NCERT Textbook - सपनों के-से दिन Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook - सपनों के-से दिन Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


20 lap;u
liuksa osQ&ls fnu
esjs lkFk [ksyus okys lHkh cPpksa dk gky ,d&lk gksrkA uaxs ik¡o] iQVh&eSyh lh dPNh vkSj VwVs
cVuksa okys dbZ txg ls iQVs oqQrsZ vkSj fc[kjs ckyA tc ydM+h osQ <sj ij p<+dj [ksyrs uhps
dks Hkkxrs rks fxjdj dbZ rks tkus dgk¡&dgk¡ pksV [kk ysrs vkSj igys gh iQVs&iqjkus oqQrsZ rkj&rkj
gks tkrsA èkwy Hkjs] dbZ txg ls fNys ik¡o] ¯iMfy;k¡ ;k ygw osQ mQij teh jsr&fe^h ls yFkiFk
?kqVus ysdj tkrs rks lHkh dh ek¡&cgusa mu ij rjl [kkus dh txg vkSj fiVkbZ djrhaA db;ksa osQ
cki cM+s xqLlSy FksA ihVus yxrs rks ;g è;ku Hkh u j[krs fd NksVs cPps osQ ukd&eq¡g ls ygw cgus
yxk gS ;k mlosQ dgk¡ pksV yxh gSA ijarq bruh cqjh fiVkbZ gksus ij Hkh nwljs fnu fiQj [ksyus pys
vkrsA (;g ckr rc Bhd ls le> vkbZ tc LowQy vè;kid cuus osQ fy, ,d Vªs¯ux
1
 djus
x;k vkSj ogk¡ cky&euksfoKku dk fo"k; i<+kA ,slh ckrksa osQ ckjs esa rHkh tku ik;k fd cPpksa dks
[ksyuk D;ksa bruk vPNk yxrk gS fd cqjh rjg fiVkbZ gksus ij Hkh fiQj [ksyus pys vkrs gSaA)
esjs lkFk [ksyus okys vf/drj lkFkh gekjs tSls gh ifjokjksa osQ gqvk djrsA lkjs eqgYys esa cgqr
ifjokj rks] gekjh rjg vklikl osQ xk¡oksa ls gh vkdj cls FksA nks&rhu ?kj] lkFk dh mtM+h&lh
xyh esa jgus okys yksxksa osQ FksA gekjh lHkh dh vknrsa Hkh oqQN feyrh&tqyrh FkhaA muesa ls vfèkd
rks LowQy tkrs gh u Fks] tks dHkh x, Hkh] i<+kbZ esa #fp u gksus osQ dkj.k fdlh fnu cLrk rkykc
esa isaQd vk, vkSj fiQj LowQy x, gh ugha] u gh ek¡&cki us ”kcjnLrh HkstkA ;gk¡ rd fd ijpwfu;s]
vk<+rh;s Hkh vius cPpksa dks LowQy Hkstuk ”k:jh u le>rsA dHkh fdlh LowQy vè;kid ls ckr
gksrh rks dgrsµekLVj th geus bls D;k rglhynkj yxokuk gSA FkksM+k cM+k gks tk, rks iaMr
?ku';ke nkl ls yaMs
2
 i<+okdj nqdku ij cfg;k¡
3
 fy[kus yxk ysaxsA iaMr Ng&vkB eghus esa yaMs
vkSj equheh dk lHkh dke fl[kk nsxkA ogk¡ rks vHkh rd vfyiQ&cs the&p Hkh lh[k ugha ik;kA
1- izf'k{k.k  2- fglkc&fdrkc fy[kus dh iatkch izkphu fyfi  3- [kkrk (nqdku osQ fglkc&fdrkc dk C;kSjk ftlesa
fy[kk tk,)
Page 2


20 lap;u
liuksa osQ&ls fnu
esjs lkFk [ksyus okys lHkh cPpksa dk gky ,d&lk gksrkA uaxs ik¡o] iQVh&eSyh lh dPNh vkSj VwVs
cVuksa okys dbZ txg ls iQVs oqQrsZ vkSj fc[kjs ckyA tc ydM+h osQ <sj ij p<+dj [ksyrs uhps
dks Hkkxrs rks fxjdj dbZ rks tkus dgk¡&dgk¡ pksV [kk ysrs vkSj igys gh iQVs&iqjkus oqQrsZ rkj&rkj
gks tkrsA èkwy Hkjs] dbZ txg ls fNys ik¡o] ¯iMfy;k¡ ;k ygw osQ mQij teh jsr&fe^h ls yFkiFk
?kqVus ysdj tkrs rks lHkh dh ek¡&cgusa mu ij rjl [kkus dh txg vkSj fiVkbZ djrhaA db;ksa osQ
cki cM+s xqLlSy FksA ihVus yxrs rks ;g è;ku Hkh u j[krs fd NksVs cPps osQ ukd&eq¡g ls ygw cgus
yxk gS ;k mlosQ dgk¡ pksV yxh gSA ijarq bruh cqjh fiVkbZ gksus ij Hkh nwljs fnu fiQj [ksyus pys
vkrsA (;g ckr rc Bhd ls le> vkbZ tc LowQy vè;kid cuus osQ fy, ,d Vªs¯ux
1
 djus
x;k vkSj ogk¡ cky&euksfoKku dk fo"k; i<+kA ,slh ckrksa osQ ckjs esa rHkh tku ik;k fd cPpksa dks
[ksyuk D;ksa bruk vPNk yxrk gS fd cqjh rjg fiVkbZ gksus ij Hkh fiQj [ksyus pys vkrs gSaA)
esjs lkFk [ksyus okys vf/drj lkFkh gekjs tSls gh ifjokjksa osQ gqvk djrsA lkjs eqgYys esa cgqr
ifjokj rks] gekjh rjg vklikl osQ xk¡oksa ls gh vkdj cls FksA nks&rhu ?kj] lkFk dh mtM+h&lh
xyh esa jgus okys yksxksa osQ FksA gekjh lHkh dh vknrsa Hkh oqQN feyrh&tqyrh FkhaA muesa ls vfèkd
rks LowQy tkrs gh u Fks] tks dHkh x, Hkh] i<+kbZ esa #fp u gksus osQ dkj.k fdlh fnu cLrk rkykc
esa isaQd vk, vkSj fiQj LowQy x, gh ugha] u gh ek¡&cki us ”kcjnLrh HkstkA ;gk¡ rd fd ijpwfu;s]
vk<+rh;s Hkh vius cPpksa dks LowQy Hkstuk ”k:jh u le>rsA dHkh fdlh LowQy vè;kid ls ckr
gksrh rks dgrsµekLVj th geus bls D;k rglhynkj yxokuk gSA FkksM+k cM+k gks tk, rks iaMr
?ku';ke nkl ls yaMs
2
 i<+okdj nqdku ij cfg;k¡
3
 fy[kus yxk ysaxsA iaMr Ng&vkB eghus esa yaMs
vkSj equheh dk lHkh dke fl[kk nsxkA ogk¡ rks vHkh rd vfyiQ&cs the&p Hkh lh[k ugha ik;kA
1- izf'k{k.k  2- fglkc&fdrkc fy[kus dh iatkch izkphu fyfi  3- [kkrk (nqdku osQ fglkc&fdrkc dk C;kSjk ftlesa
fy[kk tk,)
liuksa osQ&ls fnu 21
Page 3


20 lap;u
liuksa osQ&ls fnu
esjs lkFk [ksyus okys lHkh cPpksa dk gky ,d&lk gksrkA uaxs ik¡o] iQVh&eSyh lh dPNh vkSj VwVs
cVuksa okys dbZ txg ls iQVs oqQrsZ vkSj fc[kjs ckyA tc ydM+h osQ <sj ij p<+dj [ksyrs uhps
dks Hkkxrs rks fxjdj dbZ rks tkus dgk¡&dgk¡ pksV [kk ysrs vkSj igys gh iQVs&iqjkus oqQrsZ rkj&rkj
gks tkrsA èkwy Hkjs] dbZ txg ls fNys ik¡o] ¯iMfy;k¡ ;k ygw osQ mQij teh jsr&fe^h ls yFkiFk
?kqVus ysdj tkrs rks lHkh dh ek¡&cgusa mu ij rjl [kkus dh txg vkSj fiVkbZ djrhaA db;ksa osQ
cki cM+s xqLlSy FksA ihVus yxrs rks ;g è;ku Hkh u j[krs fd NksVs cPps osQ ukd&eq¡g ls ygw cgus
yxk gS ;k mlosQ dgk¡ pksV yxh gSA ijarq bruh cqjh fiVkbZ gksus ij Hkh nwljs fnu fiQj [ksyus pys
vkrsA (;g ckr rc Bhd ls le> vkbZ tc LowQy vè;kid cuus osQ fy, ,d Vªs¯ux
1
 djus
x;k vkSj ogk¡ cky&euksfoKku dk fo"k; i<+kA ,slh ckrksa osQ ckjs esa rHkh tku ik;k fd cPpksa dks
[ksyuk D;ksa bruk vPNk yxrk gS fd cqjh rjg fiVkbZ gksus ij Hkh fiQj [ksyus pys vkrs gSaA)
esjs lkFk [ksyus okys vf/drj lkFkh gekjs tSls gh ifjokjksa osQ gqvk djrsA lkjs eqgYys esa cgqr
ifjokj rks] gekjh rjg vklikl osQ xk¡oksa ls gh vkdj cls FksA nks&rhu ?kj] lkFk dh mtM+h&lh
xyh esa jgus okys yksxksa osQ FksA gekjh lHkh dh vknrsa Hkh oqQN feyrh&tqyrh FkhaA muesa ls vfèkd
rks LowQy tkrs gh u Fks] tks dHkh x, Hkh] i<+kbZ esa #fp u gksus osQ dkj.k fdlh fnu cLrk rkykc
esa isaQd vk, vkSj fiQj LowQy x, gh ugha] u gh ek¡&cki us ”kcjnLrh HkstkA ;gk¡ rd fd ijpwfu;s]
vk<+rh;s Hkh vius cPpksa dks LowQy Hkstuk ”k:jh u le>rsA dHkh fdlh LowQy vè;kid ls ckr
gksrh rks dgrsµekLVj th geus bls D;k rglhynkj yxokuk gSA FkksM+k cM+k gks tk, rks iaMr
?ku';ke nkl ls yaMs
2
 i<+okdj nqdku ij cfg;k¡
3
 fy[kus yxk ysaxsA iaMr Ng&vkB eghus esa yaMs
vkSj equheh dk lHkh dke fl[kk nsxkA ogk¡ rks vHkh rd vfyiQ&cs the&p Hkh lh[k ugha ik;kA
1- izf'k{k.k  2- fglkc&fdrkc fy[kus dh iatkch izkphu fyfi  3- [kkrk (nqdku osQ fglkc&fdrkc dk C;kSjk ftlesa
fy[kk tk,)
liuksa osQ&ls fnu 21 22 lap;u
gekjs vk/s ls vf/d lkFkh jktLFkku ;k gfj;k.kk ls vkdj eaMh esa O;kikj ;k nqdkunkjh djus
vk, ifjokjksa ls FksA tc cgqr NksVs Fks rks mudh cksyh de le> ikrsA muosQ oqQN 'kCn lqudj
gesa g¡lh vkus yxrhA ijarq [ksyrs rks lHkh ,d&nwljs dh ckr [kwc vPNh rjg le> ysrsA
irk Hkh ugha pyk fd yksdksfDr vuqlkj ^,g [ksM.k
4
 ns fnu pkj* oSQls] dc chr x,A (geesa
ls dksbZ Hkh ,slk u Fkk tks LowQy osQ dejs esa cSBdj i<+us dks ^oSQn* u le>rk gksA) oqQN vius
ek¡&cki osQ lkFk tSlk Hkh Fkk] dke djkus yxsA
cpiu esa ?kkl vf/d gjh vkSj iwQyksa dh lqxa/ vf/d eueksgd yxrh gSA ;g 'kCn 'kk;n
vk/h 'krh igys fdlh iqLrd esa i<+s Fks] ijarq vkt rd ;kn gSaA ;kn jgus dk dkj.k ;gh gS fd
;g okD; cpiu dh Hkkoukvksa] lksp&le> osQ vuqowQy gksxkA ijarq LowQy osQ vanj tkus ls jkLrs
osQ nksuksa vksj tks vfy;kj osQ cM+s <ax ls dVs&Nk¡Vs >kM+ mxs Fks (ftUgsa ge MafM;k¡ dgk djrs)
muosQ uhe osQ iÙkksa tSls iÙkksa dh egd vkt rd Hkh vk¡[k ew¡ndj eglwl dj ldrk gw¡A mu
fnuksa LowQy dh NksVh D;kfj;ksa esa iwQy Hkh dbZ rjg osQ mxk, tkrs Fks ftuesa xqykc] xsank vkSj
eksfr;k dh nw/&lh lI
+
ksQn dfy;k¡ Hkh gqvk djrhaA ;s dfy;k¡ bruh lqanj vkSj [kq'kcwnkj gksrh Fkha
fd ge panw piM+klh
5
 ls vk¡[k cpkdj dHkh&dHkkj ,d&nks rksM+ fy;k djrsA mudh cgqr rs”k
lqxa/ vkt Hkh eglwl dj ikrk gw¡] ijarq ;g ;kn ugha fd mUgsa rksM+dj] oqQN nsj lw¡?kdj fiQj
D;k fd;k djrsA ('kk;n tsc esa Mky ysrs] ek¡ mls /ksus osQ le; fudkydj ckgj isaQd nsrh ;k
ge gh] LowQy ls ckgj vkrs mUgsa cdjh osQ eseuksa dh Hkk¡fr ^pj* tk;k djrs)A
tc vxyh Js.kh esa nkf[ky gksrs rks ,d vksj rks oqQN cM+s] l;kus gksus osQ ,glkl ls mRlkfgr
Hkh gksrs] ijarq nwljh vksj u;h] iqjkuh dkfi;ksa&fdrkcksa ls tkus oSQlh ckl vkrh fd mUgha ekLVjksa
osQ Mj ls dk¡ius yxrs tks fiNyh Js.kh esa i<+k pqosQ gksrsA
rc LowQy esa] 'kq: lky esa ,d&Ms<+ eghuk i<+kbZ gqvk djrh] fiQj Ms<+&nks eghus dh Nqf^;k¡
'kq: gks tk;k djrhaA vc rd tks ckr vPNh rjg ;kn gS og Nqf^;ksa osQ igys vkSj vkf[kjh fnuksa
dk I
+
kQoZQ FkkA igys nks&rhu lIrkg rks [kwc [ksy&owQn gqvk djrhA gj lky gh ek¡ osQ lkFk ufugky
pys tkrsA ogk¡ ukuh [kwc nw/&ngh] eD[ku f[kykrh] cgqr I;kj djrhA NksVk lk fiNM+k xk¡o Fkk
ijarq rkykc gekjh eaMh osQ rkykc ftruk gh cM+k FkkA nksigj rd rks ml rkykc esa ugkrs fiQj
ukuh ls tks th esa vkrk ek¡xdj [kkus yxrsA ukuh gekjs cksyus osQ <ax ;k de [kkus osQ dkj.k cgqr
[kq'k gksrhA vius iksrksa dks gekjh rjg cksyus vkSj [kkus&ihus dks dgrhA ftl lky ufugky u tk
ikrs] ml lky Hkh vius ?kj ls FkksM+k ckgj rkykc ij pys tkrsA diM+s mrkj ikuh esa owQn tkrs
vkSj oqQN le; ckn] Hkkxrs gq, ,d jsrhys Vhys ij tkdj] jsr osQ mQij ysVus yxrsA xhys 'kjhj
4- [ksyus osQ  5- pijklh
Page 4


20 lap;u
liuksa osQ&ls fnu
esjs lkFk [ksyus okys lHkh cPpksa dk gky ,d&lk gksrkA uaxs ik¡o] iQVh&eSyh lh dPNh vkSj VwVs
cVuksa okys dbZ txg ls iQVs oqQrsZ vkSj fc[kjs ckyA tc ydM+h osQ <sj ij p<+dj [ksyrs uhps
dks Hkkxrs rks fxjdj dbZ rks tkus dgk¡&dgk¡ pksV [kk ysrs vkSj igys gh iQVs&iqjkus oqQrsZ rkj&rkj
gks tkrsA èkwy Hkjs] dbZ txg ls fNys ik¡o] ¯iMfy;k¡ ;k ygw osQ mQij teh jsr&fe^h ls yFkiFk
?kqVus ysdj tkrs rks lHkh dh ek¡&cgusa mu ij rjl [kkus dh txg vkSj fiVkbZ djrhaA db;ksa osQ
cki cM+s xqLlSy FksA ihVus yxrs rks ;g è;ku Hkh u j[krs fd NksVs cPps osQ ukd&eq¡g ls ygw cgus
yxk gS ;k mlosQ dgk¡ pksV yxh gSA ijarq bruh cqjh fiVkbZ gksus ij Hkh nwljs fnu fiQj [ksyus pys
vkrsA (;g ckr rc Bhd ls le> vkbZ tc LowQy vè;kid cuus osQ fy, ,d Vªs¯ux
1
 djus
x;k vkSj ogk¡ cky&euksfoKku dk fo"k; i<+kA ,slh ckrksa osQ ckjs esa rHkh tku ik;k fd cPpksa dks
[ksyuk D;ksa bruk vPNk yxrk gS fd cqjh rjg fiVkbZ gksus ij Hkh fiQj [ksyus pys vkrs gSaA)
esjs lkFk [ksyus okys vf/drj lkFkh gekjs tSls gh ifjokjksa osQ gqvk djrsA lkjs eqgYys esa cgqr
ifjokj rks] gekjh rjg vklikl osQ xk¡oksa ls gh vkdj cls FksA nks&rhu ?kj] lkFk dh mtM+h&lh
xyh esa jgus okys yksxksa osQ FksA gekjh lHkh dh vknrsa Hkh oqQN feyrh&tqyrh FkhaA muesa ls vfèkd
rks LowQy tkrs gh u Fks] tks dHkh x, Hkh] i<+kbZ esa #fp u gksus osQ dkj.k fdlh fnu cLrk rkykc
esa isaQd vk, vkSj fiQj LowQy x, gh ugha] u gh ek¡&cki us ”kcjnLrh HkstkA ;gk¡ rd fd ijpwfu;s]
vk<+rh;s Hkh vius cPpksa dks LowQy Hkstuk ”k:jh u le>rsA dHkh fdlh LowQy vè;kid ls ckr
gksrh rks dgrsµekLVj th geus bls D;k rglhynkj yxokuk gSA FkksM+k cM+k gks tk, rks iaMr
?ku';ke nkl ls yaMs
2
 i<+okdj nqdku ij cfg;k¡
3
 fy[kus yxk ysaxsA iaMr Ng&vkB eghus esa yaMs
vkSj equheh dk lHkh dke fl[kk nsxkA ogk¡ rks vHkh rd vfyiQ&cs the&p Hkh lh[k ugha ik;kA
1- izf'k{k.k  2- fglkc&fdrkc fy[kus dh iatkch izkphu fyfi  3- [kkrk (nqdku osQ fglkc&fdrkc dk C;kSjk ftlesa
fy[kk tk,)
liuksa osQ&ls fnu 21 22 lap;u
gekjs vk/s ls vf/d lkFkh jktLFkku ;k gfj;k.kk ls vkdj eaMh esa O;kikj ;k nqdkunkjh djus
vk, ifjokjksa ls FksA tc cgqr NksVs Fks rks mudh cksyh de le> ikrsA muosQ oqQN 'kCn lqudj
gesa g¡lh vkus yxrhA ijarq [ksyrs rks lHkh ,d&nwljs dh ckr [kwc vPNh rjg le> ysrsA
irk Hkh ugha pyk fd yksdksfDr vuqlkj ^,g [ksM.k
4
 ns fnu pkj* oSQls] dc chr x,A (geesa
ls dksbZ Hkh ,slk u Fkk tks LowQy osQ dejs esa cSBdj i<+us dks ^oSQn* u le>rk gksA) oqQN vius
ek¡&cki osQ lkFk tSlk Hkh Fkk] dke djkus yxsA
cpiu esa ?kkl vf/d gjh vkSj iwQyksa dh lqxa/ vf/d eueksgd yxrh gSA ;g 'kCn 'kk;n
vk/h 'krh igys fdlh iqLrd esa i<+s Fks] ijarq vkt rd ;kn gSaA ;kn jgus dk dkj.k ;gh gS fd
;g okD; cpiu dh Hkkoukvksa] lksp&le> osQ vuqowQy gksxkA ijarq LowQy osQ vanj tkus ls jkLrs
osQ nksuksa vksj tks vfy;kj osQ cM+s <ax ls dVs&Nk¡Vs >kM+ mxs Fks (ftUgsa ge MafM;k¡ dgk djrs)
muosQ uhe osQ iÙkksa tSls iÙkksa dh egd vkt rd Hkh vk¡[k ew¡ndj eglwl dj ldrk gw¡A mu
fnuksa LowQy dh NksVh D;kfj;ksa esa iwQy Hkh dbZ rjg osQ mxk, tkrs Fks ftuesa xqykc] xsank vkSj
eksfr;k dh nw/&lh lI
+
ksQn dfy;k¡ Hkh gqvk djrhaA ;s dfy;k¡ bruh lqanj vkSj [kq'kcwnkj gksrh Fkha
fd ge panw piM+klh
5
 ls vk¡[k cpkdj dHkh&dHkkj ,d&nks rksM+ fy;k djrsA mudh cgqr rs”k
lqxa/ vkt Hkh eglwl dj ikrk gw¡] ijarq ;g ;kn ugha fd mUgsa rksM+dj] oqQN nsj lw¡?kdj fiQj
D;k fd;k djrsA ('kk;n tsc esa Mky ysrs] ek¡ mls /ksus osQ le; fudkydj ckgj isaQd nsrh ;k
ge gh] LowQy ls ckgj vkrs mUgsa cdjh osQ eseuksa dh Hkk¡fr ^pj* tk;k djrs)A
tc vxyh Js.kh esa nkf[ky gksrs rks ,d vksj rks oqQN cM+s] l;kus gksus osQ ,glkl ls mRlkfgr
Hkh gksrs] ijarq nwljh vksj u;h] iqjkuh dkfi;ksa&fdrkcksa ls tkus oSQlh ckl vkrh fd mUgha ekLVjksa
osQ Mj ls dk¡ius yxrs tks fiNyh Js.kh esa i<+k pqosQ gksrsA
rc LowQy esa] 'kq: lky esa ,d&Ms<+ eghuk i<+kbZ gqvk djrh] fiQj Ms<+&nks eghus dh Nqf^;k¡
'kq: gks tk;k djrhaA vc rd tks ckr vPNh rjg ;kn gS og Nqf^;ksa osQ igys vkSj vkf[kjh fnuksa
dk I
+
kQoZQ FkkA igys nks&rhu lIrkg rks [kwc [ksy&owQn gqvk djrhA gj lky gh ek¡ osQ lkFk ufugky
pys tkrsA ogk¡ ukuh [kwc nw/&ngh] eD[ku f[kykrh] cgqr I;kj djrhA NksVk lk fiNM+k xk¡o Fkk
ijarq rkykc gekjh eaMh osQ rkykc ftruk gh cM+k FkkA nksigj rd rks ml rkykc esa ugkrs fiQj
ukuh ls tks th esa vkrk ek¡xdj [kkus yxrsA ukuh gekjs cksyus osQ <ax ;k de [kkus osQ dkj.k cgqr
[kq'k gksrhA vius iksrksa dks gekjh rjg cksyus vkSj [kkus&ihus dks dgrhA ftl lky ufugky u tk
ikrs] ml lky Hkh vius ?kj ls FkksM+k ckgj rkykc ij pys tkrsA diM+s mrkj ikuh esa owQn tkrs
vkSj oqQN le; ckn] Hkkxrs gq, ,d jsrhys Vhys ij tkdj] jsr osQ mQij ysVus yxrsA xhys 'kjhj
4- [ksyus osQ  5- pijklh
liuksa osQ&ls fnu 23
dks xje jsr ls [kwc yFkiFk dj mlh rjg Hkkxrs] fdlh m¡Qph txg ls rkykc esa Nyk¡x yxk nsrsA
jsr dks xanys ikuh ls lkI
+
kQ dj fiQj Vhys dh vksj Hkkx tkrsA ;kn ugha fd ,slk] ik¡p&nl ckj
djrs ;k ianzg&chl ckjA dbZ ckj rkykc esa owQndj ,sls gkFk&ik¡o fgykus yxrs tSls cgqr vPNs
rSjkd gksaA ijarq ,d&nks dks NksM+] esjs fdlh lkFkh dks rSjuk ugha vkrk FkkA oqQN rks gkFk&ik¡o fgykrs
gq, xgjs ikuh esa pys tkrs rks nwljs mUgsa ckgj vkus osQ fy, fdlh HkSal osQ lhax ;k nqe idM+dj
ckgj vkus dh lykg nsrsA mUgsa <k¡<+l c¡/krsA owQnrs le; eq¡g esa xanyk ikuh Hkj tkrk rks cqjh
rjg [kk¡lrsA dbZ ckj ,slk yxrk fd lk¡l #dus yxh gS ijarq gk;&gk; djrs fdlh u fdlh rjg
rkykc osQ fdukjs igq¡p tkrsA
fiQj Nqf^;k¡ chrus yxrha rks fnu fxuus yxrsA izR;sd fnu Mj c<+rk pyk tkrkA [ksy&owQn
vkSj rkykc esa ugkuk Hkh Hkwyus yxrkA ekLVjksa us tks Nqf^;ksa esa djus osQ fy, dke fn;k gksrk
mldk fglkc yxkus yxrsA tSls fglkc osQ ekLVj th nks lkS ls de loky dHkh u crkrsA eu
esa fglkc yxkrs fd ;fn nl loky jks”k fudkys rks chl fnu ess iwjs gks tk,¡xsA tc ,slk lkspuk
'qk: djrs rks Nqf^;ksa dk ,d eghuk ckdh gqvk djrkA ,d&,d fnu fxurs nl fnu [ksy&owQn
esa vkSj chr tkrsA LowQy dh fiVkbZ
6
 dk Mj vkSj c<+us yxrkA ijarq Mj Hkqykus osQ fy, lksprs
fd nl dh D;k ckr] loky rks ianzg Hkh vklkuh ls jks”k fudkys tk ldrs gSaA tc ,slk fglkc
yxkus yxrs rks Nqf^;k¡ de gksrs&gksrs tSls Hkkxus yxrhaA fnu cgqr NksVs yxus yxrsA ,slk eglwl
gksrk tSls lwjt Hkkxdj nksigjh esa gh fNi tkrk gksA tSls&tSls fnu ^NksVs* gksus yxrs LowQy dk
Hk; c<+us yxrkA gekjs fdrus gh lgikBh ,sls Hkh gksrs tks Nqf^;ksa dk dke djus dh ctk; ekLVjksa
dh fiVkbZ vf/d ^lLrk lkSnk* le>rsA ge tks fiVkbZ ls cgqr Mjk djrs] mu ^cgknqjksa* dh Hkk¡fr
gh lkspus yxrsA ,sls le; gekjk lcls cM+k ^usrk* vksek gqvk djrkA
ge lHkh mlosQ ckjs esa lksprs fd gekjs esa ml tSlk dkSu FkkA dHkh Hkh ml tSlk nwljk yM+dk
ugha <w¡<+ ikrs FksA mldh ckrsa] xkfy;k¡] ekj&fiVkbZ dk <ax rks vyx Fkk gh] mldh 'kDy&lwjr
Hkh lcls vyx FkhA gk¡M+h ftruk cM+k flj] mlosQ fBxus pkj ckfy'r osQ 'kjhj ij ,slk yxrk
tSls fcYyh osQ cPps osQ ekFks ij rjcwt j[kk gksA brus cMs+ flj esa ukfj;y&dh&lh vk¡[kksa okyk
canfj;k osQ cPps tSlk psgjk vkSj Hkh vthc yxrkA yM+kbZ og gkFk&ik¡o ugha] flj ls fd;k djrkA
tc lk¡M+ dh Hkk¡fr iq¡Qdkjrk] flj >qdkdj fdlh osQ isV ;k Nkrh esa ekj nsrk rks mlls nqxqus&frxqus
'kjhj okys yM+osQ Hkh ihM+k ls fpYykus yxrsA gesa Mj yxrk fd fdlh dh Nkrh dh ilyh gh
u rksM+ MkysA mlosQ flj dh VDdj dk uke geus ^jsy&cEck* j[kk gqvk Fkkµjsy osQ (dks;ys ls
pyus okys) batu dh Hkk¡fr cM+k vkSj Hk;adj gh rks FkkA
6- vktdy LowQyksa esa fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks ihVuk euk gS
Page 5


20 lap;u
liuksa osQ&ls fnu
esjs lkFk [ksyus okys lHkh cPpksa dk gky ,d&lk gksrkA uaxs ik¡o] iQVh&eSyh lh dPNh vkSj VwVs
cVuksa okys dbZ txg ls iQVs oqQrsZ vkSj fc[kjs ckyA tc ydM+h osQ <sj ij p<+dj [ksyrs uhps
dks Hkkxrs rks fxjdj dbZ rks tkus dgk¡&dgk¡ pksV [kk ysrs vkSj igys gh iQVs&iqjkus oqQrsZ rkj&rkj
gks tkrsA èkwy Hkjs] dbZ txg ls fNys ik¡o] ¯iMfy;k¡ ;k ygw osQ mQij teh jsr&fe^h ls yFkiFk
?kqVus ysdj tkrs rks lHkh dh ek¡&cgusa mu ij rjl [kkus dh txg vkSj fiVkbZ djrhaA db;ksa osQ
cki cM+s xqLlSy FksA ihVus yxrs rks ;g è;ku Hkh u j[krs fd NksVs cPps osQ ukd&eq¡g ls ygw cgus
yxk gS ;k mlosQ dgk¡ pksV yxh gSA ijarq bruh cqjh fiVkbZ gksus ij Hkh nwljs fnu fiQj [ksyus pys
vkrsA (;g ckr rc Bhd ls le> vkbZ tc LowQy vè;kid cuus osQ fy, ,d Vªs¯ux
1
 djus
x;k vkSj ogk¡ cky&euksfoKku dk fo"k; i<+kA ,slh ckrksa osQ ckjs esa rHkh tku ik;k fd cPpksa dks
[ksyuk D;ksa bruk vPNk yxrk gS fd cqjh rjg fiVkbZ gksus ij Hkh fiQj [ksyus pys vkrs gSaA)
esjs lkFk [ksyus okys vf/drj lkFkh gekjs tSls gh ifjokjksa osQ gqvk djrsA lkjs eqgYys esa cgqr
ifjokj rks] gekjh rjg vklikl osQ xk¡oksa ls gh vkdj cls FksA nks&rhu ?kj] lkFk dh mtM+h&lh
xyh esa jgus okys yksxksa osQ FksA gekjh lHkh dh vknrsa Hkh oqQN feyrh&tqyrh FkhaA muesa ls vfèkd
rks LowQy tkrs gh u Fks] tks dHkh x, Hkh] i<+kbZ esa #fp u gksus osQ dkj.k fdlh fnu cLrk rkykc
esa isaQd vk, vkSj fiQj LowQy x, gh ugha] u gh ek¡&cki us ”kcjnLrh HkstkA ;gk¡ rd fd ijpwfu;s]
vk<+rh;s Hkh vius cPpksa dks LowQy Hkstuk ”k:jh u le>rsA dHkh fdlh LowQy vè;kid ls ckr
gksrh rks dgrsµekLVj th geus bls D;k rglhynkj yxokuk gSA FkksM+k cM+k gks tk, rks iaMr
?ku';ke nkl ls yaMs
2
 i<+okdj nqdku ij cfg;k¡
3
 fy[kus yxk ysaxsA iaMr Ng&vkB eghus esa yaMs
vkSj equheh dk lHkh dke fl[kk nsxkA ogk¡ rks vHkh rd vfyiQ&cs the&p Hkh lh[k ugha ik;kA
1- izf'k{k.k  2- fglkc&fdrkc fy[kus dh iatkch izkphu fyfi  3- [kkrk (nqdku osQ fglkc&fdrkc dk C;kSjk ftlesa
fy[kk tk,)
liuksa osQ&ls fnu 21 22 lap;u
gekjs vk/s ls vf/d lkFkh jktLFkku ;k gfj;k.kk ls vkdj eaMh esa O;kikj ;k nqdkunkjh djus
vk, ifjokjksa ls FksA tc cgqr NksVs Fks rks mudh cksyh de le> ikrsA muosQ oqQN 'kCn lqudj
gesa g¡lh vkus yxrhA ijarq [ksyrs rks lHkh ,d&nwljs dh ckr [kwc vPNh rjg le> ysrsA
irk Hkh ugha pyk fd yksdksfDr vuqlkj ^,g [ksM.k
4
 ns fnu pkj* oSQls] dc chr x,A (geesa
ls dksbZ Hkh ,slk u Fkk tks LowQy osQ dejs esa cSBdj i<+us dks ^oSQn* u le>rk gksA) oqQN vius
ek¡&cki osQ lkFk tSlk Hkh Fkk] dke djkus yxsA
cpiu esa ?kkl vf/d gjh vkSj iwQyksa dh lqxa/ vf/d eueksgd yxrh gSA ;g 'kCn 'kk;n
vk/h 'krh igys fdlh iqLrd esa i<+s Fks] ijarq vkt rd ;kn gSaA ;kn jgus dk dkj.k ;gh gS fd
;g okD; cpiu dh Hkkoukvksa] lksp&le> osQ vuqowQy gksxkA ijarq LowQy osQ vanj tkus ls jkLrs
osQ nksuksa vksj tks vfy;kj osQ cM+s <ax ls dVs&Nk¡Vs >kM+ mxs Fks (ftUgsa ge MafM;k¡ dgk djrs)
muosQ uhe osQ iÙkksa tSls iÙkksa dh egd vkt rd Hkh vk¡[k ew¡ndj eglwl dj ldrk gw¡A mu
fnuksa LowQy dh NksVh D;kfj;ksa esa iwQy Hkh dbZ rjg osQ mxk, tkrs Fks ftuesa xqykc] xsank vkSj
eksfr;k dh nw/&lh lI
+
ksQn dfy;k¡ Hkh gqvk djrhaA ;s dfy;k¡ bruh lqanj vkSj [kq'kcwnkj gksrh Fkha
fd ge panw piM+klh
5
 ls vk¡[k cpkdj dHkh&dHkkj ,d&nks rksM+ fy;k djrsA mudh cgqr rs”k
lqxa/ vkt Hkh eglwl dj ikrk gw¡] ijarq ;g ;kn ugha fd mUgsa rksM+dj] oqQN nsj lw¡?kdj fiQj
D;k fd;k djrsA ('kk;n tsc esa Mky ysrs] ek¡ mls /ksus osQ le; fudkydj ckgj isaQd nsrh ;k
ge gh] LowQy ls ckgj vkrs mUgsa cdjh osQ eseuksa dh Hkk¡fr ^pj* tk;k djrs)A
tc vxyh Js.kh esa nkf[ky gksrs rks ,d vksj rks oqQN cM+s] l;kus gksus osQ ,glkl ls mRlkfgr
Hkh gksrs] ijarq nwljh vksj u;h] iqjkuh dkfi;ksa&fdrkcksa ls tkus oSQlh ckl vkrh fd mUgha ekLVjksa
osQ Mj ls dk¡ius yxrs tks fiNyh Js.kh esa i<+k pqosQ gksrsA
rc LowQy esa] 'kq: lky esa ,d&Ms<+ eghuk i<+kbZ gqvk djrh] fiQj Ms<+&nks eghus dh Nqf^;k¡
'kq: gks tk;k djrhaA vc rd tks ckr vPNh rjg ;kn gS og Nqf^;ksa osQ igys vkSj vkf[kjh fnuksa
dk I
+
kQoZQ FkkA igys nks&rhu lIrkg rks [kwc [ksy&owQn gqvk djrhA gj lky gh ek¡ osQ lkFk ufugky
pys tkrsA ogk¡ ukuh [kwc nw/&ngh] eD[ku f[kykrh] cgqr I;kj djrhA NksVk lk fiNM+k xk¡o Fkk
ijarq rkykc gekjh eaMh osQ rkykc ftruk gh cM+k FkkA nksigj rd rks ml rkykc esa ugkrs fiQj
ukuh ls tks th esa vkrk ek¡xdj [kkus yxrsA ukuh gekjs cksyus osQ <ax ;k de [kkus osQ dkj.k cgqr
[kq'k gksrhA vius iksrksa dks gekjh rjg cksyus vkSj [kkus&ihus dks dgrhA ftl lky ufugky u tk
ikrs] ml lky Hkh vius ?kj ls FkksM+k ckgj rkykc ij pys tkrsA diM+s mrkj ikuh esa owQn tkrs
vkSj oqQN le; ckn] Hkkxrs gq, ,d jsrhys Vhys ij tkdj] jsr osQ mQij ysVus yxrsA xhys 'kjhj
4- [ksyus osQ  5- pijklh
liuksa osQ&ls fnu 23
dks xje jsr ls [kwc yFkiFk dj mlh rjg Hkkxrs] fdlh m¡Qph txg ls rkykc esa Nyk¡x yxk nsrsA
jsr dks xanys ikuh ls lkI
+
kQ dj fiQj Vhys dh vksj Hkkx tkrsA ;kn ugha fd ,slk] ik¡p&nl ckj
djrs ;k ianzg&chl ckjA dbZ ckj rkykc esa owQndj ,sls gkFk&ik¡o fgykus yxrs tSls cgqr vPNs
rSjkd gksaA ijarq ,d&nks dks NksM+] esjs fdlh lkFkh dks rSjuk ugha vkrk FkkA oqQN rks gkFk&ik¡o fgykrs
gq, xgjs ikuh esa pys tkrs rks nwljs mUgsa ckgj vkus osQ fy, fdlh HkSal osQ lhax ;k nqe idM+dj
ckgj vkus dh lykg nsrsA mUgsa <k¡<+l c¡/krsA owQnrs le; eq¡g esa xanyk ikuh Hkj tkrk rks cqjh
rjg [kk¡lrsA dbZ ckj ,slk yxrk fd lk¡l #dus yxh gS ijarq gk;&gk; djrs fdlh u fdlh rjg
rkykc osQ fdukjs igq¡p tkrsA
fiQj Nqf^;k¡ chrus yxrha rks fnu fxuus yxrsA izR;sd fnu Mj c<+rk pyk tkrkA [ksy&owQn
vkSj rkykc esa ugkuk Hkh Hkwyus yxrkA ekLVjksa us tks Nqf^;ksa esa djus osQ fy, dke fn;k gksrk
mldk fglkc yxkus yxrsA tSls fglkc osQ ekLVj th nks lkS ls de loky dHkh u crkrsA eu
esa fglkc yxkrs fd ;fn nl loky jks”k fudkys rks chl fnu ess iwjs gks tk,¡xsA tc ,slk lkspuk
'qk: djrs rks Nqf^;ksa dk ,d eghuk ckdh gqvk djrkA ,d&,d fnu fxurs nl fnu [ksy&owQn
esa vkSj chr tkrsA LowQy dh fiVkbZ
6
 dk Mj vkSj c<+us yxrkA ijarq Mj Hkqykus osQ fy, lksprs
fd nl dh D;k ckr] loky rks ianzg Hkh vklkuh ls jks”k fudkys tk ldrs gSaA tc ,slk fglkc
yxkus yxrs rks Nqf^;k¡ de gksrs&gksrs tSls Hkkxus yxrhaA fnu cgqr NksVs yxus yxrsA ,slk eglwl
gksrk tSls lwjt Hkkxdj nksigjh esa gh fNi tkrk gksA tSls&tSls fnu ^NksVs* gksus yxrs LowQy dk
Hk; c<+us yxrkA gekjs fdrus gh lgikBh ,sls Hkh gksrs tks Nqf^;ksa dk dke djus dh ctk; ekLVjksa
dh fiVkbZ vf/d ^lLrk lkSnk* le>rsA ge tks fiVkbZ ls cgqr Mjk djrs] mu ^cgknqjksa* dh Hkk¡fr
gh lkspus yxrsA ,sls le; gekjk lcls cM+k ^usrk* vksek gqvk djrkA
ge lHkh mlosQ ckjs esa lksprs fd gekjs esa ml tSlk dkSu FkkA dHkh Hkh ml tSlk nwljk yM+dk
ugha <w¡<+ ikrs FksA mldh ckrsa] xkfy;k¡] ekj&fiVkbZ dk <ax rks vyx Fkk gh] mldh 'kDy&lwjr
Hkh lcls vyx FkhA gk¡M+h ftruk cM+k flj] mlosQ fBxus pkj ckfy'r osQ 'kjhj ij ,slk yxrk
tSls fcYyh osQ cPps osQ ekFks ij rjcwt j[kk gksA brus cMs+ flj esa ukfj;y&dh&lh vk¡[kksa okyk
canfj;k osQ cPps tSlk psgjk vkSj Hkh vthc yxrkA yM+kbZ og gkFk&ik¡o ugha] flj ls fd;k djrkA
tc lk¡M+ dh Hkk¡fr iq¡Qdkjrk] flj >qdkdj fdlh osQ isV ;k Nkrh esa ekj nsrk rks mlls nqxqus&frxqus
'kjhj okys yM+osQ Hkh ihM+k ls fpYykus yxrsA gesa Mj yxrk fd fdlh dh Nkrh dh ilyh gh
u rksM+ MkysA mlosQ flj dh VDdj dk uke geus ^jsy&cEck* j[kk gqvk Fkkµjsy osQ (dks;ys ls
pyus okys) batu dh Hkk¡fr cM+k vkSj Hk;adj gh rks FkkA
6- vktdy LowQyksa esa fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks ihVuk euk gS
24 lap;u
gekjk LowQy cgqr NksVk FkkµosQoy NksVs&NksVs ukS dejs Fks tks vaxsz”kh osQ v{kj ,p (H) dh Hkk¡fr
cus FksA nkb± vksj igyk dejk gsMekLVj Jh enueksgu 'kekZ th dk Fkk ftlosQ njok”ks osQ vkxs ges'kk
fpd yVdh jgrhA LowQy dh izs;j (izkFkZuk) osQ le; og ckgj vkrs vkSj lh/h drkjksa esa dn osQ
vuqlkj [kM+s yM+dksa dks ns[k mudk xksjk psgjk f[ky mBrkA lkjs vè;kid] yM+dksa dh rjg gh drkj
ck¡/dj muosQ ihNs [kM+s gksrsA osQoy ekLVj izhre pan ^ihVh* yM+dksa dh drkjksa osQ ihNs [kM+s&[kM+s
;g ns[krs Fks fd dkSu lk yM+dk drkj esa Bhd ugha [kM+kA mudh ?kqM+dh rFkk Bqaksa osQ Hk; ls ge
lHkh drkj osQ igys vkSj vkf[kjh yM+osQ dk è;ku j[krs] lhèkss drkj esa cus jgus dk iz;Ru djrsA
lh/h drkj osQ lkFk&lkFk gesa ;g è;ku Hkh j[kuk gksrk Fkk fd vkxs ihNs [kM+s yM+dksa osQ chp dh
nwjh Hkh ,d lh gksA lHkh yM+osQ ml ^ihVh* ls cgqr Mjrs Fks D;ksafd mu ftruk l[r vè;kid
u dHkh fdlh us ns[kk] u lquk FkkA ;fn dksbZ yM+dk viuk flj Hkh b/j&m/j fgyk ysrk ;k ik¡o
ls nwljh fiaMyh [kqtykus yxrk rks og mldh vksj ck?k dh rjg >iV iM+rs vkSj ^[kky [khapus*
osQ eqgkojs dks izR;{k djosQ fn[kk nsrsA
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