NCERT Textbook: पाठ 7 - तोप, सपर्श II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 7 - तोप, सपर्श II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


36 / Li'kZ
5 vxLr 1947 dks mÙkjk[kaM osQ fVgjh x<+oky f”kys osQ dhfrZuxj esa tUes
ohjsu Maxoky us vkjafHkd f'k{kk uSuhrky esa vkSj mPp f'k{kk bykgkckn esa ikbZA
is'ks ls izkè;kid Maxoky i=kdkfjrk ls Hkh tqM+s gq, gSaA
lekt osQ lkèkkj.k tu vkSj gkf'k, ij fLFkr thou osQ foy{k.k C;ksjs vkSj
n`'; ohjsu dh dforkvksa dh fof'k"Vrk ekuh tkrh gSA bUgksaus ,slh cgqr&lh
ph”kksa vkSj tho&tarqvksa dks viuh dfork dk vkèkkj cuk;k gS ftUgsa ge
ns[kdj Hkh vuns[kk fd, jgrs gSaA
ohjsu osQ vc rd nks dfork laxzg blh nqfu;k esa vkSj nq"pØ esa lz"Vk
izdkf'kr gks pqosQ gSaA igys laxzg ij izfrf"Br Jhdkar oekZ iqjLdkj vkSj nwljs
ij lkfgR; vdknseh iqjLdkj osQ vykok bUgsa vU; dbZ iqjLdkjksa ls Hkh
lEekfur fd;k x;kA ohjsu Maxoky us dbZ egÙoiw.kZ dfo;ksa dh vU; Hkk"kkvksa
esa fy[kh xbZ dforkvksa dk ¯gnh esa vuqokn Hkh fd;k gSA
ohjsu Maxoky
(1947)
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


36 / Li'kZ
5 vxLr 1947 dks mÙkjk[kaM osQ fVgjh x<+oky f”kys osQ dhfrZuxj esa tUes
ohjsu Maxoky us vkjafHkd f'k{kk uSuhrky esa vkSj mPp f'k{kk bykgkckn esa ikbZA
is'ks ls izkè;kid Maxoky i=kdkfjrk ls Hkh tqM+s gq, gSaA
lekt osQ lkèkkj.k tu vkSj gkf'k, ij fLFkr thou osQ foy{k.k C;ksjs vkSj
n`'; ohjsu dh dforkvksa dh fof'k"Vrk ekuh tkrh gSA bUgksaus ,slh cgqr&lh
ph”kksa vkSj tho&tarqvksa dks viuh dfork dk vkèkkj cuk;k gS ftUgsa ge
ns[kdj Hkh vuns[kk fd, jgrs gSaA
ohjsu osQ vc rd nks dfork laxzg blh nqfu;k esa vkSj nq"pØ esa lz"Vk
izdkf'kr gks pqosQ gSaA igys laxzg ij izfrf"Br Jhdkar oekZ iqjLdkj vkSj nwljs
ij lkfgR; vdknseh iqjLdkj osQ vykok bUgsa vU; dbZ iqjLdkjksa ls Hkh
lEekfur fd;k x;kA ohjsu Maxoky us dbZ egÙoiw.kZ dfo;ksa dh vU; Hkk"kkvksa
esa fy[kh xbZ dforkvksa dk ¯gnh esa vuqokn Hkh fd;k gSA
ohjsu Maxoky
(1947)
© NCERT
not to be republished
rksi / 37
ikB izos'k
izrhd vkSj èkjksgj nks fdLe dh gqvk djrh gSaA ,d os ftUgsa ns[kdj ;k
ftuosQ ckjs esa tkudj gesa vius ns'k vkSj lekt dh izkphu miyfCèk;ksa dk
Hkku gksrk gS vkSj nwljh os tks gesa crkrh gSa fd gekjs iwoZtksa ls dc] D;k
pwd gqbZ Fkh] ftlosQ ifj.kkeLo:i ns'k dh dbZ ihf<+;kasa dks nk#.k nq[k vkSj
neu >syuk iM+k FkkA
izLrqr ikB esa ,sls gh nks izrhdksa dk fp=k.k gSA ikB gesa ;kn fnykrk gS fd
dHkh bZLV bafM;k oaQiuh Hkkjr esa O;kikj djus osQ bjkns ls vkbZ FkhA Hkkjr us
mldk Lokxr gh fd;k Fkk] ysfdu djrs&djkrs og gekjh 'kkld cu cSBhA
mlus oqQN ckx cuok, rks oqQN rksisa Hkh rS;kj dhaA mu rksiksa us bl ns'k dks
fiQj ls vk”kkn djkus dk liuk lkdkj djus fudys tk¡ck”kksa dks ekSr osQ ?kkV
mrkjkA ij ,d fnu ,slk Hkh vk;k tc gekjs iwoZtksa us ml lÙkk dks m[kkM+
isaQdkA rksi dks fuLrst dj fn;kA fiQj Hkh gesa bu izrhdksa osQ cgkus ;g ;kn
j[kuk gksxk fd Hkfo"; esa dksbZ vkSj ,slh oaQiuh ;gk¡ ik¡o u tekus ik, ftlosQ
bjkns usd u gksa vkSj ;gk¡ fiQj ogh rkaMo eps ftlosQ ?kko vHkh rd gekjs
fnyksa esa gjs gSaA Hkys gh var esa mudh rksi Hkh mlh dke D;ksa u vk, ftl
dke esa bl ikB dh rksi vk jgh gS---
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


36 / Li'kZ
5 vxLr 1947 dks mÙkjk[kaM osQ fVgjh x<+oky f”kys osQ dhfrZuxj esa tUes
ohjsu Maxoky us vkjafHkd f'k{kk uSuhrky esa vkSj mPp f'k{kk bykgkckn esa ikbZA
is'ks ls izkè;kid Maxoky i=kdkfjrk ls Hkh tqM+s gq, gSaA
lekt osQ lkèkkj.k tu vkSj gkf'k, ij fLFkr thou osQ foy{k.k C;ksjs vkSj
n`'; ohjsu dh dforkvksa dh fof'k"Vrk ekuh tkrh gSA bUgksaus ,slh cgqr&lh
ph”kksa vkSj tho&tarqvksa dks viuh dfork dk vkèkkj cuk;k gS ftUgsa ge
ns[kdj Hkh vuns[kk fd, jgrs gSaA
ohjsu osQ vc rd nks dfork laxzg blh nqfu;k esa vkSj nq"pØ esa lz"Vk
izdkf'kr gks pqosQ gSaA igys laxzg ij izfrf"Br Jhdkar oekZ iqjLdkj vkSj nwljs
ij lkfgR; vdknseh iqjLdkj osQ vykok bUgsa vU; dbZ iqjLdkjksa ls Hkh
lEekfur fd;k x;kA ohjsu Maxoky us dbZ egÙoiw.kZ dfo;ksa dh vU; Hkk"kkvksa
esa fy[kh xbZ dforkvksa dk ¯gnh esa vuqokn Hkh fd;k gSA
ohjsu Maxoky
(1947)
© NCERT
not to be republished
rksi / 37
ikB izos'k
izrhd vkSj èkjksgj nks fdLe dh gqvk djrh gSaA ,d os ftUgsa ns[kdj ;k
ftuosQ ckjs esa tkudj gesa vius ns'k vkSj lekt dh izkphu miyfCèk;ksa dk
Hkku gksrk gS vkSj nwljh os tks gesa crkrh gSa fd gekjs iwoZtksa ls dc] D;k
pwd gqbZ Fkh] ftlosQ ifj.kkeLo:i ns'k dh dbZ ihf<+;kasa dks nk#.k nq[k vkSj
neu >syuk iM+k FkkA
izLrqr ikB esa ,sls gh nks izrhdksa dk fp=k.k gSA ikB gesa ;kn fnykrk gS fd
dHkh bZLV bafM;k oaQiuh Hkkjr esa O;kikj djus osQ bjkns ls vkbZ FkhA Hkkjr us
mldk Lokxr gh fd;k Fkk] ysfdu djrs&djkrs og gekjh 'kkld cu cSBhA
mlus oqQN ckx cuok, rks oqQN rksisa Hkh rS;kj dhaA mu rksiksa us bl ns'k dks
fiQj ls vk”kkn djkus dk liuk lkdkj djus fudys tk¡ck”kksa dks ekSr osQ ?kkV
mrkjkA ij ,d fnu ,slk Hkh vk;k tc gekjs iwoZtksa us ml lÙkk dks m[kkM+
isaQdkA rksi dks fuLrst dj fn;kA fiQj Hkh gesa bu izrhdksa osQ cgkus ;g ;kn
j[kuk gksxk fd Hkfo"; esa dksbZ vkSj ,slh oaQiuh ;gk¡ ik¡o u tekus ik, ftlosQ
bjkns usd u gksa vkSj ;gk¡ fiQj ogh rkaMo eps ftlosQ ?kko vHkh rd gekjs
fnyksa esa gjs gSaA Hkys gh var esa mudh rksi Hkh mlh dke D;ksa u vk, ftl
dke esa bl ikB dh rksi vk jgh gS---
© NCERT
not to be republished
38 / Li'kZ
rksi
oaQiuh ckx osQ eqgkus ij
èkj j[kh xbZ gS ;g 1857 dh rksi
bldh gksrh gS cM+h lEgky] fojklr esa feys
oaQiuh ckx dh rjg
lky esa pedkbZ tkrh gS nks ckjA
lqcg&'kke oaQiuh ckx esa vkrs gSa cgqr ls lSykuh
mUgsa crkrh gS ;g rksi
fd eSa cM+h tcj
mM+k fn, Fks eSaus
vPNs&vPNs lwjekvksa osQ èkTts
vius ”kekus esa
vc rks cgjgky
NksVs yM+dksa dh ?kqM+lokjh ls vxj ;g I
+
kQkfjx gks
rks mlosQ mQij cSBdj
fpfM+;k¡ gh vdlj djrh gSa xi'ki
dHkh&dHkh 'kSrkuh esa os blosQ Hkhrj Hkh ?kql tkrh gSa
[kkl dj xkSjS;sa
os crkrh gSa fd njvly fdruh Hkh cM+h gks rksi
,d fnu rks gksuk gh gS mldk eq¡¡g canA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


36 / Li'kZ
5 vxLr 1947 dks mÙkjk[kaM osQ fVgjh x<+oky f”kys osQ dhfrZuxj esa tUes
ohjsu Maxoky us vkjafHkd f'k{kk uSuhrky esa vkSj mPp f'k{kk bykgkckn esa ikbZA
is'ks ls izkè;kid Maxoky i=kdkfjrk ls Hkh tqM+s gq, gSaA
lekt osQ lkèkkj.k tu vkSj gkf'k, ij fLFkr thou osQ foy{k.k C;ksjs vkSj
n`'; ohjsu dh dforkvksa dh fof'k"Vrk ekuh tkrh gSA bUgksaus ,slh cgqr&lh
ph”kksa vkSj tho&tarqvksa dks viuh dfork dk vkèkkj cuk;k gS ftUgsa ge
ns[kdj Hkh vuns[kk fd, jgrs gSaA
ohjsu osQ vc rd nks dfork laxzg blh nqfu;k esa vkSj nq"pØ esa lz"Vk
izdkf'kr gks pqosQ gSaA igys laxzg ij izfrf"Br Jhdkar oekZ iqjLdkj vkSj nwljs
ij lkfgR; vdknseh iqjLdkj osQ vykok bUgsa vU; dbZ iqjLdkjksa ls Hkh
lEekfur fd;k x;kA ohjsu Maxoky us dbZ egÙoiw.kZ dfo;ksa dh vU; Hkk"kkvksa
esa fy[kh xbZ dforkvksa dk ¯gnh esa vuqokn Hkh fd;k gSA
ohjsu Maxoky
(1947)
© NCERT
not to be republished
rksi / 37
ikB izos'k
izrhd vkSj èkjksgj nks fdLe dh gqvk djrh gSaA ,d os ftUgsa ns[kdj ;k
ftuosQ ckjs esa tkudj gesa vius ns'k vkSj lekt dh izkphu miyfCèk;ksa dk
Hkku gksrk gS vkSj nwljh os tks gesa crkrh gSa fd gekjs iwoZtksa ls dc] D;k
pwd gqbZ Fkh] ftlosQ ifj.kkeLo:i ns'k dh dbZ ihf<+;kasa dks nk#.k nq[k vkSj
neu >syuk iM+k FkkA
izLrqr ikB esa ,sls gh nks izrhdksa dk fp=k.k gSA ikB gesa ;kn fnykrk gS fd
dHkh bZLV bafM;k oaQiuh Hkkjr esa O;kikj djus osQ bjkns ls vkbZ FkhA Hkkjr us
mldk Lokxr gh fd;k Fkk] ysfdu djrs&djkrs og gekjh 'kkld cu cSBhA
mlus oqQN ckx cuok, rks oqQN rksisa Hkh rS;kj dhaA mu rksiksa us bl ns'k dks
fiQj ls vk”kkn djkus dk liuk lkdkj djus fudys tk¡ck”kksa dks ekSr osQ ?kkV
mrkjkA ij ,d fnu ,slk Hkh vk;k tc gekjs iwoZtksa us ml lÙkk dks m[kkM+
isaQdkA rksi dks fuLrst dj fn;kA fiQj Hkh gesa bu izrhdksa osQ cgkus ;g ;kn
j[kuk gksxk fd Hkfo"; esa dksbZ vkSj ,slh oaQiuh ;gk¡ ik¡o u tekus ik, ftlosQ
bjkns usd u gksa vkSj ;gk¡ fiQj ogh rkaMo eps ftlosQ ?kko vHkh rd gekjs
fnyksa esa gjs gSaA Hkys gh var esa mudh rksi Hkh mlh dke D;ksa u vk, ftl
dke esa bl ikB dh rksi vk jgh gS---
© NCERT
not to be republished
38 / Li'kZ
rksi
oaQiuh ckx osQ eqgkus ij
èkj j[kh xbZ gS ;g 1857 dh rksi
bldh gksrh gS cM+h lEgky] fojklr esa feys
oaQiuh ckx dh rjg
lky esa pedkbZ tkrh gS nks ckjA
lqcg&'kke oaQiuh ckx esa vkrs gSa cgqr ls lSykuh
mUgsa crkrh gS ;g rksi
fd eSa cM+h tcj
mM+k fn, Fks eSaus
vPNs&vPNs lwjekvksa osQ èkTts
vius ”kekus esa
vc rks cgjgky
NksVs yM+dksa dh ?kqM+lokjh ls vxj ;g I
+
kQkfjx gks
rks mlosQ mQij cSBdj
fpfM+;k¡ gh vdlj djrh gSa xi'ki
dHkh&dHkh 'kSrkuh esa os blosQ Hkhrj Hkh ?kql tkrh gSa
[kkl dj xkSjS;sa
os crkrh gSa fd njvly fdruh Hkh cM+h gks rksi
,d fnu rks gksuk gh gS mldk eq¡¡g canA
© NCERT
not to be republished
rksi / 39
iz'u&vH;kl
(d) fuEufyf[kr iz'uksa osQ mÙkj nhft,µ
1- fojklr esa feyh ph”kksa dh cM+h l¡Hkky D;ksa gksrh gS\ Li"V dhft,A
2- bl dfork ls vkidks rksi osQ fo"k; esa D;k tkudkjh feyrh gS\
3- oaQiuh ckx esa j[kh rksi D;k lh[k nsrh gS\
4- dfork esa rksi dks nks ckj pedkus dh ckr dh xbZ gSA ;s nks volj dkSu&ls gksaxs\
([k) fuEufyf[kr dk Hkko Li"V dhft,µ
1- vc rks cgjgky
NksVs yM+dkas dh ?kqM+lokjh ls vxj ;g I
+
kQkfjx gks
rks mlosQ mQij cSBdj
fpfM+;k¡ gh vdlj djrh gSa xi'kiA
2- os crkrh gSa fd njvly fdruh Hkh cM+h gks rksi
,d fnu rks gksuk gh gS mldk eq¡g canA
3- mM+k fn, Fks eSaus
vPNs&vPNs lwjekvksa osQ èkTtsA
Hkk"kk vè;;u
1- dfo us bl dfork esa 'kCnksa dk lVhd vkSj csgrjhu iz;ksx fd;k gSA bldh ,d iafDr nsf[k, ^èkj j[kh
xbZ gS ;g 1857 dh rksi*A ^èkj* 'kCn ns'kt gS vkSj dfo us bldk dbZ vFkks± esa iz;ksx fd;k gSA ^j[kuk*]
^èkjksgj* vkSj ^lap;* osQ :i esaA
2- ^rksi* 'kh"kZd dfork dk Hkko le>rs gq, bldk x| esa :ikarj.k dhft,A
;ksX;rk foLrkj
1- dfork jpuk djrs le; mi;qDr 'kCnksa dk p;u vkSj mudk lgh LFkku ij iz;ksx vR;ar egÙoiw.kZ gSA
dfork fy[kus dk iz;kl dhft, vkSj bls lef>,A
2- rs”kh ls c<+rh tula[;k vkSj ?kuh vkcknh okyh txgksa osQ vklikl ikdks± dk gksuk D;ksa ”k:jh gS\ d{kk
esa ifjppkZ dhft,A
ifj;kstuk dk;Z
1- Lora=krk lSukfu;ksa dh xkFkk laca/h iqLrd dks iqLrdky; ls izkIr dhft, vkSj i<+dj d{kk esa lqukb,A
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


36 / Li'kZ
5 vxLr 1947 dks mÙkjk[kaM osQ fVgjh x<+oky f”kys osQ dhfrZuxj esa tUes
ohjsu Maxoky us vkjafHkd f'k{kk uSuhrky esa vkSj mPp f'k{kk bykgkckn esa ikbZA
is'ks ls izkè;kid Maxoky i=kdkfjrk ls Hkh tqM+s gq, gSaA
lekt osQ lkèkkj.k tu vkSj gkf'k, ij fLFkr thou osQ foy{k.k C;ksjs vkSj
n`'; ohjsu dh dforkvksa dh fof'k"Vrk ekuh tkrh gSA bUgksaus ,slh cgqr&lh
ph”kksa vkSj tho&tarqvksa dks viuh dfork dk vkèkkj cuk;k gS ftUgsa ge
ns[kdj Hkh vuns[kk fd, jgrs gSaA
ohjsu osQ vc rd nks dfork laxzg blh nqfu;k esa vkSj nq"pØ esa lz"Vk
izdkf'kr gks pqosQ gSaA igys laxzg ij izfrf"Br Jhdkar oekZ iqjLdkj vkSj nwljs
ij lkfgR; vdknseh iqjLdkj osQ vykok bUgsa vU; dbZ iqjLdkjksa ls Hkh
lEekfur fd;k x;kA ohjsu Maxoky us dbZ egÙoiw.kZ dfo;ksa dh vU; Hkk"kkvksa
esa fy[kh xbZ dforkvksa dk ¯gnh esa vuqokn Hkh fd;k gSA
ohjsu Maxoky
(1947)
© NCERT
not to be republished
rksi / 37
ikB izos'k
izrhd vkSj èkjksgj nks fdLe dh gqvk djrh gSaA ,d os ftUgsa ns[kdj ;k
ftuosQ ckjs esa tkudj gesa vius ns'k vkSj lekt dh izkphu miyfCèk;ksa dk
Hkku gksrk gS vkSj nwljh os tks gesa crkrh gSa fd gekjs iwoZtksa ls dc] D;k
pwd gqbZ Fkh] ftlosQ ifj.kkeLo:i ns'k dh dbZ ihf<+;kasa dks nk#.k nq[k vkSj
neu >syuk iM+k FkkA
izLrqr ikB esa ,sls gh nks izrhdksa dk fp=k.k gSA ikB gesa ;kn fnykrk gS fd
dHkh bZLV bafM;k oaQiuh Hkkjr esa O;kikj djus osQ bjkns ls vkbZ FkhA Hkkjr us
mldk Lokxr gh fd;k Fkk] ysfdu djrs&djkrs og gekjh 'kkld cu cSBhA
mlus oqQN ckx cuok, rks oqQN rksisa Hkh rS;kj dhaA mu rksiksa us bl ns'k dks
fiQj ls vk”kkn djkus dk liuk lkdkj djus fudys tk¡ck”kksa dks ekSr osQ ?kkV
mrkjkA ij ,d fnu ,slk Hkh vk;k tc gekjs iwoZtksa us ml lÙkk dks m[kkM+
isaQdkA rksi dks fuLrst dj fn;kA fiQj Hkh gesa bu izrhdksa osQ cgkus ;g ;kn
j[kuk gksxk fd Hkfo"; esa dksbZ vkSj ,slh oaQiuh ;gk¡ ik¡o u tekus ik, ftlosQ
bjkns usd u gksa vkSj ;gk¡ fiQj ogh rkaMo eps ftlosQ ?kko vHkh rd gekjs
fnyksa esa gjs gSaA Hkys gh var esa mudh rksi Hkh mlh dke D;ksa u vk, ftl
dke esa bl ikB dh rksi vk jgh gS---
© NCERT
not to be republished
38 / Li'kZ
rksi
oaQiuh ckx osQ eqgkus ij
èkj j[kh xbZ gS ;g 1857 dh rksi
bldh gksrh gS cM+h lEgky] fojklr esa feys
oaQiuh ckx dh rjg
lky esa pedkbZ tkrh gS nks ckjA
lqcg&'kke oaQiuh ckx esa vkrs gSa cgqr ls lSykuh
mUgsa crkrh gS ;g rksi
fd eSa cM+h tcj
mM+k fn, Fks eSaus
vPNs&vPNs lwjekvksa osQ èkTts
vius ”kekus esa
vc rks cgjgky
NksVs yM+dksa dh ?kqM+lokjh ls vxj ;g I
+
kQkfjx gks
rks mlosQ mQij cSBdj
fpfM+;k¡ gh vdlj djrh gSa xi'ki
dHkh&dHkh 'kSrkuh esa os blosQ Hkhrj Hkh ?kql tkrh gSa
[kkl dj xkSjS;sa
os crkrh gSa fd njvly fdruh Hkh cM+h gks rksi
,d fnu rks gksuk gh gS mldk eq¡¡g canA
© NCERT
not to be republished
rksi / 39
iz'u&vH;kl
(d) fuEufyf[kr iz'uksa osQ mÙkj nhft,µ
1- fojklr esa feyh ph”kksa dh cM+h l¡Hkky D;ksa gksrh gS\ Li"V dhft,A
2- bl dfork ls vkidks rksi osQ fo"k; esa D;k tkudkjh feyrh gS\
3- oaQiuh ckx esa j[kh rksi D;k lh[k nsrh gS\
4- dfork esa rksi dks nks ckj pedkus dh ckr dh xbZ gSA ;s nks volj dkSu&ls gksaxs\
([k) fuEufyf[kr dk Hkko Li"V dhft,µ
1- vc rks cgjgky
NksVs yM+dkas dh ?kqM+lokjh ls vxj ;g I
+
kQkfjx gks
rks mlosQ mQij cSBdj
fpfM+;k¡ gh vdlj djrh gSa xi'kiA
2- os crkrh gSa fd njvly fdruh Hkh cM+h gks rksi
,d fnu rks gksuk gh gS mldk eq¡g canA
3- mM+k fn, Fks eSaus
vPNs&vPNs lwjekvksa osQ èkTtsA
Hkk"kk vè;;u
1- dfo us bl dfork esa 'kCnksa dk lVhd vkSj csgrjhu iz;ksx fd;k gSA bldh ,d iafDr nsf[k, ^èkj j[kh
xbZ gS ;g 1857 dh rksi*A ^èkj* 'kCn ns'kt gS vkSj dfo us bldk dbZ vFkks± esa iz;ksx fd;k gSA ^j[kuk*]
^èkjksgj* vkSj ^lap;* osQ :i esaA
2- ^rksi* 'kh"kZd dfork dk Hkko le>rs gq, bldk x| esa :ikarj.k dhft,A
;ksX;rk foLrkj
1- dfork jpuk djrs le; mi;qDr 'kCnksa dk p;u vkSj mudk lgh LFkku ij iz;ksx vR;ar egÙoiw.kZ gSA
dfork fy[kus dk iz;kl dhft, vkSj bls lef>,A
2- rs”kh ls c<+rh tula[;k vkSj ?kuh vkcknh okyh txgksa osQ vklikl ikdks± dk gksuk D;ksa ”k:jh gS\ d{kk
esa ifjppkZ dhft,A
ifj;kstuk dk;Z
1- Lora=krk lSukfu;ksa dh xkFkk laca/h iqLrd dks iqLrdky; ls izkIr dhft, vkSj i<+dj d{kk esa lqukb,A
© NCERT
not to be republished
40 / Li'kZ
'kCnkFkZ vkSj fVIif.k;k¡
eqgkus & izos'k }kj ij
èkj j[kh & j[kh xbZ
lEgky & ns[kHkky
fojklr & iwoZ ihf<+;ksa ls izkIr oLrq,¡
lSykuh & n'kZuh; LFkyksa ij vkus okys ;k=kh
lwjek(vksa) &ohj
èkTts & fpFkM+s&fpFkM+s djuk
I+kQkfjx & eqDr @ [kkyh
oaQiuh ckx & xqyke Hkkjr esa ^bZLV bafM;k oaQiuh* }kjk txg&txg ij cuok, x, ckx&cxhpksa esa
ls dkuiqj esa cuok;k x;k ,d ckx
© NCERT
not to be republished
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