku ekusxk ftuesa vius vkSj viuksa
osQ fgr ¯pru ls dgha igys vkSj loksZifj nwljksa dk fgr ¯pru gksA mlesa os
xq.k gksa ftuosQ dkj.k dksbZ euq"; bl e`R;qyksd ls xeu dj tkus osQ ckotwn
;qxksa rd vkSjksa dh ;knksa esa Hkh cuk jg ikrk gSA mldh e`R;q Hkh lqe`R;q gks tkrh
gSA vkf[kj D;k gSa os xq.k\
© NCERT
not to be republished
20 / Li'kZ
euq";rk
fopkj yks fd eR;Z gks u e`R;q ls Mjks dHkh]
ejks] ijarq ;ksa ejks fd ;kn tks djsa lHkhA
gqbZ u ;ksa lqe`R;q rks o`Fkk ejs] o`Fkk ft,]
ejk ugha ogh fd tks ft;k u vkiosQ fy,A
ogh i'kq&izo`fÙk gS fd vki vki gh pjs]
ogh euq"; gS fd tks euq"; osQ fy, ejsAA
mlh  mnkj  dh  dFkk  ljLorh  c[kkurh]
mlh  mnkj  ls  èkjk  ÑrkFkZ  Hkko  ekurhA
mlh mnkj dh lnk ltho dhfrZ owQtrh_
rFkk  mlh  mnkj  dks  leLr  l`f"V  iwtrhA
v[kaM vkRe Hkko tks vlhe fo'o esa Hkjs]
ogh euq"; gS fd tks euq"; osQ fy, ejsAA
{kqèkkrZ  jafrnso  us  fn;k  djLFk  Fkky  Hkh]
rFkk nèkhfp us fn;k ijkFkZ vfLFktky HkhA
m'khuj f{krh'k us Loekal nku Hkh fd;k]
lg"kZ ohj  d.kZ  us 'kjhj&peZ  Hkh fn;kA
vfuR; nsg osQ fy, vukfn tho D;k Mjs\
ogh euq"; gS fd tks euq"; osQ fy, ejsAA
lgkuqHkwfr  pkfg,]  egkfoHkwfr  gS  ;gh_
o'khÑrk  lnSo  gS  cuh  gqbZ  Lo;a  eghA
© NCERT
not to be republished
euq";rk/ 21
fojQ¼okn  cq¼  dk  n;k&izokg  esa  cgk]
fouhr yksdoxZ D;k u lkeus >qdk jgk\
vgk!  ogh  mnkj  gS  ijksidkj  tks  djs]
ogh euq"; gS fd tks euq"; osQ fy, ejsAA
jgks u Hkwy osQ dHkh enkaèk rqPN foÙk esa]
lukFk tku vkidks djks u xoZ fpÙk esaA
vukFk  dkSu  gS  ;gk¡\  f=kyksdukFk  lkFk  gSa]
n;kyq  nhucaèkq  osQ  cM+s  fo'kky  gkFk  gSaA
vrho HkkX;ghu gS vèkhj Hkko tks djs]
ogh euq"; gS fd tks euq"; osQ fy, ejsAA
vuar  varfj{k  esa  vuar  nso  gSa  [kM+s]
le{k gh Lockgq tks c<+k jgs cM+s&cM+sA
ijLijkoyac  ls  mBks  rFkk  c<+ks  lHkh]
vHkh veR;Z&vad esa viad gks p<+ks lHkhA
jgks u ;kas fd ,d ls u dke vkSj dk ljs]
ogh euq"; gS fd tks euq"; osQ fy, ejsAA
^euq";  ek=k  caèkq  gS*  ;gh  cM+k  foosd  gS]
iqjk.kiqjQ"k  Lo;aHkw  firk  izfl¼  ,d  gSA
iQykuqlkj  deZ  osQ vo';  cká Hksn gSa]
ijarq   varjSD;   esa   izek.kHkwr   osn   gSaA
vuFkZ gS fd caèkq gh u caèkq dh O;Fkk gjs]
ogh euq"; gS fd tks euq"; osQ fy, ejsAA
pyks  vHkh"V  ekxZ  esa  lg"kZ  [ksyrs  gq,]
foifÙk]  fo?u  tks  iMs+sa  mUgsa  <osQyrs  gq,A
?kVs u gsyesy gk¡] c<+s u fHkUurk dHkh]
vroZQ  ,d  iaFk  osQ  lroZQ  iaFk  gkas  lHkhA
rHkh  leFkZ  Hkko  gS  fd  rkjrk  gqvk  rjs]
ogh euq"; gS fd tks euq"; osQ fy, ejsAA
© NCERT
not to be republished
22 / Li'kZ
iz'u&vH;kl
(d) fuEufyf[kr iz'ukas osQ mÙkj nhft,µ
1- dfo us oSQlh e`R;q dks lqe`R;q dgk gS\
2- mnkj O;fDr dh igpku oSQls gks ldrh gS\
3- dfo us nèkhfp] d.kZ vkfn egku O;fDr;ksa dk mnkgj.k nsdj ^euq";rk* osQ fy, D;k lans'k fn;k gS\
4- dfo us fdu iafDr;ksa esa ;g O;Dr fd;k gS fd geas xoZ&jfgr thou O;rhr djuk pkfg,\
5- ^euq"; ek=k caèkq gS* ls vki D;k le>rs gSa\ Li"V dhft,A
6- dfo us lcdks ,d gksdj pyus dh izsj.kk D;ksa nh gS\
7- O;fDr dks fdl izdkj dk thou O;rhr djuk pkfg,\ bl dfork osQ vkèkkj ij fyf[k,A
8- ^euq";rk* dfork osQ ekè;e ls dfo D;k lans'k nsuk pkgrk gS\
([k) fuEufyf[kr dk Hkko Li"V dhft,µ
1- lgkuqHkwfr pkfg,] egkfoHkwfr gS ;gh_
o'khÑrk lnSo gS cuh gqbZ Lo;a eghA
fojQ¼okn  cq¼  dk  n;k&izokg  esa  cgk]
fouhr yksdoxZ D;k u lkeus >qdk jgk\
2- jgks u Hkwy osQ dHkh enkaèk rqPN foÙk esa]
lukFk tku vkidks djks u xoZ fpÙk esaA
vukFk dkSu gS ;gk¡\ f=kyksdukFk lkFk gSa]
n;kyq nhucaèkq osQ cM+s fo'kky gkFk gSaA
3- pyks vHkh"V ekxZ esa lg"kZ [ksyrs gq,]
foifÙk] fo?u tks iMs+sa mUgsa <osQyrs gq,A
?kVs u gsyesy gk¡] c<+s u fHkUurk dHkh]
vroZQ ,d iaFk osQ lroZQ iaFk gkas lHkhA
;ksX;rk foLrkj
1- vius vè;kid dh lgk;rk ls jafrnso] nèkhfp] d.kZ vkfn ikSjkf.kd ik=kksa osQ fo"k; esa tkudkjh izkIr
dhft,A
2- ^ijksidkj* fo"k; ij vkèkkfjr nks dforkvksa vkSj nks nksgksa dk ladyu dhft,A mUgsa d{kk esa lqukb,A
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