NCERT Textbook - Challenges of Cultural Diversity Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Sociology Class 12

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Challenges of Cultural Diversity Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


2020-21
Page 2


2020-21
Indian Society
114
D ifferent kinds of social institutions, ranging from the family to the market,
can bring people together, create strong collective identities and strengthen
social cohesion, as you learnt in Chapters 3 and 4.  But, on the other hand, as
Chapters 4 and 5 showed, the very same institutions can also be sources of
inequality and exclusion.  In this chapter, you will learn about some of the
tensions and difficulties associated with cultural diversity.  What precisely does
‘cultural diversity’ mean, and why is it seen as a challenge?
The term ‘diversity’ emphasises differences rather than inequalities.  When
we say that India is a nation of great cultural diversity, we mean that there are
many different types of social groups and communities living here.  These are
communities defined by cultural markers such as language, religion, sect, race
or caste.  When these diverse communities are also part of a larger entity like a
nation, then difficulties may be created by competition or conflict between them.
This is why cultural diversity can present tough challenges.  The difficulties
arise from the fact that cultural identities are very powerful – they can arouse
intense passions and are often able to moblise large numbers of people.
Sometimes cultural differences are accompanied by economic and social
inequalities, and this further complicates things.  Measures to address the
inequalities or injustices suffered by one community can provoke opposition
from other communities.  The situation is made worse when scarce resources –
like river waters, jobs or government funds – have to be shared.
If you read the newspapers regularly, or watch the news on television, you
may often have had the depressing feeling that India has no future.  There
seem to be so many divisive forces hard at work tearing apart the unity and
integrity of our country – communal riots, demands for regional autonomy,
caste wars…  You might have even felt upset that large sections of our population
are not being patriotic and don’t seem to feel as intensely for India as you and
your classmates do.  But if you look at any book dealing with the history of
modern India, or books dealing specifically with issues like communalism or
regionalism (for example, Brass 1974), you will realise that these problems are
not new ones.  Almost all the major ‘divisive’ problems of today have been there
ever since Independence, or even earlier.  But in spite of them India has not
only survived as a nation, but is a stronger nation-state today.
As you prepare to read on, remember that this chapter deals with difficult
issues for which there are no easy answers.  But some answers are better than
others, and it is our duty as citizens to try our utmost to produce the best
answers that are possible within the limitations of our historical and social
context.  Remember also that, given the immense challenges presented by a
vast and extremely diverse collection of peoples and cultures, India has on the
whole done fairly well compared to most other nations.  On the other hand, we
also have some significant shortcomings.  There is a lot of room for improvement
and much work needs to be done in order to face the challenges of the future …
2020-21
Page 3


2020-21
Indian Society
114
D ifferent kinds of social institutions, ranging from the family to the market,
can bring people together, create strong collective identities and strengthen
social cohesion, as you learnt in Chapters 3 and 4.  But, on the other hand, as
Chapters 4 and 5 showed, the very same institutions can also be sources of
inequality and exclusion.  In this chapter, you will learn about some of the
tensions and difficulties associated with cultural diversity.  What precisely does
‘cultural diversity’ mean, and why is it seen as a challenge?
The term ‘diversity’ emphasises differences rather than inequalities.  When
we say that India is a nation of great cultural diversity, we mean that there are
many different types of social groups and communities living here.  These are
communities defined by cultural markers such as language, religion, sect, race
or caste.  When these diverse communities are also part of a larger entity like a
nation, then difficulties may be created by competition or conflict between them.
This is why cultural diversity can present tough challenges.  The difficulties
arise from the fact that cultural identities are very powerful – they can arouse
intense passions and are often able to moblise large numbers of people.
Sometimes cultural differences are accompanied by economic and social
inequalities, and this further complicates things.  Measures to address the
inequalities or injustices suffered by one community can provoke opposition
from other communities.  The situation is made worse when scarce resources –
like river waters, jobs or government funds – have to be shared.
If you read the newspapers regularly, or watch the news on television, you
may often have had the depressing feeling that India has no future.  There
seem to be so many divisive forces hard at work tearing apart the unity and
integrity of our country – communal riots, demands for regional autonomy,
caste wars…  You might have even felt upset that large sections of our population
are not being patriotic and don’t seem to feel as intensely for India as you and
your classmates do.  But if you look at any book dealing with the history of
modern India, or books dealing specifically with issues like communalism or
regionalism (for example, Brass 1974), you will realise that these problems are
not new ones.  Almost all the major ‘divisive’ problems of today have been there
ever since Independence, or even earlier.  But in spite of them India has not
only survived as a nation, but is a stronger nation-state today.
As you prepare to read on, remember that this chapter deals with difficult
issues for which there are no easy answers.  But some answers are better than
others, and it is our duty as citizens to try our utmost to produce the best
answers that are possible within the limitations of our historical and social
context.  Remember also that, given the immense challenges presented by a
vast and extremely diverse collection of peoples and cultures, India has on the
whole done fairly well compared to most other nations.  On the other hand, we
also have some significant shortcomings.  There is a lot of room for improvement
and much work needs to be done in order to face the challenges of the future …
2020-21
The Challenges of Cultural Diversity
115
6.1 CULTURAL COMMUNITIES AND THE NATION-STATE
Before discussing the major challenges that diversity poses in India – issues
such as regionalism, communalism and casteism – we need to understand the
relationship between nation-states and cultural communities.  Why is it so
important for people to belong to communities based on cultural identities like
a caste, ethnic group, region, or religion?  Why is so much passion aroused
when there is a perceived threat, insult, or injustice to one’s community?  Why
do these passions pose problems for the nation-state?
THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNITY IDENTITY
Every human being needs a sense of stable identity to operate in this world.
Questions like — Who am I?  How am I different from others?  How do others
understand and comprehend me?  What goals and aspirations should I have?
– constantly crop up in our life right from childhood.  We are able to answer
many of these questions because of the way in which we are socialised, or
taught how to live in society by our immediate families and our community in
various senses.  (Recall the discussion of socialisation in your Class XI textbooks.)
The socialisation process involves a continuous dialogue, negotiation and even
struggle against significant others (those directly involved in our lives) like our
parents, family, kin group and our community.  Our community provides us
the language (our mother tongue) and the cultural values through which we
comprehend the world.  It also anchors our self-identity.
Community identity is based on birth and ‘belonging’ rather than on some
form of acquired qualifications or ‘accomplishment’.  It is what we ‘are’ rather
than what we have ‘become’.  We don’t have to do anything to be born into a
community – in fact, no one has any choice about which family or community
or country they are born into. These kinds of identities are called ‘ascriptive’ –
that is, they are determined by the accidents of birth and do not involve any
choice on the part of the individuals concerned. It is an odd fact of social life
that people feel a deep sense of security and satisfaction in belonging to
communities in which their membership is entirely accidental.  We often identify
so strongly with communities we have done nothing to ‘deserve’ – passed no
exam, demonstrated no skill or competence…  This is very unlike belonging to,
say, a profession or team. Doctors or architects have to pass exams and
demonstrate their competence. Even in sports, a certain level of skill and
performance are a necessary pre-condition for membership in a team.  But our
membership in our families or religious or regional communities is without
preconditions, and yet it is total. In fact, most ascriptive identities are very hard
to shake off; even if we choose to disown them, others may continue to identify
us by those very markers of belonging.
Perhaps it is because of this accidental, unconditional and yet almost
inescapable belonging that we can often be so emotionally attached to our
2020-21
Page 4


2020-21
Indian Society
114
D ifferent kinds of social institutions, ranging from the family to the market,
can bring people together, create strong collective identities and strengthen
social cohesion, as you learnt in Chapters 3 and 4.  But, on the other hand, as
Chapters 4 and 5 showed, the very same institutions can also be sources of
inequality and exclusion.  In this chapter, you will learn about some of the
tensions and difficulties associated with cultural diversity.  What precisely does
‘cultural diversity’ mean, and why is it seen as a challenge?
The term ‘diversity’ emphasises differences rather than inequalities.  When
we say that India is a nation of great cultural diversity, we mean that there are
many different types of social groups and communities living here.  These are
communities defined by cultural markers such as language, religion, sect, race
or caste.  When these diverse communities are also part of a larger entity like a
nation, then difficulties may be created by competition or conflict between them.
This is why cultural diversity can present tough challenges.  The difficulties
arise from the fact that cultural identities are very powerful – they can arouse
intense passions and are often able to moblise large numbers of people.
Sometimes cultural differences are accompanied by economic and social
inequalities, and this further complicates things.  Measures to address the
inequalities or injustices suffered by one community can provoke opposition
from other communities.  The situation is made worse when scarce resources –
like river waters, jobs or government funds – have to be shared.
If you read the newspapers regularly, or watch the news on television, you
may often have had the depressing feeling that India has no future.  There
seem to be so many divisive forces hard at work tearing apart the unity and
integrity of our country – communal riots, demands for regional autonomy,
caste wars…  You might have even felt upset that large sections of our population
are not being patriotic and don’t seem to feel as intensely for India as you and
your classmates do.  But if you look at any book dealing with the history of
modern India, or books dealing specifically with issues like communalism or
regionalism (for example, Brass 1974), you will realise that these problems are
not new ones.  Almost all the major ‘divisive’ problems of today have been there
ever since Independence, or even earlier.  But in spite of them India has not
only survived as a nation, but is a stronger nation-state today.
As you prepare to read on, remember that this chapter deals with difficult
issues for which there are no easy answers.  But some answers are better than
others, and it is our duty as citizens to try our utmost to produce the best
answers that are possible within the limitations of our historical and social
context.  Remember also that, given the immense challenges presented by a
vast and extremely diverse collection of peoples and cultures, India has on the
whole done fairly well compared to most other nations.  On the other hand, we
also have some significant shortcomings.  There is a lot of room for improvement
and much work needs to be done in order to face the challenges of the future …
2020-21
The Challenges of Cultural Diversity
115
6.1 CULTURAL COMMUNITIES AND THE NATION-STATE
Before discussing the major challenges that diversity poses in India – issues
such as regionalism, communalism and casteism – we need to understand the
relationship between nation-states and cultural communities.  Why is it so
important for people to belong to communities based on cultural identities like
a caste, ethnic group, region, or religion?  Why is so much passion aroused
when there is a perceived threat, insult, or injustice to one’s community?  Why
do these passions pose problems for the nation-state?
THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNITY IDENTITY
Every human being needs a sense of stable identity to operate in this world.
Questions like — Who am I?  How am I different from others?  How do others
understand and comprehend me?  What goals and aspirations should I have?
– constantly crop up in our life right from childhood.  We are able to answer
many of these questions because of the way in which we are socialised, or
taught how to live in society by our immediate families and our community in
various senses.  (Recall the discussion of socialisation in your Class XI textbooks.)
The socialisation process involves a continuous dialogue, negotiation and even
struggle against significant others (those directly involved in our lives) like our
parents, family, kin group and our community.  Our community provides us
the language (our mother tongue) and the cultural values through which we
comprehend the world.  It also anchors our self-identity.
Community identity is based on birth and ‘belonging’ rather than on some
form of acquired qualifications or ‘accomplishment’.  It is what we ‘are’ rather
than what we have ‘become’.  We don’t have to do anything to be born into a
community – in fact, no one has any choice about which family or community
or country they are born into. These kinds of identities are called ‘ascriptive’ –
that is, they are determined by the accidents of birth and do not involve any
choice on the part of the individuals concerned. It is an odd fact of social life
that people feel a deep sense of security and satisfaction in belonging to
communities in which their membership is entirely accidental.  We often identify
so strongly with communities we have done nothing to ‘deserve’ – passed no
exam, demonstrated no skill or competence…  This is very unlike belonging to,
say, a profession or team. Doctors or architects have to pass exams and
demonstrate their competence. Even in sports, a certain level of skill and
performance are a necessary pre-condition for membership in a team.  But our
membership in our families or religious or regional communities is without
preconditions, and yet it is total. In fact, most ascriptive identities are very hard
to shake off; even if we choose to disown them, others may continue to identify
us by those very markers of belonging.
Perhaps it is because of this accidental, unconditional and yet almost
inescapable belonging that we can often be so emotionally attached to our
2020-21
Indian Society
116
community identity.  Expanding and overlapping circles of community ties
(family, kinship, caste, ethnicity, language, region or religion) give meaning to
our world and give us a sense of identity, of who we are.  That is why people
often react emotionally or even violently whenever there is a perceived threat to
their community identity.
A second feature of ascriptive identities and community feeling is that they
are universal.  Everyone has a motherland, a mother tongue, a family, a faith…
This may not necessarily be strictly true of every individual, but it is true in a
general sense. And we are all equally committed and loyal to our respective
identities. Once again it is possible to come across people who may not be
particularly committed to one or the other aspect of their identity.  But the
possibility of this commitment is potentially available to most people.  Because
of this, conflicts that involve our communities (whether of nation, language,
religion, caste or region) are very hard to deal with.  Each side in the conflict
thinks of the other side as a hated enemy, and there is a tendency to exaggerate
the virtues of one’s own side as well as the vices of the other side.  Thus, when
two nations are at war, patriots in each nation see the other as the enemy
aggressor; each side believes that God and truth are on their side.  In the heat
of the moment, it is very hard for people on either side to see that they are
constructing matching but reversed mirror images of each other.
It is a social fact that no country or group ever mobilises its members to
struggle for untruth, injustice or inequality – everyone is always fighting for truth,
justice, equality…  This does not mean that both sides are right in every conflict,
or that there is no right and wrong, no truth.  Sometimes both sides are indeed
equally wrong or right; at other times history may judge one side to be the aggressor
and the other to be the victim.  But this can only happen long after the heat of the
conflict has cooled down.  Some notion of mutually agreed upon truth is very
hard to establish in situations of identity conflict; it usually takes decades,
sometimes centuries for one side to accept that it was wrong (See Box 6.1).
 To get a clearer understanding of the expanding circles of community ties which shape our
sense of identity, you can do a small survey designed as a game.  Interview your school
mates or other friends: each interviewee gets four chances to answer each of two questions:
‘Who am I?’ and  ‘Who do others think I am?’.  But the answers must be in a single word or
short phrase; they cannot include any names (your own or your parents’/guardians’ names;
cannot include your class/school, etc.). Interviews must be done singly and in private,
i.e., other potential interviewees should not be able to hear what is said.  Each person should
only be interviewed once (i.e., different interviewers cannot interview the same person).
You can record the answers and analyse them later.  Which types of identities predominated?
What was the most common first choice?  Which was often the last choice?  Were there
any patterns to the answers? Did the answers for ‘who am I’ differ greatly, somewhat, or not
at all from answers to ‘who do others think I am’?
ACTIVITY 6.1
2020-21
Page 5


2020-21
Indian Society
114
D ifferent kinds of social institutions, ranging from the family to the market,
can bring people together, create strong collective identities and strengthen
social cohesion, as you learnt in Chapters 3 and 4.  But, on the other hand, as
Chapters 4 and 5 showed, the very same institutions can also be sources of
inequality and exclusion.  In this chapter, you will learn about some of the
tensions and difficulties associated with cultural diversity.  What precisely does
‘cultural diversity’ mean, and why is it seen as a challenge?
The term ‘diversity’ emphasises differences rather than inequalities.  When
we say that India is a nation of great cultural diversity, we mean that there are
many different types of social groups and communities living here.  These are
communities defined by cultural markers such as language, religion, sect, race
or caste.  When these diverse communities are also part of a larger entity like a
nation, then difficulties may be created by competition or conflict between them.
This is why cultural diversity can present tough challenges.  The difficulties
arise from the fact that cultural identities are very powerful – they can arouse
intense passions and are often able to moblise large numbers of people.
Sometimes cultural differences are accompanied by economic and social
inequalities, and this further complicates things.  Measures to address the
inequalities or injustices suffered by one community can provoke opposition
from other communities.  The situation is made worse when scarce resources –
like river waters, jobs or government funds – have to be shared.
If you read the newspapers regularly, or watch the news on television, you
may often have had the depressing feeling that India has no future.  There
seem to be so many divisive forces hard at work tearing apart the unity and
integrity of our country – communal riots, demands for regional autonomy,
caste wars…  You might have even felt upset that large sections of our population
are not being patriotic and don’t seem to feel as intensely for India as you and
your classmates do.  But if you look at any book dealing with the history of
modern India, or books dealing specifically with issues like communalism or
regionalism (for example, Brass 1974), you will realise that these problems are
not new ones.  Almost all the major ‘divisive’ problems of today have been there
ever since Independence, or even earlier.  But in spite of them India has not
only survived as a nation, but is a stronger nation-state today.
As you prepare to read on, remember that this chapter deals with difficult
issues for which there are no easy answers.  But some answers are better than
others, and it is our duty as citizens to try our utmost to produce the best
answers that are possible within the limitations of our historical and social
context.  Remember also that, given the immense challenges presented by a
vast and extremely diverse collection of peoples and cultures, India has on the
whole done fairly well compared to most other nations.  On the other hand, we
also have some significant shortcomings.  There is a lot of room for improvement
and much work needs to be done in order to face the challenges of the future …
2020-21
The Challenges of Cultural Diversity
115
6.1 CULTURAL COMMUNITIES AND THE NATION-STATE
Before discussing the major challenges that diversity poses in India – issues
such as regionalism, communalism and casteism – we need to understand the
relationship between nation-states and cultural communities.  Why is it so
important for people to belong to communities based on cultural identities like
a caste, ethnic group, region, or religion?  Why is so much passion aroused
when there is a perceived threat, insult, or injustice to one’s community?  Why
do these passions pose problems for the nation-state?
THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNITY IDENTITY
Every human being needs a sense of stable identity to operate in this world.
Questions like — Who am I?  How am I different from others?  How do others
understand and comprehend me?  What goals and aspirations should I have?
– constantly crop up in our life right from childhood.  We are able to answer
many of these questions because of the way in which we are socialised, or
taught how to live in society by our immediate families and our community in
various senses.  (Recall the discussion of socialisation in your Class XI textbooks.)
The socialisation process involves a continuous dialogue, negotiation and even
struggle against significant others (those directly involved in our lives) like our
parents, family, kin group and our community.  Our community provides us
the language (our mother tongue) and the cultural values through which we
comprehend the world.  It also anchors our self-identity.
Community identity is based on birth and ‘belonging’ rather than on some
form of acquired qualifications or ‘accomplishment’.  It is what we ‘are’ rather
than what we have ‘become’.  We don’t have to do anything to be born into a
community – in fact, no one has any choice about which family or community
or country they are born into. These kinds of identities are called ‘ascriptive’ –
that is, they are determined by the accidents of birth and do not involve any
choice on the part of the individuals concerned. It is an odd fact of social life
that people feel a deep sense of security and satisfaction in belonging to
communities in which their membership is entirely accidental.  We often identify
so strongly with communities we have done nothing to ‘deserve’ – passed no
exam, demonstrated no skill or competence…  This is very unlike belonging to,
say, a profession or team. Doctors or architects have to pass exams and
demonstrate their competence. Even in sports, a certain level of skill and
performance are a necessary pre-condition for membership in a team.  But our
membership in our families or religious or regional communities is without
preconditions, and yet it is total. In fact, most ascriptive identities are very hard
to shake off; even if we choose to disown them, others may continue to identify
us by those very markers of belonging.
Perhaps it is because of this accidental, unconditional and yet almost
inescapable belonging that we can often be so emotionally attached to our
2020-21
Indian Society
116
community identity.  Expanding and overlapping circles of community ties
(family, kinship, caste, ethnicity, language, region or religion) give meaning to
our world and give us a sense of identity, of who we are.  That is why people
often react emotionally or even violently whenever there is a perceived threat to
their community identity.
A second feature of ascriptive identities and community feeling is that they
are universal.  Everyone has a motherland, a mother tongue, a family, a faith…
This may not necessarily be strictly true of every individual, but it is true in a
general sense. And we are all equally committed and loyal to our respective
identities. Once again it is possible to come across people who may not be
particularly committed to one or the other aspect of their identity.  But the
possibility of this commitment is potentially available to most people.  Because
of this, conflicts that involve our communities (whether of nation, language,
religion, caste or region) are very hard to deal with.  Each side in the conflict
thinks of the other side as a hated enemy, and there is a tendency to exaggerate
the virtues of one’s own side as well as the vices of the other side.  Thus, when
two nations are at war, patriots in each nation see the other as the enemy
aggressor; each side believes that God and truth are on their side.  In the heat
of the moment, it is very hard for people on either side to see that they are
constructing matching but reversed mirror images of each other.
It is a social fact that no country or group ever mobilises its members to
struggle for untruth, injustice or inequality – everyone is always fighting for truth,
justice, equality…  This does not mean that both sides are right in every conflict,
or that there is no right and wrong, no truth.  Sometimes both sides are indeed
equally wrong or right; at other times history may judge one side to be the aggressor
and the other to be the victim.  But this can only happen long after the heat of the
conflict has cooled down.  Some notion of mutually agreed upon truth is very
hard to establish in situations of identity conflict; it usually takes decades,
sometimes centuries for one side to accept that it was wrong (See Box 6.1).
 To get a clearer understanding of the expanding circles of community ties which shape our
sense of identity, you can do a small survey designed as a game.  Interview your school
mates or other friends: each interviewee gets four chances to answer each of two questions:
‘Who am I?’ and  ‘Who do others think I am?’.  But the answers must be in a single word or
short phrase; they cannot include any names (your own or your parents’/guardians’ names;
cannot include your class/school, etc.). Interviews must be done singly and in private,
i.e., other potential interviewees should not be able to hear what is said.  Each person should
only be interviewed once (i.e., different interviewers cannot interview the same person).
You can record the answers and analyse them later.  Which types of identities predominated?
What was the most common first choice?  Which was often the last choice?  Were there
any patterns to the answers? Did the answers for ‘who am I’ differ greatly, somewhat, or not
at all from answers to ‘who do others think I am’?
ACTIVITY 6.1
2020-21
The Challenges of Cultural Diversity
117
BOX 6.1 When ‘Victors’ Apologise
It is not uncommon for the losing side in a war to be forced to apologise for the bad
things that it did.  It is only rarely that the winners accept that they were guilty of
wrong doing.  However, in recent times there have been many such examples from around
the world.  Nations or communities that were on the ‘winning’ side, or that are still in a dominant
position, are beginning to accept that they have been responsible for grave injustices in the
past and are seeking to apologise to the affected communities.
In Australia, there has been a long debate on an official apology from the Australian nation
(where the majority of the population today is of white-European origin) to the descendants of
the native peoples who were the original inhabitants of the forcibly colonised land. Most state
governments in Australia have passed some variant of the following apology resolution:
We, the peoples of Australia, of many origins as we are, make a commitment to go
on together in a spirit of reconciliation. We value the unique status of Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander peoples as the original owners and custodians of lands
and waters.
We recognise this land and its waters were settled as colonies without treaty or
consent. […] Our nation must have the courage to own the truth, to heal the wounds
of its past so that we can move on together at peace with ourselves.  As we walk
the journey of healing, one part of the nation apologises and expresses its sorrow
and sincere regret for the injustices of the past, so the other part accepts the
apologies and forgives. […]  And so, we pledge ourselves to stop injustice, overcome
disadvantage, and respect that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have
the right to self-determination within the life of the nation.
In the United States of America there has been a longstanding debate about apologies to
the Native American community (the original inhabitants of the land driven out by war) and
to the Black community (brought as slaves from Africa). No consensus has been reached yet.
In Japan, official policy has long recognised the need to apologise for the atrocities of war
and colonisation during the periods when Japan occupied parts of East Asia including Korea
and parts of China.  The most recent apology is from a 15
th
 August 2005 speech by Prime
Minister Junichiro Koizumi:
In the past, Japan, through its colonial rule and aggression, caused tremendous
damage and suffering to the people of many countries, particularly to those of
Asian nations. Sincerely facing these facts of history, I once again express my feelings
of deep remorse and heartfelt apology, and also express the feelings of mourning
for all victims, both at home and abroad, in the war. I am determined not to allow
the lessons of that horrible war to erode, and to contribute to the peace and
prosperity of the world without ever again waging a war.
Similar debates have gone on in South Africa, where a white minority was in power and brutally
oppressed the black majority consisting of the native population.  In Britain as well, there has
been public discussion on whether the nation should apologise for its role in colonialism, or in
promoting slavery.  Interestingly, the latter issue has also been taken up by cities – for example,
the port city of Bristol debated whether the city council should pass a resolution apologising
for the role that Bristol played in the slave trade.
Sources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bringing_Them_Home#Apologies
http://www.kantei.go.jp/foreign/koizumispeech/2005/08/15danwa_e.html
117
2020-21
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