NCERT Textbook - How the State Government works Class 7 Notes | EduRev

NCERT Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

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Class 7 : NCERT Textbook - How the State Government works Class 7 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


How How How How How
the State the State the State the State the State
Government Government Government Government Government
Works Works Works Works Works
Last year, we discussed the
fact that government works at
three levels – local, state and
national – and looked at the
work of local government in
some detail. In this chapter,
we examine the work of the
government at the state
level. How does this take
place in a democracy?
What is the role of a
Member of the
Legislative Assembly
(MLA) and Ministers? How
do people express their
views or demand action
from government? We look
at these questions through
the example of health.
3
CHAPTER
WHOSE RESPONSIBILITY?
Hey, look at this...it says that
there is a water shortage in
our state, and people are
falling sick!
“...In many villages, people were found to be
drinking unclean water. Streams have dried up, and
so have tanks. In the worst-affected areas, villagers
have been carrying water across great distances.”
“People at the district HQ Patalpuram receive water
supply once in three days. The District Hospital here is
overflowing with patients – a large number of whom
are children with acute diarrhoea...”
2015-16 (12-01-15)
Page 2


How How How How How
the State the State the State the State the State
Government Government Government Government Government
Works Works Works Works Works
Last year, we discussed the
fact that government works at
three levels – local, state and
national – and looked at the
work of local government in
some detail. In this chapter,
we examine the work of the
government at the state
level. How does this take
place in a democracy?
What is the role of a
Member of the
Legislative Assembly
(MLA) and Ministers? How
do people express their
views or demand action
from government? We look
at these questions through
the example of health.
3
CHAPTER
WHOSE RESPONSIBILITY?
Hey, look at this...it says that
there is a water shortage in
our state, and people are
falling sick!
“...In many villages, people were found to be
drinking unclean water. Streams have dried up, and
so have tanks. In the worst-affected areas, villagers
have been carrying water across great distances.”
“People at the district HQ Patalpuram receive water
supply once in three days. The District Hospital here is
overflowing with patients – a large number of whom
are children with acute diarrhoea...”
2015-16 (12-01-15)
Who is an MLA?
In the above section, you have read about some
events in Patalpuram. You may be familiar with some
official names such as Collector, Medical Officer, etc.
But have you heard of an MLA and the Legislative
Assembly? Do you know the MLA of your area? Can
you identify which party she or he belongs to?
Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) are
elected by the people. They then become members
of the legislative assembly and also form the
On the TV news, they said ten people
have died from diarrhoea! Is that
possible? Can one really die from it?
Who knows? Just
hope I don’t get it!
Ha ha!
My mother said not to have any iced
drinks from the market. She gave one of
her lectures this morning, “You have to
be responsible for your health,
Shirin!”
Suddenly...
STOP!
Really! Why? Has
he done something?
Shh...I saw him on TV
too. He is a member of
the Opposition!
What a loud voice he has...he must be
a leader or something...
...and we demand that the
authorities take immediate action to
bring the public health situation
under control! Our MLA must take
the responsibility for this!
This road is blocked due to the rally.
They have gheraoed the MLA’s  residence.
Ha ha – they
seem more angry
about what he
hasn’t done!
What is happening in Patalpuram ? What is happening in Patalpuram ? What is happening in Patalpuram ? What is happening in Patalpuram ? What is happening in Patalpuram ?
Why is this problem serious? Why is this problem serious? Why is this problem serious? Why is this problem serious? Why is this problem serious?
What action do you think can be What action do you think can be What action do you think can be What action do you think can be What action do you think can be
taken in the above situation and taken in the above situation and taken in the above situation and taken in the above situation and taken in the above situation and
who do you think should take this who do you think should take this who do you think should take this who do you think should take this who do you think should take this
action? Discuss. action? Discuss. action? Discuss. action? Discuss. action? Discuss.
That afternoon...
31
Chapter 3: How the State Government Works
2015-16 (12-01-15)
Page 3


How How How How How
the State the State the State the State the State
Government Government Government Government Government
Works Works Works Works Works
Last year, we discussed the
fact that government works at
three levels – local, state and
national – and looked at the
work of local government in
some detail. In this chapter,
we examine the work of the
government at the state
level. How does this take
place in a democracy?
What is the role of a
Member of the
Legislative Assembly
(MLA) and Ministers? How
do people express their
views or demand action
from government? We look
at these questions through
the example of health.
3
CHAPTER
WHOSE RESPONSIBILITY?
Hey, look at this...it says that
there is a water shortage in
our state, and people are
falling sick!
“...In many villages, people were found to be
drinking unclean water. Streams have dried up, and
so have tanks. In the worst-affected areas, villagers
have been carrying water across great distances.”
“People at the district HQ Patalpuram receive water
supply once in three days. The District Hospital here is
overflowing with patients – a large number of whom
are children with acute diarrhoea...”
2015-16 (12-01-15)
Who is an MLA?
In the above section, you have read about some
events in Patalpuram. You may be familiar with some
official names such as Collector, Medical Officer, etc.
But have you heard of an MLA and the Legislative
Assembly? Do you know the MLA of your area? Can
you identify which party she or he belongs to?
Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) are
elected by the people. They then become members
of the legislative assembly and also form the
On the TV news, they said ten people
have died from diarrhoea! Is that
possible? Can one really die from it?
Who knows? Just
hope I don’t get it!
Ha ha!
My mother said not to have any iced
drinks from the market. She gave one of
her lectures this morning, “You have to
be responsible for your health,
Shirin!”
Suddenly...
STOP!
Really! Why? Has
he done something?
Shh...I saw him on TV
too. He is a member of
the Opposition!
What a loud voice he has...he must be
a leader or something...
...and we demand that the
authorities take immediate action to
bring the public health situation
under control! Our MLA must take
the responsibility for this!
This road is blocked due to the rally.
They have gheraoed the MLA’s  residence.
Ha ha – they
seem more angry
about what he
hasn’t done!
What is happening in Patalpuram ? What is happening in Patalpuram ? What is happening in Patalpuram ? What is happening in Patalpuram ? What is happening in Patalpuram ?
Why is this problem serious? Why is this problem serious? Why is this problem serious? Why is this problem serious? Why is this problem serious?
What action do you think can be What action do you think can be What action do you think can be What action do you think can be What action do you think can be
taken in the above situation and taken in the above situation and taken in the above situation and taken in the above situation and taken in the above situation and
who do you think should take this who do you think should take this who do you think should take this who do you think should take this who do you think should take this
action? Discuss. action? Discuss. action? Discuss. action? Discuss. action? Discuss.
That afternoon...
31
Chapter 3: How the State Government Works
2015-16 (12-01-15)
32 Social and Political Life
Discuss the following terms with Discuss the following terms with Discuss the following terms with Discuss the following terms with Discuss the following terms with
your teache your teache your teache your teache your teacher r r r r– – – – –public meeting, public meeting, public meeting, public meeting, public meeting,
States in India, constituency, States in India, constituency, States in India, constituency, States in India, constituency, States in India, constituency,
majority, ruling party and majority, ruling party and majority, ruling party and majority, ruling party and majority, ruling party and
opposition. opposition. opposition. opposition. opposition.
Can you explain the following Can you explain the following Can you explain the following Can you explain the following Can you explain the following
terms terms terms terms terms– – – – –majority, ruling party, majority, ruling party, majority, ruling party, majority, ruling party, majority, ruling party,
opposition with reference to your opposition with reference to your opposition with reference to your opposition with reference to your opposition with reference to your
state. state. state. state. state.
government. In this way we say that the MLAs
represent people. The example below will help us
understand this better.
Every state in India has a Legislative Assembly.
Each state is divided into different areas or
constituencies. For example, look at the map below.
It shows that the state of Himachal Pradesh is divided
into 68 assembly constituencies. From each
constituency, the people elect one representative who
then becomes a Member of the Legislative Assembly
(MLA). You would have noticed that people stand for
elections in the name of different parties. These MLAs,
therefore, belong to different political parties.
How do people who are MLAs become ministers or
chief minister? A political party whose MLAs have
won more than half the number of constituencies in
a state can be said to be in a majority. The political
party that has the majority is called the ruling party
and all other members are called the opposition. For
example, the Legislative Assembly of the state of
Himachal Pradesh has 68 MLA constituencies.
The state of  Himachal Pradesh is
coloured in green in the above
thumbnail map of India.
Using a pencil outline the following on the
map given on page 123:
  (i) the state that you live in;
(ii) the state of Himachal Pradesh.
* Telangana became the 29th State of India on
the 2nd June 2014, after the reorganisation of
the State of Andhra Pradesh.
2015-16 (12-01-15)
Page 4


How How How How How
the State the State the State the State the State
Government Government Government Government Government
Works Works Works Works Works
Last year, we discussed the
fact that government works at
three levels – local, state and
national – and looked at the
work of local government in
some detail. In this chapter,
we examine the work of the
government at the state
level. How does this take
place in a democracy?
What is the role of a
Member of the
Legislative Assembly
(MLA) and Ministers? How
do people express their
views or demand action
from government? We look
at these questions through
the example of health.
3
CHAPTER
WHOSE RESPONSIBILITY?
Hey, look at this...it says that
there is a water shortage in
our state, and people are
falling sick!
“...In many villages, people were found to be
drinking unclean water. Streams have dried up, and
so have tanks. In the worst-affected areas, villagers
have been carrying water across great distances.”
“People at the district HQ Patalpuram receive water
supply once in three days. The District Hospital here is
overflowing with patients – a large number of whom
are children with acute diarrhoea...”
2015-16 (12-01-15)
Who is an MLA?
In the above section, you have read about some
events in Patalpuram. You may be familiar with some
official names such as Collector, Medical Officer, etc.
But have you heard of an MLA and the Legislative
Assembly? Do you know the MLA of your area? Can
you identify which party she or he belongs to?
Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) are
elected by the people. They then become members
of the legislative assembly and also form the
On the TV news, they said ten people
have died from diarrhoea! Is that
possible? Can one really die from it?
Who knows? Just
hope I don’t get it!
Ha ha!
My mother said not to have any iced
drinks from the market. She gave one of
her lectures this morning, “You have to
be responsible for your health,
Shirin!”
Suddenly...
STOP!
Really! Why? Has
he done something?
Shh...I saw him on TV
too. He is a member of
the Opposition!
What a loud voice he has...he must be
a leader or something...
...and we demand that the
authorities take immediate action to
bring the public health situation
under control! Our MLA must take
the responsibility for this!
This road is blocked due to the rally.
They have gheraoed the MLA’s  residence.
Ha ha – they
seem more angry
about what he
hasn’t done!
What is happening in Patalpuram ? What is happening in Patalpuram ? What is happening in Patalpuram ? What is happening in Patalpuram ? What is happening in Patalpuram ?
Why is this problem serious? Why is this problem serious? Why is this problem serious? Why is this problem serious? Why is this problem serious?
What action do you think can be What action do you think can be What action do you think can be What action do you think can be What action do you think can be
taken in the above situation and taken in the above situation and taken in the above situation and taken in the above situation and taken in the above situation and
who do you think should take this who do you think should take this who do you think should take this who do you think should take this who do you think should take this
action? Discuss. action? Discuss. action? Discuss. action? Discuss. action? Discuss.
That afternoon...
31
Chapter 3: How the State Government Works
2015-16 (12-01-15)
32 Social and Political Life
Discuss the following terms with Discuss the following terms with Discuss the following terms with Discuss the following terms with Discuss the following terms with
your teache your teache your teache your teache your teacher r r r r– – – – –public meeting, public meeting, public meeting, public meeting, public meeting,
States in India, constituency, States in India, constituency, States in India, constituency, States in India, constituency, States in India, constituency,
majority, ruling party and majority, ruling party and majority, ruling party and majority, ruling party and majority, ruling party and
opposition. opposition. opposition. opposition. opposition.
Can you explain the following Can you explain the following Can you explain the following Can you explain the following Can you explain the following
terms terms terms terms terms– – – – –majority, ruling party, majority, ruling party, majority, ruling party, majority, ruling party, majority, ruling party,
opposition with reference to your opposition with reference to your opposition with reference to your opposition with reference to your opposition with reference to your
state. state. state. state. state.
government. In this way we say that the MLAs
represent people. The example below will help us
understand this better.
Every state in India has a Legislative Assembly.
Each state is divided into different areas or
constituencies. For example, look at the map below.
It shows that the state of Himachal Pradesh is divided
into 68 assembly constituencies. From each
constituency, the people elect one representative who
then becomes a Member of the Legislative Assembly
(MLA). You would have noticed that people stand for
elections in the name of different parties. These MLAs,
therefore, belong to different political parties.
How do people who are MLAs become ministers or
chief minister? A political party whose MLAs have
won more than half the number of constituencies in
a state can be said to be in a majority. The political
party that has the majority is called the ruling party
and all other members are called the opposition. For
example, the Legislative Assembly of the state of
Himachal Pradesh has 68 MLA constituencies.
The state of  Himachal Pradesh is
coloured in green in the above
thumbnail map of India.
Using a pencil outline the following on the
map given on page 123:
  (i) the state that you live in;
(ii) the state of Himachal Pradesh.
* Telangana became the 29th State of India on
the 2nd June 2014, after the reorganisation of
the State of Andhra Pradesh.
2015-16 (12-01-15)
33
Construct a table, similar to the Construct a table, similar to the Construct a table, similar to the Construct a table, similar to the Construct a table, similar to the
one given for Himachal Pradesh, one given for Himachal Pradesh, one given for Himachal Pradesh, one given for Himachal Pradesh, one given for Himachal Pradesh,
for your state. for your state. for your state. for your state. for your state.
Results of the Assembly Elections in H.P . in 2003
Political party Number of MLAs elected
Indian National Congress (INC) ..................................................... 43
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) ............................................................. 16
Other political parties....................................................................... 03
Independents (who don’t belong to any party)........................... 06
T otal ................................................................................ 68
The Head of the State is the Governor.
She/He is appointed by the Central
Government to ensure that the State
Government works within the rules and
regulations of the Constitution.
At times, the ruling party may not At times, the ruling party may not At times, the ruling party may not At times, the ruling party may not At times, the ruling party may not
be a single party but a group of be a single party but a group of be a single party but a group of be a single party but a group of be a single party but a group of
parties working together. This is parties working together. This is parties working together. This is parties working together. This is parties working together. This is
called a coalition. Discuss with called a coalition. Discuss with called a coalition. Discuss with called a coalition. Discuss with called a coalition. Discuss with
your teacher. your teacher. your teacher. your teacher. your teacher.
Candidates from various political parties won the
2003 assembly elections and became MLAs. Since the
total number of MLAs in the Legislative Assembly is
68, a political party would have needed to have more
than 34 MLAs in order to gain a majority. The Indian
National Congress with 43 MLAs had the majority and
it became the ruling party. All other MLAs became the
opposition. In this case, Bharatiya Janata Party was
the major opposition party, since it had the largest
number of MLAs after the Indian National Congress.
Among the opposition were other parties, including those
who had been elected as independent candidates.
After the elections, the MLAs belonging to the ruling
party will elect their leader who will become the chief
minister. In this case, the Congress Party MLAs chose
Shri Virbhadra Singh as their leader and he became
the chief minister. The chief minister then selects
other people as ministers. After the elections, it is
the Governor of the state who appoints the chief
minister and other ministers.
The chief minister and other ministers have the
responsibility of running various government
departments or ministries. They have separate offices.
A Legislative Assembly is a place where all the MLAs,
whether from the ruling party or from the opposition
meet to discuss various things. Hence, some MLAs
have dual responsibilities: one as an MLA and the other
as a minister. We will read about this further.
Chapter 3: How the State Government Works
2015-16 (12-01-15)
Page 5


How How How How How
the State the State the State the State the State
Government Government Government Government Government
Works Works Works Works Works
Last year, we discussed the
fact that government works at
three levels – local, state and
national – and looked at the
work of local government in
some detail. In this chapter,
we examine the work of the
government at the state
level. How does this take
place in a democracy?
What is the role of a
Member of the
Legislative Assembly
(MLA) and Ministers? How
do people express their
views or demand action
from government? We look
at these questions through
the example of health.
3
CHAPTER
WHOSE RESPONSIBILITY?
Hey, look at this...it says that
there is a water shortage in
our state, and people are
falling sick!
“...In many villages, people were found to be
drinking unclean water. Streams have dried up, and
so have tanks. In the worst-affected areas, villagers
have been carrying water across great distances.”
“People at the district HQ Patalpuram receive water
supply once in three days. The District Hospital here is
overflowing with patients – a large number of whom
are children with acute diarrhoea...”
2015-16 (12-01-15)
Who is an MLA?
In the above section, you have read about some
events in Patalpuram. You may be familiar with some
official names such as Collector, Medical Officer, etc.
But have you heard of an MLA and the Legislative
Assembly? Do you know the MLA of your area? Can
you identify which party she or he belongs to?
Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) are
elected by the people. They then become members
of the legislative assembly and also form the
On the TV news, they said ten people
have died from diarrhoea! Is that
possible? Can one really die from it?
Who knows? Just
hope I don’t get it!
Ha ha!
My mother said not to have any iced
drinks from the market. She gave one of
her lectures this morning, “You have to
be responsible for your health,
Shirin!”
Suddenly...
STOP!
Really! Why? Has
he done something?
Shh...I saw him on TV
too. He is a member of
the Opposition!
What a loud voice he has...he must be
a leader or something...
...and we demand that the
authorities take immediate action to
bring the public health situation
under control! Our MLA must take
the responsibility for this!
This road is blocked due to the rally.
They have gheraoed the MLA’s  residence.
Ha ha – they
seem more angry
about what he
hasn’t done!
What is happening in Patalpuram ? What is happening in Patalpuram ? What is happening in Patalpuram ? What is happening in Patalpuram ? What is happening in Patalpuram ?
Why is this problem serious? Why is this problem serious? Why is this problem serious? Why is this problem serious? Why is this problem serious?
What action do you think can be What action do you think can be What action do you think can be What action do you think can be What action do you think can be
taken in the above situation and taken in the above situation and taken in the above situation and taken in the above situation and taken in the above situation and
who do you think should take this who do you think should take this who do you think should take this who do you think should take this who do you think should take this
action? Discuss. action? Discuss. action? Discuss. action? Discuss. action? Discuss.
That afternoon...
31
Chapter 3: How the State Government Works
2015-16 (12-01-15)
32 Social and Political Life
Discuss the following terms with Discuss the following terms with Discuss the following terms with Discuss the following terms with Discuss the following terms with
your teache your teache your teache your teache your teacher r r r r– – – – –public meeting, public meeting, public meeting, public meeting, public meeting,
States in India, constituency, States in India, constituency, States in India, constituency, States in India, constituency, States in India, constituency,
majority, ruling party and majority, ruling party and majority, ruling party and majority, ruling party and majority, ruling party and
opposition. opposition. opposition. opposition. opposition.
Can you explain the following Can you explain the following Can you explain the following Can you explain the following Can you explain the following
terms terms terms terms terms– – – – –majority, ruling party, majority, ruling party, majority, ruling party, majority, ruling party, majority, ruling party,
opposition with reference to your opposition with reference to your opposition with reference to your opposition with reference to your opposition with reference to your
state. state. state. state. state.
government. In this way we say that the MLAs
represent people. The example below will help us
understand this better.
Every state in India has a Legislative Assembly.
Each state is divided into different areas or
constituencies. For example, look at the map below.
It shows that the state of Himachal Pradesh is divided
into 68 assembly constituencies. From each
constituency, the people elect one representative who
then becomes a Member of the Legislative Assembly
(MLA). You would have noticed that people stand for
elections in the name of different parties. These MLAs,
therefore, belong to different political parties.
How do people who are MLAs become ministers or
chief minister? A political party whose MLAs have
won more than half the number of constituencies in
a state can be said to be in a majority. The political
party that has the majority is called the ruling party
and all other members are called the opposition. For
example, the Legislative Assembly of the state of
Himachal Pradesh has 68 MLA constituencies.
The state of  Himachal Pradesh is
coloured in green in the above
thumbnail map of India.
Using a pencil outline the following on the
map given on page 123:
  (i) the state that you live in;
(ii) the state of Himachal Pradesh.
* Telangana became the 29th State of India on
the 2nd June 2014, after the reorganisation of
the State of Andhra Pradesh.
2015-16 (12-01-15)
33
Construct a table, similar to the Construct a table, similar to the Construct a table, similar to the Construct a table, similar to the Construct a table, similar to the
one given for Himachal Pradesh, one given for Himachal Pradesh, one given for Himachal Pradesh, one given for Himachal Pradesh, one given for Himachal Pradesh,
for your state. for your state. for your state. for your state. for your state.
Results of the Assembly Elections in H.P . in 2003
Political party Number of MLAs elected
Indian National Congress (INC) ..................................................... 43
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) ............................................................. 16
Other political parties....................................................................... 03
Independents (who don’t belong to any party)........................... 06
T otal ................................................................................ 68
The Head of the State is the Governor.
She/He is appointed by the Central
Government to ensure that the State
Government works within the rules and
regulations of the Constitution.
At times, the ruling party may not At times, the ruling party may not At times, the ruling party may not At times, the ruling party may not At times, the ruling party may not
be a single party but a group of be a single party but a group of be a single party but a group of be a single party but a group of be a single party but a group of
parties working together. This is parties working together. This is parties working together. This is parties working together. This is parties working together. This is
called a coalition. Discuss with called a coalition. Discuss with called a coalition. Discuss with called a coalition. Discuss with called a coalition. Discuss with
your teacher. your teacher. your teacher. your teacher. your teacher.
Candidates from various political parties won the
2003 assembly elections and became MLAs. Since the
total number of MLAs in the Legislative Assembly is
68, a political party would have needed to have more
than 34 MLAs in order to gain a majority. The Indian
National Congress with 43 MLAs had the majority and
it became the ruling party. All other MLAs became the
opposition. In this case, Bharatiya Janata Party was
the major opposition party, since it had the largest
number of MLAs after the Indian National Congress.
Among the opposition were other parties, including those
who had been elected as independent candidates.
After the elections, the MLAs belonging to the ruling
party will elect their leader who will become the chief
minister. In this case, the Congress Party MLAs chose
Shri Virbhadra Singh as their leader and he became
the chief minister. The chief minister then selects
other people as ministers. After the elections, it is
the Governor of the state who appoints the chief
minister and other ministers.
The chief minister and other ministers have the
responsibility of running various government
departments or ministries. They have separate offices.
A Legislative Assembly is a place where all the MLAs,
whether from the ruling party or from the opposition
meet to discuss various things. Hence, some MLAs
have dual responsibilities: one as an MLA and the other
as a minister. We will read about this further.
Chapter 3: How the State Government Works
2015-16 (12-01-15)
A debate in the Legislative Assembly
Afreen, Sujata and many other students from their
school travelled to the state capital to visit the
Legislative Assembly which was housed in an
impressive building. The children were excited. After
security checks, they were taken upstairs. There was
a gallery from where they could see the large hall
below. There were rows and rows of desks.
 This Assembly was going to have a debate on a
current problem. During this time, MLAs can express
their opinions and ask questions related to the issue
or give suggestions about what should be done by
the government. Those who wish to, can respond to
this. The minister then replies to the questions and
tries to assure the Assembly that adequate steps are
being taken.
 The chief minister and other ministers have to
take decisions and run the government. We usually
hear about them or see them in the news channels
or in the papers. However, whatever decisions are
being taken have to be approved by the members of
the legislative assembly. In a democracy, these
members can ask questions, debate an important
issue, decide where money should be spent, etc. They
have the main authority.
MLA 1: In my constituency of Akhandagaon,
during the last three weeks, there were 15 deaths
because of diarrhoea. I think it is a shame that this
government has not been able to check the situation
of a simple problem like diarrhoea while proclaiming
itself to be a champion of technology. I would call
the attention of the minister in charge of health to
take immediate measures to control the situation.
MLA 2: My question is why are government
hospitals in such a bad situation? Why is the
government not appointing proper doctors and other
medical staff in the district? I would also like to know
how the government plans to deal with this situation
34 Social and Political Life
2015-16 (12-01-15)
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