NCERT Textbook: पाठ 8 - कर चले हम फ़िदा, सपर्श II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 8 - कर चले हम फ़िदा, सपर्श II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


vrgj gqlSu fj”koh dk tUe 19 tuojh 1919 dks mÙkj izns'k osQ vk”kex<+
f”kys esa eteka xk¡o esa gqvkA vnc dh nqfu;k esa vkxs pydj os oSQI
+
kQh vk”keh
uke ls e'kgwj gq,A oSQI
+
kQh vk”keh dh x.kuk izxfr'khy mnwZ dfo;ksa dh igyh
iafDr esa dh tkrh gSA
oSQI
+
kQh dh dforkvksa esa ,d vksj lkekftd vkSj jktuSfrd tkx:drk dk
lekos'k gS rks nwljh vksj ân; dh dkseyrk Hkh gSA viuh ;qokoLFkk esa eq'kk;jksa
esa okg&okgh ikuss okys oSQI
+
kQh vk”keh us fI
+
kQYeksa osQ fy, lSdM+ksa csgrjhu xhr Hkh
fy[ks gSaA
10 ebZ 2002 dks bl nqfu;k ls jQ[klr gq, oSQI
+
kQh osQ ik¡p dfork laxzg
>adkj] vkf[kj&,&'kc] vkokjk l”kns] ljek;k vkSj fI
+
kQYeh xhrksa dk laxzg esjh
vkok”k lquks izdkf'kr gq,A vius jpukdeZ osQ fy, oSQI
+
kQh dks lkfgR; vdknseh
iqjLdkj lfgr dbZ iqjLdkjksa ls uoktk x;kA oSQI
+
kQh dykdkjksa osQ ifjokj ls FksA
buosQ rhuksa cM+s HkkbZ Hkh 'kk;j FksA iRuh 'kkSdr vk”keh] csVh 'kckuk vk”keh
e'kgwj vfHkusf=k;k¡ gSaA
oSQI
+
kQh vk”keh
(1919-2002)
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


vrgj gqlSu fj”koh dk tUe 19 tuojh 1919 dks mÙkj izns'k osQ vk”kex<+
f”kys esa eteka xk¡o esa gqvkA vnc dh nqfu;k esa vkxs pydj os oSQI
+
kQh vk”keh
uke ls e'kgwj gq,A oSQI
+
kQh vk”keh dh x.kuk izxfr'khy mnwZ dfo;ksa dh igyh
iafDr esa dh tkrh gSA
oSQI
+
kQh dh dforkvksa esa ,d vksj lkekftd vkSj jktuSfrd tkx:drk dk
lekos'k gS rks nwljh vksj ân; dh dkseyrk Hkh gSA viuh ;qokoLFkk esa eq'kk;jksa
esa okg&okgh ikuss okys oSQI
+
kQh vk”keh us fI
+
kQYeksa osQ fy, lSdM+ksa csgrjhu xhr Hkh
fy[ks gSaA
10 ebZ 2002 dks bl nqfu;k ls jQ[klr gq, oSQI
+
kQh osQ ik¡p dfork laxzg
>adkj] vkf[kj&,&'kc] vkokjk l”kns] ljek;k vkSj fI
+
kQYeh xhrksa dk laxzg esjh
vkok”k lquks izdkf'kr gq,A vius jpukdeZ osQ fy, oSQI
+
kQh dks lkfgR; vdknseh
iqjLdkj lfgr dbZ iqjLdkjksa ls uoktk x;kA oSQI
+
kQh dykdkjksa osQ ifjokj ls FksA
buosQ rhuksa cM+s HkkbZ Hkh 'kk;j FksA iRuh 'kkSdr vk”keh] csVh 'kckuk vk”keh
e'kgwj vfHkusf=k;k¡ gSaA
oSQI
+
kQh vk”keh
(1919-2002)
© NCERT
not to be republished
42 / Li'kZ
ikB izos'k
¯”knxh izk.khek=k dks fiz; gksrh gSA dksbZ Hkh bls ;w¡ gh [kksuk ugha pkgrkA vlkè;
jksxh rd thou dh dkeuk djrk gSA thou dh j{kk] lqj{kk vkSj mls ftyk,
j[kus osQ fy, izÑfr us u osQoy reke lkèku gh miyCèk djk, gSa] lHkh
tho&tarqvksa esa mls cuk,] cpk, j[kus dh Hkkouk Hkh fijksbZ gSA blhfy,
'kkafrfiz; tho Hkh vius izk.kksa ij ladV vk;k tku mldh j{kk gsrq eqdkcys
osQ fy, rRij gks tkrs gaSA
ysfdu blls Bhd foijhr gksrk gS lSfud dk thou] tks vius ugha] tc
vkSjksa osQ thou ij] mudh vk”kknh ij vk curh gS] rc eqdkcys osQ fy, viuk
lhuk rku dj [kM+k gks tkrk gSA ;g tkurs gq, Hkh fd ml eqdkcys esa vkSjksa dh
¯”knxh vkSj vk”kknh Hkys gh cph jgs] mldh viuh ekSr dh laHkkouk lcls
vfèkd gksrh gSA
izLrqr ikB tks ;q¼ dh i`"BHkwfe ij cuh fI
+
kQYe ^gdhdr* osQ fy, fy[kk
x;k Fkk] ,sls gh lSfudksa osQ ân; dh vkok”k c;ku djrk gS] ftUgsa vius
fd,&èkjs ij uk”k gSA blh osQ lkFk bUgsa vius ns'kokfl;ksa ls oqQN vis{kk,¡ Hkh
gSaA pw¡fd ftuls mUgas os vis{kk,¡ gSa os ns'koklh vkSj dksbZ ugha] ge vkSj vki
gh gSa] blfy, vkb,] bls i<+dj vius vki ls iwNsa fd ge mudh vis{kk,¡
iwjh dj jgs gSa ;k ugha\
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


vrgj gqlSu fj”koh dk tUe 19 tuojh 1919 dks mÙkj izns'k osQ vk”kex<+
f”kys esa eteka xk¡o esa gqvkA vnc dh nqfu;k esa vkxs pydj os oSQI
+
kQh vk”keh
uke ls e'kgwj gq,A oSQI
+
kQh vk”keh dh x.kuk izxfr'khy mnwZ dfo;ksa dh igyh
iafDr esa dh tkrh gSA
oSQI
+
kQh dh dforkvksa esa ,d vksj lkekftd vkSj jktuSfrd tkx:drk dk
lekos'k gS rks nwljh vksj ân; dh dkseyrk Hkh gSA viuh ;qokoLFkk esa eq'kk;jksa
esa okg&okgh ikuss okys oSQI
+
kQh vk”keh us fI
+
kQYeksa osQ fy, lSdM+ksa csgrjhu xhr Hkh
fy[ks gSaA
10 ebZ 2002 dks bl nqfu;k ls jQ[klr gq, oSQI
+
kQh osQ ik¡p dfork laxzg
>adkj] vkf[kj&,&'kc] vkokjk l”kns] ljek;k vkSj fI
+
kQYeh xhrksa dk laxzg esjh
vkok”k lquks izdkf'kr gq,A vius jpukdeZ osQ fy, oSQI
+
kQh dks lkfgR; vdknseh
iqjLdkj lfgr dbZ iqjLdkjksa ls uoktk x;kA oSQI
+
kQh dykdkjksa osQ ifjokj ls FksA
buosQ rhuksa cM+s HkkbZ Hkh 'kk;j FksA iRuh 'kkSdr vk”keh] csVh 'kckuk vk”keh
e'kgwj vfHkusf=k;k¡ gSaA
oSQI
+
kQh vk”keh
(1919-2002)
© NCERT
not to be republished
42 / Li'kZ
ikB izos'k
¯”knxh izk.khek=k dks fiz; gksrh gSA dksbZ Hkh bls ;w¡ gh [kksuk ugha pkgrkA vlkè;
jksxh rd thou dh dkeuk djrk gSA thou dh j{kk] lqj{kk vkSj mls ftyk,
j[kus osQ fy, izÑfr us u osQoy reke lkèku gh miyCèk djk, gSa] lHkh
tho&tarqvksa esa mls cuk,] cpk, j[kus dh Hkkouk Hkh fijksbZ gSA blhfy,
'kkafrfiz; tho Hkh vius izk.kksa ij ladV vk;k tku mldh j{kk gsrq eqdkcys
osQ fy, rRij gks tkrs gaSA
ysfdu blls Bhd foijhr gksrk gS lSfud dk thou] tks vius ugha] tc
vkSjksa osQ thou ij] mudh vk”kknh ij vk curh gS] rc eqdkcys osQ fy, viuk
lhuk rku dj [kM+k gks tkrk gSA ;g tkurs gq, Hkh fd ml eqdkcys esa vkSjksa dh
¯”knxh vkSj vk”kknh Hkys gh cph jgs] mldh viuh ekSr dh laHkkouk lcls
vfèkd gksrh gSA
izLrqr ikB tks ;q¼ dh i`"BHkwfe ij cuh fI
+
kQYe ^gdhdr* osQ fy, fy[kk
x;k Fkk] ,sls gh lSfudksa osQ ân; dh vkok”k c;ku djrk gS] ftUgsa vius
fd,&èkjs ij uk”k gSA blh osQ lkFk bUgsa vius ns'kokfl;ksa ls oqQN vis{kk,¡ Hkh
gSaA pw¡fd ftuls mUgas os vis{kk,¡ gSa os ns'koklh vkSj dksbZ ugha] ge vkSj vki
gh gSa] blfy, vkb,] bls i<+dj vius vki ls iwNsa fd ge mudh vis{kk,¡
iwjh dj jgs gSa ;k ugha\
© NCERT
not to be republished
dj pys ge fI
+
kQnk / 43
dj pys ge fI
+
kQnk
dj pys ge  fI
+
kQnk tkuks&ru lkfFk;ks
vc  rqEgkjs  gokys  oru  lkfFk;ks
lk¡l  Fkerh xbZ]  uC”k  terh xbZ
fiQj Hkh c<+rs dne dks u jQdus fn;k
dV x, lj gekjs rks oqQN xe ugha
lj fgeky; dk geus u >qdus fn;k
ejrs&ejrs   jgk   ck¡diu   lkfFk;ks
vc  rqEgkjs  gokys  oru  lkfFk;ks
¯”knk  jgus  osQ  ekSle  cgqr  gSa  exj
tku  nsus  dh  #r  jks”k  vkrh  ugha
gqLu  vkSj b'd  nksuksa dks  jQLok djs
oks tokuh  tks [kw¡  esa ugkrh  ugha
vkt  èkjrh  cuh  gS  nqYkgu  lkfFk;ks
vc  rqEgkjs  gokys  oru  lkfFk;ks
jkg  oqQckZfu;ksa dh  u  ohjku  gks
rqe  ltkrs  gh  jguk  u, dkfI
+
kQys
I
+
kQrg dk t'u bl t'u osQ ckn gS
¯”knxh  ekSr  ls  fey  jgh  gS  xys
ck¡èk  yks  vius  lj  ls  dI
+
kQu  lkfFk;ks
vc  rqEgkjs  gokys  oru  lkfFk;ks
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


vrgj gqlSu fj”koh dk tUe 19 tuojh 1919 dks mÙkj izns'k osQ vk”kex<+
f”kys esa eteka xk¡o esa gqvkA vnc dh nqfu;k esa vkxs pydj os oSQI
+
kQh vk”keh
uke ls e'kgwj gq,A oSQI
+
kQh vk”keh dh x.kuk izxfr'khy mnwZ dfo;ksa dh igyh
iafDr esa dh tkrh gSA
oSQI
+
kQh dh dforkvksa esa ,d vksj lkekftd vkSj jktuSfrd tkx:drk dk
lekos'k gS rks nwljh vksj ân; dh dkseyrk Hkh gSA viuh ;qokoLFkk esa eq'kk;jksa
esa okg&okgh ikuss okys oSQI
+
kQh vk”keh us fI
+
kQYeksa osQ fy, lSdM+ksa csgrjhu xhr Hkh
fy[ks gSaA
10 ebZ 2002 dks bl nqfu;k ls jQ[klr gq, oSQI
+
kQh osQ ik¡p dfork laxzg
>adkj] vkf[kj&,&'kc] vkokjk l”kns] ljek;k vkSj fI
+
kQYeh xhrksa dk laxzg esjh
vkok”k lquks izdkf'kr gq,A vius jpukdeZ osQ fy, oSQI
+
kQh dks lkfgR; vdknseh
iqjLdkj lfgr dbZ iqjLdkjksa ls uoktk x;kA oSQI
+
kQh dykdkjksa osQ ifjokj ls FksA
buosQ rhuksa cM+s HkkbZ Hkh 'kk;j FksA iRuh 'kkSdr vk”keh] csVh 'kckuk vk”keh
e'kgwj vfHkusf=k;k¡ gSaA
oSQI
+
kQh vk”keh
(1919-2002)
© NCERT
not to be republished
42 / Li'kZ
ikB izos'k
¯”knxh izk.khek=k dks fiz; gksrh gSA dksbZ Hkh bls ;w¡ gh [kksuk ugha pkgrkA vlkè;
jksxh rd thou dh dkeuk djrk gSA thou dh j{kk] lqj{kk vkSj mls ftyk,
j[kus osQ fy, izÑfr us u osQoy reke lkèku gh miyCèk djk, gSa] lHkh
tho&tarqvksa esa mls cuk,] cpk, j[kus dh Hkkouk Hkh fijksbZ gSA blhfy,
'kkafrfiz; tho Hkh vius izk.kksa ij ladV vk;k tku mldh j{kk gsrq eqdkcys
osQ fy, rRij gks tkrs gaSA
ysfdu blls Bhd foijhr gksrk gS lSfud dk thou] tks vius ugha] tc
vkSjksa osQ thou ij] mudh vk”kknh ij vk curh gS] rc eqdkcys osQ fy, viuk
lhuk rku dj [kM+k gks tkrk gSA ;g tkurs gq, Hkh fd ml eqdkcys esa vkSjksa dh
¯”knxh vkSj vk”kknh Hkys gh cph jgs] mldh viuh ekSr dh laHkkouk lcls
vfèkd gksrh gSA
izLrqr ikB tks ;q¼ dh i`"BHkwfe ij cuh fI
+
kQYe ^gdhdr* osQ fy, fy[kk
x;k Fkk] ,sls gh lSfudksa osQ ân; dh vkok”k c;ku djrk gS] ftUgsa vius
fd,&èkjs ij uk”k gSA blh osQ lkFk bUgsa vius ns'kokfl;ksa ls oqQN vis{kk,¡ Hkh
gSaA pw¡fd ftuls mUgas os vis{kk,¡ gSa os ns'koklh vkSj dksbZ ugha] ge vkSj vki
gh gSa] blfy, vkb,] bls i<+dj vius vki ls iwNsa fd ge mudh vis{kk,¡
iwjh dj jgs gSa ;k ugha\
© NCERT
not to be republished
dj pys ge fI
+
kQnk / 43
dj pys ge fI
+
kQnk
dj pys ge  fI
+
kQnk tkuks&ru lkfFk;ks
vc  rqEgkjs  gokys  oru  lkfFk;ks
lk¡l  Fkerh xbZ]  uC”k  terh xbZ
fiQj Hkh c<+rs dne dks u jQdus fn;k
dV x, lj gekjs rks oqQN xe ugha
lj fgeky; dk geus u >qdus fn;k
ejrs&ejrs   jgk   ck¡diu   lkfFk;ks
vc  rqEgkjs  gokys  oru  lkfFk;ks
¯”knk  jgus  osQ  ekSle  cgqr  gSa  exj
tku  nsus  dh  #r  jks”k  vkrh  ugha
gqLu  vkSj b'd  nksuksa dks  jQLok djs
oks tokuh  tks [kw¡  esa ugkrh  ugha
vkt  èkjrh  cuh  gS  nqYkgu  lkfFk;ks
vc  rqEgkjs  gokys  oru  lkfFk;ks
jkg  oqQckZfu;ksa dh  u  ohjku  gks
rqe  ltkrs  gh  jguk  u, dkfI
+
kQys
I
+
kQrg dk t'u bl t'u osQ ckn gS
¯”knxh  ekSr  ls  fey  jgh  gS  xys
ck¡èk  yks  vius  lj  ls  dI
+
kQu  lkfFk;ks
vc  rqEgkjs  gokys  oru  lkfFk;ks
© NCERT
not to be republished
44 / Li'kZ
[khap nks vius [kw¡ ls ”keha ij ydhj
bl  rjI
+
kQ  vkus  ik,  u  jkou  dksbZ
rksM+  nks  gkFk  vxj  gkFk  mBus  yxs
Nw  u  ik,  lhrk  dk  nkeu dksbZ
jke  Hkh  rqe]  rqEgha  y{e.k  lkfFk;ks
vc  rqEgkjs  gokys  oru  lkfFk;ksA
iz'u&vH;kl
(d) fuEufyf[kr iz'uksa osQ mÙkj nhft,µ
1- D;k bl xhr dh dksbZ ,sfrgkfld i`"BHkwfe gS\
2- ^lj fgeky; dk geus u >qdus fn;k*] bl iafDr esa fgeky; fdl ckr dk izrhd gS\
3- bl xhr esa èkjrh dks nqygu D;ksa dgk x;k gS\
4- xhr esa ,slh D;k [kkl ckr gksrh gS fd os thou Hkj ;kn jg tkrs gSa\
5- dfo us ^lkfFk;ks* lacksèku dk iz;ksx fdlosQ fy, fd;k gS\
6- dfo us bl dfork esa fdl dkfI
+
kQys dks vkxs c<+krs jgus dh ckr dgh gS\
7- bl xhr esa ^lj ij dI
+
kQu ck¡èkuk* fdl vksj laosQr djrk gS\
8- bl dfork dk izfrik| vius 'kCnksa esa fyf[k,A
([k) fuEufyf[kr dk Hkko Li"V dhft,µ
1- lk¡l Fkerh xbZ] uC”k terh xbZ
fiQj Hkh c<+rs dne dks u jQdus fn;k
2- [khap nks vius [kw¡ ls ”keha ij ydhj
bl rjI
+
kQ vkus ik, u jkou dksbZZ
3- Nw u ik, lhrk dk nkeu dksbZ
jke Hkh rqe] rqEgha y{e.k lkfFk;ks
Hkk"kk vè;;u
1- bl xhr esa oqQN fof'k"V iz;ksx gq, gSaA xhr osQ lanHkZ esa mudk vk'k; Li"V djrs gq, vius okD;ksa esa
iz;ksx dhft,A
dV x, lj] uC”k terh xbZ] tku nsus dh jQr] gkFk mBus yxs
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


vrgj gqlSu fj”koh dk tUe 19 tuojh 1919 dks mÙkj izns'k osQ vk”kex<+
f”kys esa eteka xk¡o esa gqvkA vnc dh nqfu;k esa vkxs pydj os oSQI
+
kQh vk”keh
uke ls e'kgwj gq,A oSQI
+
kQh vk”keh dh x.kuk izxfr'khy mnwZ dfo;ksa dh igyh
iafDr esa dh tkrh gSA
oSQI
+
kQh dh dforkvksa esa ,d vksj lkekftd vkSj jktuSfrd tkx:drk dk
lekos'k gS rks nwljh vksj ân; dh dkseyrk Hkh gSA viuh ;qokoLFkk esa eq'kk;jksa
esa okg&okgh ikuss okys oSQI
+
kQh vk”keh us fI
+
kQYeksa osQ fy, lSdM+ksa csgrjhu xhr Hkh
fy[ks gSaA
10 ebZ 2002 dks bl nqfu;k ls jQ[klr gq, oSQI
+
kQh osQ ik¡p dfork laxzg
>adkj] vkf[kj&,&'kc] vkokjk l”kns] ljek;k vkSj fI
+
kQYeh xhrksa dk laxzg esjh
vkok”k lquks izdkf'kr gq,A vius jpukdeZ osQ fy, oSQI
+
kQh dks lkfgR; vdknseh
iqjLdkj lfgr dbZ iqjLdkjksa ls uoktk x;kA oSQI
+
kQh dykdkjksa osQ ifjokj ls FksA
buosQ rhuksa cM+s HkkbZ Hkh 'kk;j FksA iRuh 'kkSdr vk”keh] csVh 'kckuk vk”keh
e'kgwj vfHkusf=k;k¡ gSaA
oSQI
+
kQh vk”keh
(1919-2002)
© NCERT
not to be republished
42 / Li'kZ
ikB izos'k
¯”knxh izk.khek=k dks fiz; gksrh gSA dksbZ Hkh bls ;w¡ gh [kksuk ugha pkgrkA vlkè;
jksxh rd thou dh dkeuk djrk gSA thou dh j{kk] lqj{kk vkSj mls ftyk,
j[kus osQ fy, izÑfr us u osQoy reke lkèku gh miyCèk djk, gSa] lHkh
tho&tarqvksa esa mls cuk,] cpk, j[kus dh Hkkouk Hkh fijksbZ gSA blhfy,
'kkafrfiz; tho Hkh vius izk.kksa ij ladV vk;k tku mldh j{kk gsrq eqdkcys
osQ fy, rRij gks tkrs gaSA
ysfdu blls Bhd foijhr gksrk gS lSfud dk thou] tks vius ugha] tc
vkSjksa osQ thou ij] mudh vk”kknh ij vk curh gS] rc eqdkcys osQ fy, viuk
lhuk rku dj [kM+k gks tkrk gSA ;g tkurs gq, Hkh fd ml eqdkcys esa vkSjksa dh
¯”knxh vkSj vk”kknh Hkys gh cph jgs] mldh viuh ekSr dh laHkkouk lcls
vfèkd gksrh gSA
izLrqr ikB tks ;q¼ dh i`"BHkwfe ij cuh fI
+
kQYe ^gdhdr* osQ fy, fy[kk
x;k Fkk] ,sls gh lSfudksa osQ ân; dh vkok”k c;ku djrk gS] ftUgsa vius
fd,&èkjs ij uk”k gSA blh osQ lkFk bUgsa vius ns'kokfl;ksa ls oqQN vis{kk,¡ Hkh
gSaA pw¡fd ftuls mUgas os vis{kk,¡ gSa os ns'koklh vkSj dksbZ ugha] ge vkSj vki
gh gSa] blfy, vkb,] bls i<+dj vius vki ls iwNsa fd ge mudh vis{kk,¡
iwjh dj jgs gSa ;k ugha\
© NCERT
not to be republished
dj pys ge fI
+
kQnk / 43
dj pys ge fI
+
kQnk
dj pys ge  fI
+
kQnk tkuks&ru lkfFk;ks
vc  rqEgkjs  gokys  oru  lkfFk;ks
lk¡l  Fkerh xbZ]  uC”k  terh xbZ
fiQj Hkh c<+rs dne dks u jQdus fn;k
dV x, lj gekjs rks oqQN xe ugha
lj fgeky; dk geus u >qdus fn;k
ejrs&ejrs   jgk   ck¡diu   lkfFk;ks
vc  rqEgkjs  gokys  oru  lkfFk;ks
¯”knk  jgus  osQ  ekSle  cgqr  gSa  exj
tku  nsus  dh  #r  jks”k  vkrh  ugha
gqLu  vkSj b'd  nksuksa dks  jQLok djs
oks tokuh  tks [kw¡  esa ugkrh  ugha
vkt  èkjrh  cuh  gS  nqYkgu  lkfFk;ks
vc  rqEgkjs  gokys  oru  lkfFk;ks
jkg  oqQckZfu;ksa dh  u  ohjku  gks
rqe  ltkrs  gh  jguk  u, dkfI
+
kQys
I
+
kQrg dk t'u bl t'u osQ ckn gS
¯”knxh  ekSr  ls  fey  jgh  gS  xys
ck¡èk  yks  vius  lj  ls  dI
+
kQu  lkfFk;ks
vc  rqEgkjs  gokys  oru  lkfFk;ks
© NCERT
not to be republished
44 / Li'kZ
[khap nks vius [kw¡ ls ”keha ij ydhj
bl  rjI
+
kQ  vkus  ik,  u  jkou  dksbZ
rksM+  nks  gkFk  vxj  gkFk  mBus  yxs
Nw  u  ik,  lhrk  dk  nkeu dksbZ
jke  Hkh  rqe]  rqEgha  y{e.k  lkfFk;ks
vc  rqEgkjs  gokys  oru  lkfFk;ksA
iz'u&vH;kl
(d) fuEufyf[kr iz'uksa osQ mÙkj nhft,µ
1- D;k bl xhr dh dksbZ ,sfrgkfld i`"BHkwfe gS\
2- ^lj fgeky; dk geus u >qdus fn;k*] bl iafDr esa fgeky; fdl ckr dk izrhd gS\
3- bl xhr esa èkjrh dks nqygu D;ksa dgk x;k gS\
4- xhr esa ,slh D;k [kkl ckr gksrh gS fd os thou Hkj ;kn jg tkrs gSa\
5- dfo us ^lkfFk;ks* lacksèku dk iz;ksx fdlosQ fy, fd;k gS\
6- dfo us bl dfork esa fdl dkfI
+
kQys dks vkxs c<+krs jgus dh ckr dgh gS\
7- bl xhr esa ^lj ij dI
+
kQu ck¡èkuk* fdl vksj laosQr djrk gS\
8- bl dfork dk izfrik| vius 'kCnksa esa fyf[k,A
([k) fuEufyf[kr dk Hkko Li"V dhft,µ
1- lk¡l Fkerh xbZ] uC”k terh xbZ
fiQj Hkh c<+rs dne dks u jQdus fn;k
2- [khap nks vius [kw¡ ls ”keha ij ydhj
bl rjI
+
kQ vkus ik, u jkou dksbZZ
3- Nw u ik, lhrk dk nkeu dksbZ
jke Hkh rqe] rqEgha y{e.k lkfFk;ks
Hkk"kk vè;;u
1- bl xhr esa oqQN fof'k"V iz;ksx gq, gSaA xhr osQ lanHkZ esa mudk vk'k; Li"V djrs gq, vius okD;ksa esa
iz;ksx dhft,A
dV x, lj] uC”k terh xbZ] tku nsus dh jQr] gkFk mBus yxs
© NCERT
not to be republished
dj pys ge fI
+
kQnk / 45
2- è;ku nhft, lacksèku esa cgqopu ^'kCn :i* ij vuqLokj dk iz;ksx ugha gksrk_ tSlsµHkkb;ks] cfguks]
nsfo;ks] lTtuks vkfnA
;ksX;rk foLrkj
1- oSQI
+
kQh vk”keh mnwZ Hkk"kk osQ ,d izfl¼ dfo vkSj 'kk;j FksA ;ss igys x”ky fy[krs FksA ckn esa fI
+
kQYeksa
esa xhrdkj vkSj dgkuhdkj osQ :i esa fy[kus yxsA fuekZrk psru vkuan dh fI
+
kQYe ^gdhdr* osQ fy,
bUgksaus ;g xhr fy[kk Fkk] ftls cgqr izflf¼ feyhA ;fn laHko gks losQ rks ;g fI
+
kQYe nsf[k,A
2- ^fI
+
kQYe dk lekt ij izHkko* fo"k; ij d{kk esa ifjppkZ vk;ksftr dhft,A
3- oSQI
+
kQh vk”keh dh vU; jpukvksa dks iqLrdky; ls izkIr dj if<+, vkSj d{kk esa lqukb,A blosQ lkFk
gh mnwZ Hkk"kk osQ vU; dfo;ksa dh jpukvksa dks Hkh if<+,A
4- ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- }kjk oSQI
+
kQh vk”keh ij cukbZ xbZ fI
+
kQYe ns[kus dk iz;kl dhft,A
ifj;kstuk dk;Z
1- lSfud thou dh pqukSfr;ksa dks è;ku esa j[krs gq, ,d fucaèk fyf[k,A
2- vk”kkn gksus osQ ckn lcls eqf'dy dke gS ^vk”kknh cuk, j[kuk*A bl fo"k; ij d{kk esa ppkZ dhft,A
3- vius LowQy osQ fdlh lekjksg ij ;g xhr ;k vU; dksbZ ns'kHkfDriw.kZ xhr xkdj lqukb,A
'kCnkFkZ vkSj fVIif.k;k¡
fI
+
kQnk &U;ksNkoj
gokys & lkSaiuk
#r &ekSle
gqLu & lqanjrk
#Lok & cnuke
[kw¡ &[kwu
dkfI
+
kQys & ;kf=k;ksa dk lewg
I
+
kQrg &thr
t'u & [kq'kh eukuk
uC”k &ukM+h
oqQckZfu;k¡ &cfynku
”keha & ”kehu
ydhj &js[kk
© NCERT
not to be republished
Read More
Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Complete Syllabus of Class 10

Dynamic Test

Content Category

Related Searches

हिंदी

,

हिंदी

,

Summary

,

Semester Notes

,

MCQs

,

हिंदी

,

NCERT Textbook: पाठ 8 - कर चले हम फ़िदा

,

mock tests for examination

,

Exam

,

कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

,

ppt

,

सपर्श II

,

past year papers

,

सपर्श II

,

Viva Questions

,

Free

,

Sample Paper

,

सपर्श II

,

Extra Questions

,

practice quizzes

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

Objective type Questions

,

pdf

,

Important questions

,

कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

video lectures

,

NCERT Textbook: पाठ 8 - कर चले हम फ़िदा

,

NCERT Textbook: पाठ 8 - कर चले हम फ़िदा

,

study material

,

कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

;