NCERT Textbook: पाठ 9 - संगतकार, क्षितिज II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 9 - संगतकार, क्षितिज II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


f{kfrt
52
ea
xys'k Mcjky dk tUe lu~ 1948 esa fVgjh x<+oky
(mÙkjkapy) osQ dkiQyikuh xk¡o esa gqvk vkSj f'k{kk&nh{kk
gqbZ nsgjknwu esaA fnYyh vkdj ¯gnh isfVª;V] izfri{k vkSj
vklikl esa dke djus osQ ckn os Hkksiky esa Hkkjr Hkou ls
izdkf'kr gksus okys iwoZxzg esa lgk;d laiknd gq,A bykgkckn
vkSj y[kumQ ls izdkf'kr ve`r izHkkr esa Hkh oqQN fnu
ukSdjh dhA lu~ 1983 esa tulÙkk v[kckj esa lkfgR;
laiknd dk in l¡HkkykA oqQN le; lgkjk le; esa laiknu
dk;Z djus osQ ckn vktdy os us'kuy cqd VªLV ls tqM+s gSaA
eaxys'k Mcjky osQ pkj dfork laxzg izdkf'kr gq,
gSaµigkM+ ij ykyVsu] ?kj dk jkLrk] ge tks ns[krs gSa
vkSj vkok”k Hkh ,d txg gSA lkfgR; vdknseh iqjLdkj]
igy lEeku ls lEekfur eaxys'k th dh [;kfr vuqoknd
osQ :i esa Hkh gSA eaxys'k th dh dforkvksa osQ Hkkjrh;
Hkk"kkvksa osQ vfrfjDr vaxsz”kh] :lh] teZu] Likuh] iksYLdh
vkSj cYxkjh Hkk"kkvksa esa Hkh vuqokn izdkf'kr gks pqosQ gSaA
dfork osQ vfrfjDr os lkfgR;] flusek] lapkj ekè;e vkSj
laLÑfr osQ lokyksa ij fu;fer ys[ku Hkh djrs gSaA eaxys'k
dh dforkvksa esa lkearh cksèk ,o iw¡thoknh Ny&Nn~e nksuksa
dk izfrdkj gSA os ;g izfrdkj fdlh 'kksj&'kjkcs osQ lkFk
ugha cfYd izfri{k esa ,d lqanj liuk jpdj djrs gSaA
mudk lkSan;Zcksèk lw{e gS vkSj Hkk"kk ikjn'khZA
eaxys'k
Mcjky
9
Page 2


f{kfrt
52
ea
xys'k Mcjky dk tUe lu~ 1948 esa fVgjh x<+oky
(mÙkjkapy) osQ dkiQyikuh xk¡o esa gqvk vkSj f'k{kk&nh{kk
gqbZ nsgjknwu esaA fnYyh vkdj ¯gnh isfVª;V] izfri{k vkSj
vklikl esa dke djus osQ ckn os Hkksiky esa Hkkjr Hkou ls
izdkf'kr gksus okys iwoZxzg esa lgk;d laiknd gq,A bykgkckn
vkSj y[kumQ ls izdkf'kr ve`r izHkkr esa Hkh oqQN fnu
ukSdjh dhA lu~ 1983 esa tulÙkk v[kckj esa lkfgR;
laiknd dk in l¡HkkykA oqQN le; lgkjk le; esa laiknu
dk;Z djus osQ ckn vktdy os us'kuy cqd VªLV ls tqM+s gSaA
eaxys'k Mcjky osQ pkj dfork laxzg izdkf'kr gq,
gSaµigkM+ ij ykyVsu] ?kj dk jkLrk] ge tks ns[krs gSa
vkSj vkok”k Hkh ,d txg gSA lkfgR; vdknseh iqjLdkj]
igy lEeku ls lEekfur eaxys'k th dh [;kfr vuqoknd
osQ :i esa Hkh gSA eaxys'k th dh dforkvksa osQ Hkkjrh;
Hkk"kkvksa osQ vfrfjDr vaxsz”kh] :lh] teZu] Likuh] iksYLdh
vkSj cYxkjh Hkk"kkvksa esa Hkh vuqokn izdkf'kr gks pqosQ gSaA
dfork osQ vfrfjDr os lkfgR;] flusek] lapkj ekè;e vkSj
laLÑfr osQ lokyksa ij fu;fer ys[ku Hkh djrs gSaA eaxys'k
dh dforkvksa esa lkearh cksèk ,o iw¡thoknh Ny&Nn~e nksuksa
dk izfrdkj gSA os ;g izfrdkj fdlh 'kksj&'kjkcs osQ lkFk
ugha cfYd izfri{k esa ,d lqanj liuk jpdj djrs gSaA
mudk lkSan;Zcksèk lw{e gS vkSj Hkk"kk ikjn'khZA
eaxys'k
Mcjky
9
eaxys'k Mcjky
53
laxrdkj dfork xk;u esa eq[; xk;d dk lkFk nsusokys laxrdkj dh Hkwfedk osQ
egÙo ij fopkj djrh gSA n`'; ekè;e dh izLrqfr;kas_ tSlsµukVd] fI
+
kQYe] laxhr]
u`R; osQ ckjs esa rks ;g lgh gS gh_ ge lekt vkSj bfrgkl esa Hkh ,sls vusd izlaxksa
dks ns[k ldrs gSa tgk¡ uk;d dh liQyrk esa vusd yksxksa us egÙoiw.kZ Hkwfedk
fuHkkbZA dfork geesa ;g laosnu'khyrk fodflr djrh gS fd muesa ls izR;sd dk
viuk&viuk egÙo gS vkSj mudk lkeus u vkuk mudh de”kksjh ugha ekuoh;rk
gSA laxhr dh lw{e le> vkSj dfork dh n`';kRedrk bl dfork dks ,slh xfr
nsrh gS ekuks ge bls vius lkeus ?kfVr gksrk ns[k jgs gksaA
Page 3


f{kfrt
52
ea
xys'k Mcjky dk tUe lu~ 1948 esa fVgjh x<+oky
(mÙkjkapy) osQ dkiQyikuh xk¡o esa gqvk vkSj f'k{kk&nh{kk
gqbZ nsgjknwu esaA fnYyh vkdj ¯gnh isfVª;V] izfri{k vkSj
vklikl esa dke djus osQ ckn os Hkksiky esa Hkkjr Hkou ls
izdkf'kr gksus okys iwoZxzg esa lgk;d laiknd gq,A bykgkckn
vkSj y[kumQ ls izdkf'kr ve`r izHkkr esa Hkh oqQN fnu
ukSdjh dhA lu~ 1983 esa tulÙkk v[kckj esa lkfgR;
laiknd dk in l¡HkkykA oqQN le; lgkjk le; esa laiknu
dk;Z djus osQ ckn vktdy os us'kuy cqd VªLV ls tqM+s gSaA
eaxys'k Mcjky osQ pkj dfork laxzg izdkf'kr gq,
gSaµigkM+ ij ykyVsu] ?kj dk jkLrk] ge tks ns[krs gSa
vkSj vkok”k Hkh ,d txg gSA lkfgR; vdknseh iqjLdkj]
igy lEeku ls lEekfur eaxys'k th dh [;kfr vuqoknd
osQ :i esa Hkh gSA eaxys'k th dh dforkvksa osQ Hkkjrh;
Hkk"kkvksa osQ vfrfjDr vaxsz”kh] :lh] teZu] Likuh] iksYLdh
vkSj cYxkjh Hkk"kkvksa esa Hkh vuqokn izdkf'kr gks pqosQ gSaA
dfork osQ vfrfjDr os lkfgR;] flusek] lapkj ekè;e vkSj
laLÑfr osQ lokyksa ij fu;fer ys[ku Hkh djrs gSaA eaxys'k
dh dforkvksa esa lkearh cksèk ,o iw¡thoknh Ny&Nn~e nksuksa
dk izfrdkj gSA os ;g izfrdkj fdlh 'kksj&'kjkcs osQ lkFk
ugha cfYd izfri{k esa ,d lqanj liuk jpdj djrs gSaA
mudk lkSan;Zcksèk lw{e gS vkSj Hkk"kk ikjn'khZA
eaxys'k
Mcjky
9
eaxys'k Mcjky
53
laxrdkj dfork xk;u esa eq[; xk;d dk lkFk nsusokys laxrdkj dh Hkwfedk osQ
egÙo ij fopkj djrh gSA n`'; ekè;e dh izLrqfr;kas_ tSlsµukVd] fI
+
kQYe] laxhr]
u`R; osQ ckjs esa rks ;g lgh gS gh_ ge lekt vkSj bfrgkl esa Hkh ,sls vusd izlaxksa
dks ns[k ldrs gSa tgk¡ uk;d dh liQyrk esa vusd yksxksa us egÙoiw.kZ Hkwfedk
fuHkkbZA dfork geesa ;g laosnu'khyrk fodflr djrh gS fd muesa ls izR;sd dk
viuk&viuk egÙo gS vkSj mudk lkeus u vkuk mudh de”kksjh ugha ekuoh;rk
gSA laxhr dh lw{e le> vkSj dfork dh n`';kRedrk bl dfork dks ,slh xfr
nsrh gS ekuks ge bls vius lkeus ?kfVr gksrk ns[k jgs gksaA
f{kfrt
54
laxrdkj
eq[; xk;d osQ p^ku tSls Hkkjh Loj dk lkFk nsrh
og vkok”k lqanj de”kksj dk¡irh gqbZ Fkh
og eq[; xk;d dk NksVk HkkbZ gS
;k mldk f'k";
;k iSny pydj lh[kus vkus okyk nwj dk dksbZ fj'rsnkj
eq[; xk;d dh xj”k esa
og viuh xw¡t feykrk vk;k gS izkphu dky ls
xk;d tc varjs dh tfVy rkuksa osQ taxy esa
[kks pqdk gksrk gS
;k vius gh ljxe dks yk¡?kdj
pyk tkrk gS HkVdrk gqvk ,d vugn esa
rc laxrdkj gh LFkk;h dks l¡Hkkys jgrk gS
tSls lesVrk gks eq[; xk;d dk ihNs NwVk gqvk lkeku
tSls mls ;kn fnykrk gks mldk cpiu
tc og ukSflf[k;k Fkk
rkjlIrd esa tc cSBus yxrk gS mldk xyk
izsj.kk lkFk NksM+rh gqbZ mRlkg vLr gksrk gqvk
vkok”k ls jk[k tSlk oqQN fxjrk gqvk
rHkh eq[; xk;d dks <k¡<+l c¡èkkrk
dgha ls pyk vkrk gS laxrdkj dk Loj
dHkh&dHkh og ;ksa gh ns nsrk gS mldk lkFk
;g crkus osQ fy, fd og vosQyk ugha gS
vkSj ;g fd fiQj ls xk;k tk ldrk gS
Page 4


f{kfrt
52
ea
xys'k Mcjky dk tUe lu~ 1948 esa fVgjh x<+oky
(mÙkjkapy) osQ dkiQyikuh xk¡o esa gqvk vkSj f'k{kk&nh{kk
gqbZ nsgjknwu esaA fnYyh vkdj ¯gnh isfVª;V] izfri{k vkSj
vklikl esa dke djus osQ ckn os Hkksiky esa Hkkjr Hkou ls
izdkf'kr gksus okys iwoZxzg esa lgk;d laiknd gq,A bykgkckn
vkSj y[kumQ ls izdkf'kr ve`r izHkkr esa Hkh oqQN fnu
ukSdjh dhA lu~ 1983 esa tulÙkk v[kckj esa lkfgR;
laiknd dk in l¡HkkykA oqQN le; lgkjk le; esa laiknu
dk;Z djus osQ ckn vktdy os us'kuy cqd VªLV ls tqM+s gSaA
eaxys'k Mcjky osQ pkj dfork laxzg izdkf'kr gq,
gSaµigkM+ ij ykyVsu] ?kj dk jkLrk] ge tks ns[krs gSa
vkSj vkok”k Hkh ,d txg gSA lkfgR; vdknseh iqjLdkj]
igy lEeku ls lEekfur eaxys'k th dh [;kfr vuqoknd
osQ :i esa Hkh gSA eaxys'k th dh dforkvksa osQ Hkkjrh;
Hkk"kkvksa osQ vfrfjDr vaxsz”kh] :lh] teZu] Likuh] iksYLdh
vkSj cYxkjh Hkk"kkvksa esa Hkh vuqokn izdkf'kr gks pqosQ gSaA
dfork osQ vfrfjDr os lkfgR;] flusek] lapkj ekè;e vkSj
laLÑfr osQ lokyksa ij fu;fer ys[ku Hkh djrs gSaA eaxys'k
dh dforkvksa esa lkearh cksèk ,o iw¡thoknh Ny&Nn~e nksuksa
dk izfrdkj gSA os ;g izfrdkj fdlh 'kksj&'kjkcs osQ lkFk
ugha cfYd izfri{k esa ,d lqanj liuk jpdj djrs gSaA
mudk lkSan;Zcksèk lw{e gS vkSj Hkk"kk ikjn'khZA
eaxys'k
Mcjky
9
eaxys'k Mcjky
53
laxrdkj dfork xk;u esa eq[; xk;d dk lkFk nsusokys laxrdkj dh Hkwfedk osQ
egÙo ij fopkj djrh gSA n`'; ekè;e dh izLrqfr;kas_ tSlsµukVd] fI
+
kQYe] laxhr]
u`R; osQ ckjs esa rks ;g lgh gS gh_ ge lekt vkSj bfrgkl esa Hkh ,sls vusd izlaxksa
dks ns[k ldrs gSa tgk¡ uk;d dh liQyrk esa vusd yksxksa us egÙoiw.kZ Hkwfedk
fuHkkbZA dfork geesa ;g laosnu'khyrk fodflr djrh gS fd muesa ls izR;sd dk
viuk&viuk egÙo gS vkSj mudk lkeus u vkuk mudh de”kksjh ugha ekuoh;rk
gSA laxhr dh lw{e le> vkSj dfork dh n`';kRedrk bl dfork dks ,slh xfr
nsrh gS ekuks ge bls vius lkeus ?kfVr gksrk ns[k jgs gksaA
f{kfrt
54
laxrdkj
eq[; xk;d osQ p^ku tSls Hkkjh Loj dk lkFk nsrh
og vkok”k lqanj de”kksj dk¡irh gqbZ Fkh
og eq[; xk;d dk NksVk HkkbZ gS
;k mldk f'k";
;k iSny pydj lh[kus vkus okyk nwj dk dksbZ fj'rsnkj
eq[; xk;d dh xj”k esa
og viuh xw¡t feykrk vk;k gS izkphu dky ls
xk;d tc varjs dh tfVy rkuksa osQ taxy esa
[kks pqdk gksrk gS
;k vius gh ljxe dks yk¡?kdj
pyk tkrk gS HkVdrk gqvk ,d vugn esa
rc laxrdkj gh LFkk;h dks l¡Hkkys jgrk gS
tSls lesVrk gks eq[; xk;d dk ihNs NwVk gqvk lkeku
tSls mls ;kn fnykrk gks mldk cpiu
tc og ukSflf[k;k Fkk
rkjlIrd esa tc cSBus yxrk gS mldk xyk
izsj.kk lkFk NksM+rh gqbZ mRlkg vLr gksrk gqvk
vkok”k ls jk[k tSlk oqQN fxjrk gqvk
rHkh eq[; xk;d dks <k¡<+l c¡èkkrk
dgha ls pyk vkrk gS laxrdkj dk Loj
dHkh&dHkh og ;ksa gh ns nsrk gS mldk lkFk
;g crkus osQ fy, fd og vosQyk ugha gS
vkSj ;g fd fiQj ls xk;k tk ldrk gS
eaxys'k Mcjky
55
xk;k tk pqdk jkx
vkSj mldh vkok”k esa tks ,d fgpd lkI
+
kQ lqukbZ nsrh gS
;k vius Loj dks m¡Qpk u mBkus dh tks dksf'k'k gS
mls foiQyrk ugha
mldh euq";rk le>k tkuk pkfg,A
iz'u&vH;kl
1- laxrdkj osQ ekè;e ls dfo fdl izdkj osQ O;fDr;ksa dh vksj laosQr djuk pkg jgk gS\
2- laxrdkj tSls O;fDr laxhr osQ vykok vkSj fdu&fdu {ks=kksa esa fn[kkbZ nsrs gSa\
3- laxrdkj fdu&fdu :iksa esa eq[; xk;d&xkf;dkvksa dh enn djrs gSa\
4- Hkko Li"V dhft,µ
vkSj mldh vkok”k esa tks ,d fgpd lkI
+
kQ lqukbZ nsrh gS
;k vius Loj dks mQ¡pk u mBkus dh tks dksf'k'k gS
mls foiQyrk ugha
mldh euq";rk le>k tkuk pkfg,A
5- fdlh Hkh {ks=k esa izflf¼ ikus okys yksxksa oQks vusd yksx rjg&rjg ls viuk ;ksxnku nsrs gSaA dksbZ ,d
mnkgj.k nsdj bl dFku ij vius fopkj fyf[k,A
6- dHkh&dHkh rkjlIrd dh mQ¡pkbZ ij igq¡pdj eq[; xk;d dk Loj fc[kjrk u”kj vkrk gS ml le;
laxrdkj mls fc[kjus ls cpk ysrk gSA bl dFku osQ vkyksd esa laxrdkj dh fo'ks"k Hkwfedk dks LIk"V
dhft,A
7- liQyrk osQ pje f'k[kj ij igq¡pus osQ nkSjku ;fn O;fDr yM+[kM+krk gS rc mls lg;ksxh fdl rjg
l¡Hkkyrs gSa\
jpuk vkSj vfHkO;fDr
8- dYiuk dhft, fd vkidks fdlh laxhr ;k u`R; lekjksg dk dk;ZozQe izLrqr djuk gS ysfdu vkiosQ
lg;ksxh dykdkj fdlh dkj.ko'k ugha igq¡p ik,¡µ
(d) ,sls esa viuh fLFkfr dk o.kZu dhft,A
([k) ,slh ifjfLFkfr dk vki oSQls lkeuk djsaxs\
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