NCERT Textbook: पाठ 9 - आत्मत्राण, सपर्श II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 9 - आत्मत्राण, सपर्श II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


6 ebZ 1861 dks caxky osQ ,d laiUu ifjokj esa tUes johanzukFk BkoqQj ukscsy
iqjLdkj ikus okys igys Hkkjrh; gSaA budh f'k{kk&nh{kk ?kj ij gh gqbZA NksVh mez
esa gh Lokè;k; ls vusd fo"k;ksa dk Kku vftZr dj fy;kA cSfjLVªh i<+us osQ
fy, fons'k Hksts x, ysfdu fcuk ijh{kk fn, gh ykSV vk,A
johanzukFk dh jpukvksa esa yksd&laLÑfr dk Loj izeq[k :i ls eq[kfjr gksrk
gSA izÑfr ls bUgsa xgjk yxko FkkA bUgksaus yxHkx ,d g”kkj dfork,¡ vkSj nks
g”kkj xhr fy[ks gSaA fp=kdyk] laxhr vkSj Hkkou`R; osQ izfr buosQ fo'ks"k vuqjkx
osQ dkj.k johanz laxhr uke dh ,d vyx èkkjk dk gh lw=kikr gks x;kA bUgksaus
'kkafr fuosQru uke dh ,d 'kSf{kd vkSj lkaLÑfrd laLFkk dh LFkkiuk dhA ;g
viuh rjg dk vuwBk laLFkku ekuk tkrk gSA
viuh dkO; Ñfr xhrkatfy osQ fy, ukscsy iqjLdkj ls lEekfur gq,
johanzukFk BkoqQj dh vU; izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSaµuSoS|] iwjch] cykdk] {kf.kdk] fp=k
vkSj lkaè;xhr] dkcqyhokyk vkSj lSdM+ksa vU; dgkfu;k¡_ miU;klµxksjk] ?kjs
ckbjs vkSj johanz osQ fucaèkA
johanzukFk BkoqQj
(1861-1941)
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


6 ebZ 1861 dks caxky osQ ,d laiUu ifjokj esa tUes johanzukFk BkoqQj ukscsy
iqjLdkj ikus okys igys Hkkjrh; gSaA budh f'k{kk&nh{kk ?kj ij gh gqbZA NksVh mez
esa gh Lokè;k; ls vusd fo"k;ksa dk Kku vftZr dj fy;kA cSfjLVªh i<+us osQ
fy, fons'k Hksts x, ysfdu fcuk ijh{kk fn, gh ykSV vk,A
johanzukFk dh jpukvksa esa yksd&laLÑfr dk Loj izeq[k :i ls eq[kfjr gksrk
gSA izÑfr ls bUgsa xgjk yxko FkkA bUgksaus yxHkx ,d g”kkj dfork,¡ vkSj nks
g”kkj xhr fy[ks gSaA fp=kdyk] laxhr vkSj Hkkou`R; osQ izfr buosQ fo'ks"k vuqjkx
osQ dkj.k johanz laxhr uke dh ,d vyx èkkjk dk gh lw=kikr gks x;kA bUgksaus
'kkafr fuosQru uke dh ,d 'kSf{kd vkSj lkaLÑfrd laLFkk dh LFkkiuk dhA ;g
viuh rjg dk vuwBk laLFkku ekuk tkrk gSA
viuh dkO; Ñfr xhrkatfy osQ fy, ukscsy iqjLdkj ls lEekfur gq,
johanzukFk BkoqQj dh vU; izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSaµuSoS|] iwjch] cykdk] {kf.kdk] fp=k
vkSj lkaè;xhr] dkcqyhokyk vkSj lSdM+ksa vU; dgkfu;k¡_ miU;klµxksjk] ?kjs
ckbjs vkSj johanz osQ fucaèkA
johanzukFk BkoqQj
(1861-1941)
© NCERT
not to be republished
ikB izos'k
rSjuk pkgus okys dks ikuh esa dksbZ mrkj rks ldrk gS] mlosQ vkl&ikl Hkh cuk
jg ldrk gS] exj rSjuk pkgus okyk tc Lo;a gkFk&ik¡o pykrk gS rHkh rSjkd
cu ikrk gSA ijh{kk nsus tkus okyk tkrs le; cM+ksa ls vk'khokZn dh dkeuk
djrk gh gS] cM+s vk'khokZn nsrs Hkh gSa] ysfdu ijh{kk rks mls Lo;a gh nsuh gksrh
gSA blh rjg tc nks igyoku oqQ'rh yM+rs gSa rc mudk mRlkg rks lHkh n'kZd
c<+krs gSa] blls mudk eukscy c<+rk gS] exj oqQ'rh rks mUgsa [kqn gh yM+uh
iM+rh gSA
izLrqr ikB esa dfoxqjQ ekurs gSa fd izHkq esa lc oqQN laHko dj nsus dh
lkeF;Z gS] fiQj Hkh og ;g drbZ ugha pkgrs fd ogh lc oqQN dj nsaA dfo
dkeuk djrk gS fd fdlh Hkh vkin&foin esa] fdlh Hkh }a} esa liQy gksus
osQ fy, la?k"kZ og Lo;a djs] izHkq dks oqQN u djuk iM+sA fiQj vkf[kj og vius
izHkq ls pkgrs D;k gSa\
johanzukFk BkoqQj dh izLrqr dfork dk caxyk ls ¯gnh esa vuqokn J¼s;
vkpk;Z gtkjhizlkn f}osnh th us fd;k gSA f}osnh th dk ¯gnh lkfgR; dks
le`¼ djus esa viwoZ ;ksxnku gSA ;g vuqokn crkrk gS fd vuqokn oSQls ewy
jpuk dh ^vkRek* dks v{kq..k cuk, j[kus esa l{ke gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


6 ebZ 1861 dks caxky osQ ,d laiUu ifjokj esa tUes johanzukFk BkoqQj ukscsy
iqjLdkj ikus okys igys Hkkjrh; gSaA budh f'k{kk&nh{kk ?kj ij gh gqbZA NksVh mez
esa gh Lokè;k; ls vusd fo"k;ksa dk Kku vftZr dj fy;kA cSfjLVªh i<+us osQ
fy, fons'k Hksts x, ysfdu fcuk ijh{kk fn, gh ykSV vk,A
johanzukFk dh jpukvksa esa yksd&laLÑfr dk Loj izeq[k :i ls eq[kfjr gksrk
gSA izÑfr ls bUgsa xgjk yxko FkkA bUgksaus yxHkx ,d g”kkj dfork,¡ vkSj nks
g”kkj xhr fy[ks gSaA fp=kdyk] laxhr vkSj Hkkou`R; osQ izfr buosQ fo'ks"k vuqjkx
osQ dkj.k johanz laxhr uke dh ,d vyx èkkjk dk gh lw=kikr gks x;kA bUgksaus
'kkafr fuosQru uke dh ,d 'kSf{kd vkSj lkaLÑfrd laLFkk dh LFkkiuk dhA ;g
viuh rjg dk vuwBk laLFkku ekuk tkrk gSA
viuh dkO; Ñfr xhrkatfy osQ fy, ukscsy iqjLdkj ls lEekfur gq,
johanzukFk BkoqQj dh vU; izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSaµuSoS|] iwjch] cykdk] {kf.kdk] fp=k
vkSj lkaè;xhr] dkcqyhokyk vkSj lSdM+ksa vU; dgkfu;k¡_ miU;klµxksjk] ?kjs
ckbjs vkSj johanz osQ fucaèkA
johanzukFk BkoqQj
(1861-1941)
© NCERT
not to be republished
ikB izos'k
rSjuk pkgus okys dks ikuh esa dksbZ mrkj rks ldrk gS] mlosQ vkl&ikl Hkh cuk
jg ldrk gS] exj rSjuk pkgus okyk tc Lo;a gkFk&ik¡o pykrk gS rHkh rSjkd
cu ikrk gSA ijh{kk nsus tkus okyk tkrs le; cM+ksa ls vk'khokZn dh dkeuk
djrk gh gS] cM+s vk'khokZn nsrs Hkh gSa] ysfdu ijh{kk rks mls Lo;a gh nsuh gksrh
gSA blh rjg tc nks igyoku oqQ'rh yM+rs gSa rc mudk mRlkg rks lHkh n'kZd
c<+krs gSa] blls mudk eukscy c<+rk gS] exj oqQ'rh rks mUgsa [kqn gh yM+uh
iM+rh gSA
izLrqr ikB esa dfoxqjQ ekurs gSa fd izHkq esa lc oqQN laHko dj nsus dh
lkeF;Z gS] fiQj Hkh og ;g drbZ ugha pkgrs fd ogh lc oqQN dj nsaA dfo
dkeuk djrk gS fd fdlh Hkh vkin&foin esa] fdlh Hkh }a} esa liQy gksus
osQ fy, la?k"kZ og Lo;a djs] izHkq dks oqQN u djuk iM+sA fiQj vkf[kj og vius
izHkq ls pkgrs D;k gSa\
johanzukFk BkoqQj dh izLrqr dfork dk caxyk ls ¯gnh esa vuqokn J¼s;
vkpk;Z gtkjhizlkn f}osnh th us fd;k gSA f}osnh th dk ¯gnh lkfgR; dks
le`¼ djus esa viwoZ ;ksxnku gSA ;g vuqokn crkrk gS fd vuqokn oSQls ewy
jpuk dh ^vkRek* dks v{kq..k cuk, j[kus esa l{ke gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
48 / Li'kZ
vkRe=kk.k
foinkvksa ls eq>s cpkvks] ;g esjh izkFkZuk ugha
osQoy bruk gks (d#.kke;)
dHkh u foink esa ikm¡Q Hk;A
nq%[k&rki ls O;fFkr fpÙk dks u nks lkaRouk ugha lgh
ij bruk gksos (d#.kke;)
nq[k dks eSa dj low¡Q lnk t;A
dksbZ dgha lgk;d u feys
rks viuk cy ikSjQ"k u fgys_
gkfu mBkuh iM+s txr~ esa ykHk vxj oapuk jgh
rks Hkh eu esa uk ekuw¡ {k;AA
esjk =kk.k djks vuqfnu rqe ;g esjh izkFkZuk ugha
cl bruk gksos (d#.kk;e)
rjus dh gks 'kfDr vuke;A
esjk Hkkj vxj y?kq djosQ u nks lkaRouk ugha lghA
osQoy bruk j[kuk vuqu;µ
ogu dj low¡Q bldks fuHkZ;A
ur f'kj gksdj lq[k osQ fnu eas
ro eq[k igpkuw¡ fNu&fNu esaA
nq%[k&jkf=k esa djs oapuk esjh ftl fnu fuf[ky egh
ml fnu ,slk gks d#.kke;]
rqe ij d:¡ ugha oqQN la'k;AA
vuqokn % gtkjhizlkn f}osnh
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


6 ebZ 1861 dks caxky osQ ,d laiUu ifjokj esa tUes johanzukFk BkoqQj ukscsy
iqjLdkj ikus okys igys Hkkjrh; gSaA budh f'k{kk&nh{kk ?kj ij gh gqbZA NksVh mez
esa gh Lokè;k; ls vusd fo"k;ksa dk Kku vftZr dj fy;kA cSfjLVªh i<+us osQ
fy, fons'k Hksts x, ysfdu fcuk ijh{kk fn, gh ykSV vk,A
johanzukFk dh jpukvksa esa yksd&laLÑfr dk Loj izeq[k :i ls eq[kfjr gksrk
gSA izÑfr ls bUgsa xgjk yxko FkkA bUgksaus yxHkx ,d g”kkj dfork,¡ vkSj nks
g”kkj xhr fy[ks gSaA fp=kdyk] laxhr vkSj Hkkou`R; osQ izfr buosQ fo'ks"k vuqjkx
osQ dkj.k johanz laxhr uke dh ,d vyx èkkjk dk gh lw=kikr gks x;kA bUgksaus
'kkafr fuosQru uke dh ,d 'kSf{kd vkSj lkaLÑfrd laLFkk dh LFkkiuk dhA ;g
viuh rjg dk vuwBk laLFkku ekuk tkrk gSA
viuh dkO; Ñfr xhrkatfy osQ fy, ukscsy iqjLdkj ls lEekfur gq,
johanzukFk BkoqQj dh vU; izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSaµuSoS|] iwjch] cykdk] {kf.kdk] fp=k
vkSj lkaè;xhr] dkcqyhokyk vkSj lSdM+ksa vU; dgkfu;k¡_ miU;klµxksjk] ?kjs
ckbjs vkSj johanz osQ fucaèkA
johanzukFk BkoqQj
(1861-1941)
© NCERT
not to be republished
ikB izos'k
rSjuk pkgus okys dks ikuh esa dksbZ mrkj rks ldrk gS] mlosQ vkl&ikl Hkh cuk
jg ldrk gS] exj rSjuk pkgus okyk tc Lo;a gkFk&ik¡o pykrk gS rHkh rSjkd
cu ikrk gSA ijh{kk nsus tkus okyk tkrs le; cM+ksa ls vk'khokZn dh dkeuk
djrk gh gS] cM+s vk'khokZn nsrs Hkh gSa] ysfdu ijh{kk rks mls Lo;a gh nsuh gksrh
gSA blh rjg tc nks igyoku oqQ'rh yM+rs gSa rc mudk mRlkg rks lHkh n'kZd
c<+krs gSa] blls mudk eukscy c<+rk gS] exj oqQ'rh rks mUgsa [kqn gh yM+uh
iM+rh gSA
izLrqr ikB esa dfoxqjQ ekurs gSa fd izHkq esa lc oqQN laHko dj nsus dh
lkeF;Z gS] fiQj Hkh og ;g drbZ ugha pkgrs fd ogh lc oqQN dj nsaA dfo
dkeuk djrk gS fd fdlh Hkh vkin&foin esa] fdlh Hkh }a} esa liQy gksus
osQ fy, la?k"kZ og Lo;a djs] izHkq dks oqQN u djuk iM+sA fiQj vkf[kj og vius
izHkq ls pkgrs D;k gSa\
johanzukFk BkoqQj dh izLrqr dfork dk caxyk ls ¯gnh esa vuqokn J¼s;
vkpk;Z gtkjhizlkn f}osnh th us fd;k gSA f}osnh th dk ¯gnh lkfgR; dks
le`¼ djus esa viwoZ ;ksxnku gSA ;g vuqokn crkrk gS fd vuqokn oSQls ewy
jpuk dh ^vkRek* dks v{kq..k cuk, j[kus esa l{ke gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
48 / Li'kZ
vkRe=kk.k
foinkvksa ls eq>s cpkvks] ;g esjh izkFkZuk ugha
osQoy bruk gks (d#.kke;)
dHkh u foink esa ikm¡Q Hk;A
nq%[k&rki ls O;fFkr fpÙk dks u nks lkaRouk ugha lgh
ij bruk gksos (d#.kke;)
nq[k dks eSa dj low¡Q lnk t;A
dksbZ dgha lgk;d u feys
rks viuk cy ikSjQ"k u fgys_
gkfu mBkuh iM+s txr~ esa ykHk vxj oapuk jgh
rks Hkh eu esa uk ekuw¡ {k;AA
esjk =kk.k djks vuqfnu rqe ;g esjh izkFkZuk ugha
cl bruk gksos (d#.kk;e)
rjus dh gks 'kfDr vuke;A
esjk Hkkj vxj y?kq djosQ u nks lkaRouk ugha lghA
osQoy bruk j[kuk vuqu;µ
ogu dj low¡Q bldks fuHkZ;A
ur f'kj gksdj lq[k osQ fnu eas
ro eq[k igpkuw¡ fNu&fNu esaA
nq%[k&jkf=k esa djs oapuk esjh ftl fnu fuf[ky egh
ml fnu ,slk gks d#.kke;]
rqe ij d:¡ ugha oqQN la'k;AA
vuqokn % gtkjhizlkn f}osnh
© NCERT
not to be republished
vkRe=kk.k / 49
iz'u&vH;kl
(d) fuEufyf[kr iz'uksa osQ mÙkj nhft,µ
1- dfo fdlls vkSj D;k izkFkZuk dj jgk gS\
2- ^foinkvksa ls eq>s cpkvks] ;g esjh izkFkZuk ugha*µdfo bl iafDr osQ }kjk D;k dguk pkgrk gS\
3- dfo lgk;d osQ u feyus ij D;k izkFkZuk djrk gS\
4- var esa dfo D;k vuqu; djrk gS\
5- ^vkRe=kk.k* 'kh"kZd dh lkFkZdrk dfork osQ lanHkZ esa Li"V dhft,A
6- viuh bPNkvksa dh iwfrZ osQ fy, vki izkFkZuk osQ vfrfjDr vkSj D;k&D;k iz;kl djrs gSa\ fyf[k,A
7- D;k dfo dh ;g izkFkZuk vkidks vU; izkFkZuk xhrksa ls vyx yxrh gS\ ;fn gk¡] rks oSQls\
([k) fuEufyf[kr va'kksa dk Hkko Li"V dhft,µ
1- ur f'kj gksdj lq[k osQ fnu esa
ro eq[k igpkuw¡ fNu&fNu esaA
2- gkfu mBkuh iM+s txr~ esa ykHk vxj oapuk jgh
rks Hkh eu esa uk ekuw¡ {k;A
3- rjus dh gks 'kfDr vuke;
esjk Hkkj vxj y?kq djosQ u nks lkaRouk ugha lghA
;ksX;rk foLrkj
1- johanzukFk BkoqQj us vusd xhrksa dh jpuk dh gSA muosQ xhr&laxzg esa ls nks xhr Nk¡fV, vkSj d{kk esa
dfork&ikB dhft,A
2- vusd vU; dfo;ksa us Hkh izkFkZuk xhr fy[ks gSa] mUgas i<+us dk iz;kl dhft,_ tSlsµ
(d) egknsoh oekZµD;k iwtk D;k vpZu js!
([k) lw;Zdkar f=kikBh fujkykµnfyr tu ij djks d#.kkA
(x) bruh 'kfDr gesa nsuk nkrk
eu dk fo'okl de”kksj gks u
ge pysa usd jLrs ij ge ls
Hkwy dj Hkh dksbZ Hkwy gks u
bl izkFkZuk dks <w¡<+dj iwjk if<+, vkSj lef>, fd nksuksa izkFkZukvksa esa D;k lekurk gS\ D;k vkidks nksuksa
esa dksbZ varj Hkh izrhr gksrk gS\ bl ij vkil esa ppkZ dhft,A
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


6 ebZ 1861 dks caxky osQ ,d laiUu ifjokj esa tUes johanzukFk BkoqQj ukscsy
iqjLdkj ikus okys igys Hkkjrh; gSaA budh f'k{kk&nh{kk ?kj ij gh gqbZA NksVh mez
esa gh Lokè;k; ls vusd fo"k;ksa dk Kku vftZr dj fy;kA cSfjLVªh i<+us osQ
fy, fons'k Hksts x, ysfdu fcuk ijh{kk fn, gh ykSV vk,A
johanzukFk dh jpukvksa esa yksd&laLÑfr dk Loj izeq[k :i ls eq[kfjr gksrk
gSA izÑfr ls bUgsa xgjk yxko FkkA bUgksaus yxHkx ,d g”kkj dfork,¡ vkSj nks
g”kkj xhr fy[ks gSaA fp=kdyk] laxhr vkSj Hkkou`R; osQ izfr buosQ fo'ks"k vuqjkx
osQ dkj.k johanz laxhr uke dh ,d vyx èkkjk dk gh lw=kikr gks x;kA bUgksaus
'kkafr fuosQru uke dh ,d 'kSf{kd vkSj lkaLÑfrd laLFkk dh LFkkiuk dhA ;g
viuh rjg dk vuwBk laLFkku ekuk tkrk gSA
viuh dkO; Ñfr xhrkatfy osQ fy, ukscsy iqjLdkj ls lEekfur gq,
johanzukFk BkoqQj dh vU; izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSaµuSoS|] iwjch] cykdk] {kf.kdk] fp=k
vkSj lkaè;xhr] dkcqyhokyk vkSj lSdM+ksa vU; dgkfu;k¡_ miU;klµxksjk] ?kjs
ckbjs vkSj johanz osQ fucaèkA
johanzukFk BkoqQj
(1861-1941)
© NCERT
not to be republished
ikB izos'k
rSjuk pkgus okys dks ikuh esa dksbZ mrkj rks ldrk gS] mlosQ vkl&ikl Hkh cuk
jg ldrk gS] exj rSjuk pkgus okyk tc Lo;a gkFk&ik¡o pykrk gS rHkh rSjkd
cu ikrk gSA ijh{kk nsus tkus okyk tkrs le; cM+ksa ls vk'khokZn dh dkeuk
djrk gh gS] cM+s vk'khokZn nsrs Hkh gSa] ysfdu ijh{kk rks mls Lo;a gh nsuh gksrh
gSA blh rjg tc nks igyoku oqQ'rh yM+rs gSa rc mudk mRlkg rks lHkh n'kZd
c<+krs gSa] blls mudk eukscy c<+rk gS] exj oqQ'rh rks mUgsa [kqn gh yM+uh
iM+rh gSA
izLrqr ikB esa dfoxqjQ ekurs gSa fd izHkq esa lc oqQN laHko dj nsus dh
lkeF;Z gS] fiQj Hkh og ;g drbZ ugha pkgrs fd ogh lc oqQN dj nsaA dfo
dkeuk djrk gS fd fdlh Hkh vkin&foin esa] fdlh Hkh }a} esa liQy gksus
osQ fy, la?k"kZ og Lo;a djs] izHkq dks oqQN u djuk iM+sA fiQj vkf[kj og vius
izHkq ls pkgrs D;k gSa\
johanzukFk BkoqQj dh izLrqr dfork dk caxyk ls ¯gnh esa vuqokn J¼s;
vkpk;Z gtkjhizlkn f}osnh th us fd;k gSA f}osnh th dk ¯gnh lkfgR; dks
le`¼ djus esa viwoZ ;ksxnku gSA ;g vuqokn crkrk gS fd vuqokn oSQls ewy
jpuk dh ^vkRek* dks v{kq..k cuk, j[kus esa l{ke gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
48 / Li'kZ
vkRe=kk.k
foinkvksa ls eq>s cpkvks] ;g esjh izkFkZuk ugha
osQoy bruk gks (d#.kke;)
dHkh u foink esa ikm¡Q Hk;A
nq%[k&rki ls O;fFkr fpÙk dks u nks lkaRouk ugha lgh
ij bruk gksos (d#.kke;)
nq[k dks eSa dj low¡Q lnk t;A
dksbZ dgha lgk;d u feys
rks viuk cy ikSjQ"k u fgys_
gkfu mBkuh iM+s txr~ esa ykHk vxj oapuk jgh
rks Hkh eu esa uk ekuw¡ {k;AA
esjk =kk.k djks vuqfnu rqe ;g esjh izkFkZuk ugha
cl bruk gksos (d#.kk;e)
rjus dh gks 'kfDr vuke;A
esjk Hkkj vxj y?kq djosQ u nks lkaRouk ugha lghA
osQoy bruk j[kuk vuqu;µ
ogu dj low¡Q bldks fuHkZ;A
ur f'kj gksdj lq[k osQ fnu eas
ro eq[k igpkuw¡ fNu&fNu esaA
nq%[k&jkf=k esa djs oapuk esjh ftl fnu fuf[ky egh
ml fnu ,slk gks d#.kke;]
rqe ij d:¡ ugha oqQN la'k;AA
vuqokn % gtkjhizlkn f}osnh
© NCERT
not to be republished
vkRe=kk.k / 49
iz'u&vH;kl
(d) fuEufyf[kr iz'uksa osQ mÙkj nhft,µ
1- dfo fdlls vkSj D;k izkFkZuk dj jgk gS\
2- ^foinkvksa ls eq>s cpkvks] ;g esjh izkFkZuk ugha*µdfo bl iafDr osQ }kjk D;k dguk pkgrk gS\
3- dfo lgk;d osQ u feyus ij D;k izkFkZuk djrk gS\
4- var esa dfo D;k vuqu; djrk gS\
5- ^vkRe=kk.k* 'kh"kZd dh lkFkZdrk dfork osQ lanHkZ esa Li"V dhft,A
6- viuh bPNkvksa dh iwfrZ osQ fy, vki izkFkZuk osQ vfrfjDr vkSj D;k&D;k iz;kl djrs gSa\ fyf[k,A
7- D;k dfo dh ;g izkFkZuk vkidks vU; izkFkZuk xhrksa ls vyx yxrh gS\ ;fn gk¡] rks oSQls\
([k) fuEufyf[kr va'kksa dk Hkko Li"V dhft,µ
1- ur f'kj gksdj lq[k osQ fnu esa
ro eq[k igpkuw¡ fNu&fNu esaA
2- gkfu mBkuh iM+s txr~ esa ykHk vxj oapuk jgh
rks Hkh eu esa uk ekuw¡ {k;A
3- rjus dh gks 'kfDr vuke;
esjk Hkkj vxj y?kq djosQ u nks lkaRouk ugha lghA
;ksX;rk foLrkj
1- johanzukFk BkoqQj us vusd xhrksa dh jpuk dh gSA muosQ xhr&laxzg esa ls nks xhr Nk¡fV, vkSj d{kk esa
dfork&ikB dhft,A
2- vusd vU; dfo;ksa us Hkh izkFkZuk xhr fy[ks gSa] mUgas i<+us dk iz;kl dhft,_ tSlsµ
(d) egknsoh oekZµD;k iwtk D;k vpZu js!
([k) lw;Zdkar f=kikBh fujkykµnfyr tu ij djks d#.kkA
(x) bruh 'kfDr gesa nsuk nkrk
eu dk fo'okl de”kksj gks u
ge pysa usd jLrs ij ge ls
Hkwy dj Hkh dksbZ Hkwy gks u
bl izkFkZuk dks <w¡<+dj iwjk if<+, vkSj lef>, fd nksuksa izkFkZukvksa esa D;k lekurk gS\ D;k vkidks nksuksa
esa dksbZ varj Hkh izrhr gksrk gS\ bl ij vkil esa ppkZ dhft,A
© NCERT
not to be republished
50 / Li'kZ
ifj;kstuk dk;Z
1- johanzukFk BkoqQj dks ukscsy iqjLdkj ikus okys igys Hkkjrh; gksus dk xkSjo izkIr gSA muosQ fo"k; esa vkSj
tkudkjh ,d=k dj ifj;kstuk iqfLrdk esa fyf[k,A
2- johanzukFk BkoqQj dh ^xhrkatfy* dks iqLrdky; ls ysdj if<+,A
3- johanzukFk BkoqQj us dydÙkk (dksydkrk) osQ fudV ,d f'k{k.k laLFkku dh LFkkiuk dh FkhA iqLrdky;
dh enn ls mlosQ fo"k; esa tkudkjh ,df=kr dhft,A
4- johanzukFk BkoqQj us vusd xhr fy[ks] ftUgsa vkt Hkh xk;k tkrk gS vkSj mls johanz laxhr dgk tkrk gSA
;fn laHko gks rks johanz laxhr lacaèkh oSQlsV o lh-Mh- ysdj lqfu,A
'kCnkFkZ vkSj fVIif.k;k¡
foink & foifÙk@eqlhcr
d#.kke; & nwljksa ij n;k djus okyk
nq%[k rki & d"V dh ihM+k
O;fFkr &nq[kh
lgk;d & ennxkj
ikS#"k & ijkozQe
{k; &uk'k
=kk.k & Hk; fuokj.k @ cpko @ vkJ;
vuqfnu & izfrfnu
vuke; & jksx jfgr @ LoLFk
lkaRouk & <k¡<+l c¡èkkuk] rlYyh nsuk
vuqu; & fou;
ur f'kj & flj >qdkdj
nq%[k jkf=k & nq[k ls Hkjh jkr
oapuk & èkks[kk nsuk @ Nyuk
fuf[ky & laiw.kZ
la'k; & lansg
© NCERT
not to be republished
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