Page 1 66 MA THEMATICS File Name : C:\Computer Station\Maths-IX\Chapter\Chap-4\Chap-4 (02-01-2006).PM65 CHAPTER 4 LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES The principal use of the Analytic Art is to bring Mathematical Problems to Equations and to exhibit those Equations in the most simple terms that can be. —Edmund Halley 4.1 Introduction In earlier classes, you have studied linear equations in one variable. Can you write down a linear equation in one variable? You may say that x + 1 = 0, x + 2 = 0 and 2 y + 3 = 0 are examples of linear equations in one variable. You also know that such equations have a unique (i.e., one and only one) solution. Y ou may also remember how to represent the solution on a number line. In this chapter, the knowledge of linear equations in one variable shall be recalled and extended to that of two variables. You will be considering questions like: Does a linear equation in two variables have a solution? If yes, is it unique? What does the solution look like on the Cartesian plane? You shall also use the concepts you studied in Chapter 3 to answer these questions. 4.2 Linear Equations Let us first recall what you have studied so far. Consider the following equation: 2x + 5 = 0 Its solution, i.e., the root of the equation, is 5 2 ? . This can be represented on the number line as shown below: Fig. 4.1 Page 2 66 MA THEMATICS File Name : C:\Computer Station\Maths-IX\Chapter\Chap-4\Chap-4 (02-01-2006).PM65 CHAPTER 4 LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES The principal use of the Analytic Art is to bring Mathematical Problems to Equations and to exhibit those Equations in the most simple terms that can be. —Edmund Halley 4.1 Introduction In earlier classes, you have studied linear equations in one variable. Can you write down a linear equation in one variable? You may say that x + 1 = 0, x + 2 = 0 and 2 y + 3 = 0 are examples of linear equations in one variable. You also know that such equations have a unique (i.e., one and only one) solution. Y ou may also remember how to represent the solution on a number line. In this chapter, the knowledge of linear equations in one variable shall be recalled and extended to that of two variables. You will be considering questions like: Does a linear equation in two variables have a solution? If yes, is it unique? What does the solution look like on the Cartesian plane? You shall also use the concepts you studied in Chapter 3 to answer these questions. 4.2 Linear Equations Let us first recall what you have studied so far. Consider the following equation: 2x + 5 = 0 Its solution, i.e., the root of the equation, is 5 2 ? . This can be represented on the number line as shown below: Fig. 4.1 LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES 67 File Name : C:\Computer Station\Maths-IX\Chapter\Chap-4\Chap-4 (02-01-2006).PM65 While solving an equation, you must always keep the following points in mind: The solution of a linear equation is not affected when: (i) the same number is added to (or subtracted from) both the sides of the equation. (ii) you multiply or divide both the sides of the equation by the same non-zero number. Let us now consider the following situation: In a One-day International Cricket match between India and Sri Lanka played in Nagpur, two Indian batsmen together scored 176 runs. Express this information in the form of an equation. Here, you can see that the score of neither of them is known, i.e., there are two unknown quantities. Let us use x and y to denote them. So, the number of runs scored by one of the batsmen is x, and the number of runs scored by the other is y. We know that x + y = 176, which is the required equation. This is an example of a linear equation in two variables. It is customary to denote the variables in such equations by x and y, but other letters may also be used. Some examples of linear equations in two variables are: 1.2s + 3t = 5, p + 4q = 7, pu + 5v = 9 and 3 = 2 x – 7y. Note that you can put these equations in the form 1.2s + 3t – 5 = 0, p + 4q – 7 = 0, pu + 5v – 9 = 0 and 2 x – 7y – 3 = 0, respectively. So, any equation which can be put in the form ax + by + c = 0, where a, b and c are real numbers, and a and b are not both zero, is called a linear equation in two variables. This means that you can think of many many such equations. Example 1 : Write each of the following equations in the form ax + by + c = 0 and indicate the values of a, b and c in each case: (i) 2x + 3y = 4.37 (ii) x – 4 = 3 y (iii) 4 = 5x – 3y (iv) 2x = y Solution : (i) 2x + 3y = 4.37 can be written as 2x + 3y – 4.37 = 0. Here a = 2, b = 3 and c = – 4.37. (ii) The equation x – 4 = 3 y can be written as x – 3 y – 4 = 0. Here a = 1, b = – 3 and c = – 4. (iii) The equation 4 = 5x – 3y can be written as 5x – 3y – 4 = 0. Here a = 5, b = –3 and c = – 4. Do you agree that it can also be written as –5x + 3y + 4 = 0 ? In this case a = –5, b = 3 and c = 4. Page 3 66 MA THEMATICS File Name : C:\Computer Station\Maths-IX\Chapter\Chap-4\Chap-4 (02-01-2006).PM65 CHAPTER 4 LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES The principal use of the Analytic Art is to bring Mathematical Problems to Equations and to exhibit those Equations in the most simple terms that can be. —Edmund Halley 4.1 Introduction In earlier classes, you have studied linear equations in one variable. Can you write down a linear equation in one variable? You may say that x + 1 = 0, x + 2 = 0 and 2 y + 3 = 0 are examples of linear equations in one variable. You also know that such equations have a unique (i.e., one and only one) solution. Y ou may also remember how to represent the solution on a number line. In this chapter, the knowledge of linear equations in one variable shall be recalled and extended to that of two variables. You will be considering questions like: Does a linear equation in two variables have a solution? If yes, is it unique? What does the solution look like on the Cartesian plane? You shall also use the concepts you studied in Chapter 3 to answer these questions. 4.2 Linear Equations Let us first recall what you have studied so far. Consider the following equation: 2x + 5 = 0 Its solution, i.e., the root of the equation, is 5 2 ? . This can be represented on the number line as shown below: Fig. 4.1 LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES 67 File Name : C:\Computer Station\Maths-IX\Chapter\Chap-4\Chap-4 (02-01-2006).PM65 While solving an equation, you must always keep the following points in mind: The solution of a linear equation is not affected when: (i) the same number is added to (or subtracted from) both the sides of the equation. (ii) you multiply or divide both the sides of the equation by the same non-zero number. Let us now consider the following situation: In a One-day International Cricket match between India and Sri Lanka played in Nagpur, two Indian batsmen together scored 176 runs. Express this information in the form of an equation. Here, you can see that the score of neither of them is known, i.e., there are two unknown quantities. Let us use x and y to denote them. So, the number of runs scored by one of the batsmen is x, and the number of runs scored by the other is y. We know that x + y = 176, which is the required equation. This is an example of a linear equation in two variables. It is customary to denote the variables in such equations by x and y, but other letters may also be used. Some examples of linear equations in two variables are: 1.2s + 3t = 5, p + 4q = 7, pu + 5v = 9 and 3 = 2 x – 7y. Note that you can put these equations in the form 1.2s + 3t – 5 = 0, p + 4q – 7 = 0, pu + 5v – 9 = 0 and 2 x – 7y – 3 = 0, respectively. So, any equation which can be put in the form ax + by + c = 0, where a, b and c are real numbers, and a and b are not both zero, is called a linear equation in two variables. This means that you can think of many many such equations. Example 1 : Write each of the following equations in the form ax + by + c = 0 and indicate the values of a, b and c in each case: (i) 2x + 3y = 4.37 (ii) x – 4 = 3 y (iii) 4 = 5x – 3y (iv) 2x = y Solution : (i) 2x + 3y = 4.37 can be written as 2x + 3y – 4.37 = 0. Here a = 2, b = 3 and c = – 4.37. (ii) The equation x – 4 = 3 y can be written as x – 3 y – 4 = 0. Here a = 1, b = – 3 and c = – 4. (iii) The equation 4 = 5x – 3y can be written as 5x – 3y – 4 = 0. Here a = 5, b = –3 and c = – 4. Do you agree that it can also be written as –5x + 3y + 4 = 0 ? In this case a = –5, b = 3 and c = 4. 68 MA THEMATICS File Name : C:\Computer Station\Maths-IX\Chapter\Chap-4\Chap-4 (02-01-2006).PM65 (iv) The equation 2x = y can be written as 2x – y + 0 = 0. Here a = 2, b = –1 and c = 0. Equations of the type ax + b = 0 are also examples of linear equations in two variables because they can be expressed as ax + 0.y + b =0 For example, 4 – 3x = 0 can be written as –3x + 0.y + 4 = 0. Example 2 : Write each of the following as an equation in two variables: (i) x = –5 (ii) y = 2 (iii) 2x = 3 (iv) 5y = 2 Solution : (i) x = –5 can be written as 1.x + 0.y = –5, or 1.x + 0.y + 5 = 0. (ii) y = 2 can be written as 0.x + 1.y = 2, or 0.x + 1.y – 2 = 0. (iii) 2x = 3 can be written as 2x + 0.y – 3 = 0. (iv) 5y = 2 can be written as 0.x + 5y – 2 = 0. EXERCISE 4.1 1. The cost of a notebook is twice the cost of a pen. Write a linear equation in two variables to represent this statement. (Take the cost of a notebook to be ` x and that of a pen to be ` y). 2. Express the following linear equations in the form ax + by + c = 0 and indicate the values of a, b and c in each case: (i) 2x + 3y = 9.35 (ii) x – 5 y – 10 = 0 (iii) –2x + 3y = 6 (iv) x = 3y (v) 2x = –5y (vi) 3x + 2 = 0 (vii) y – 2 = 0 (viii) 5 = 2x 4.3 Solution of a Linear Equation You have seen that every linear equation in one variable has a unique solution. What can you say about the solution of a linear equation involving two variables? As there are two variables in the equation, a solution means a pair of values, one for x and one for y which satisfy the given equation. Let us consider the equation 2x + 3y = 12. Here, x = 3 and y = 2 is a solution because when you substitute x = 3 and y = 2 in the equation above, you find that 2x + 3y = (2 × 3) + (3 × 2) = 12 This solution is written as an ordered pair (3, 2), first writing the value for x and then the value for y. Similarly, (0, 4) is also a solution for the equation above. Page 4 66 MA THEMATICS File Name : C:\Computer Station\Maths-IX\Chapter\Chap-4\Chap-4 (02-01-2006).PM65 CHAPTER 4 LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES The principal use of the Analytic Art is to bring Mathematical Problems to Equations and to exhibit those Equations in the most simple terms that can be. —Edmund Halley 4.1 Introduction In earlier classes, you have studied linear equations in one variable. Can you write down a linear equation in one variable? You may say that x + 1 = 0, x + 2 = 0 and 2 y + 3 = 0 are examples of linear equations in one variable. You also know that such equations have a unique (i.e., one and only one) solution. Y ou may also remember how to represent the solution on a number line. In this chapter, the knowledge of linear equations in one variable shall be recalled and extended to that of two variables. You will be considering questions like: Does a linear equation in two variables have a solution? If yes, is it unique? What does the solution look like on the Cartesian plane? You shall also use the concepts you studied in Chapter 3 to answer these questions. 4.2 Linear Equations Let us first recall what you have studied so far. Consider the following equation: 2x + 5 = 0 Its solution, i.e., the root of the equation, is 5 2 ? . This can be represented on the number line as shown below: Fig. 4.1 LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES 67 File Name : C:\Computer Station\Maths-IX\Chapter\Chap-4\Chap-4 (02-01-2006).PM65 While solving an equation, you must always keep the following points in mind: The solution of a linear equation is not affected when: (i) the same number is added to (or subtracted from) both the sides of the equation. (ii) you multiply or divide both the sides of the equation by the same non-zero number. Let us now consider the following situation: In a One-day International Cricket match between India and Sri Lanka played in Nagpur, two Indian batsmen together scored 176 runs. Express this information in the form of an equation. Here, you can see that the score of neither of them is known, i.e., there are two unknown quantities. Let us use x and y to denote them. So, the number of runs scored by one of the batsmen is x, and the number of runs scored by the other is y. We know that x + y = 176, which is the required equation. This is an example of a linear equation in two variables. It is customary to denote the variables in such equations by x and y, but other letters may also be used. Some examples of linear equations in two variables are: 1.2s + 3t = 5, p + 4q = 7, pu + 5v = 9 and 3 = 2 x – 7y. Note that you can put these equations in the form 1.2s + 3t – 5 = 0, p + 4q – 7 = 0, pu + 5v – 9 = 0 and 2 x – 7y – 3 = 0, respectively. So, any equation which can be put in the form ax + by + c = 0, where a, b and c are real numbers, and a and b are not both zero, is called a linear equation in two variables. This means that you can think of many many such equations. Example 1 : Write each of the following equations in the form ax + by + c = 0 and indicate the values of a, b and c in each case: (i) 2x + 3y = 4.37 (ii) x – 4 = 3 y (iii) 4 = 5x – 3y (iv) 2x = y Solution : (i) 2x + 3y = 4.37 can be written as 2x + 3y – 4.37 = 0. Here a = 2, b = 3 and c = – 4.37. (ii) The equation x – 4 = 3 y can be written as x – 3 y – 4 = 0. Here a = 1, b = – 3 and c = – 4. (iii) The equation 4 = 5x – 3y can be written as 5x – 3y – 4 = 0. Here a = 5, b = –3 and c = – 4. Do you agree that it can also be written as –5x + 3y + 4 = 0 ? In this case a = –5, b = 3 and c = 4. 68 MA THEMATICS File Name : C:\Computer Station\Maths-IX\Chapter\Chap-4\Chap-4 (02-01-2006).PM65 (iv) The equation 2x = y can be written as 2x – y + 0 = 0. Here a = 2, b = –1 and c = 0. Equations of the type ax + b = 0 are also examples of linear equations in two variables because they can be expressed as ax + 0.y + b =0 For example, 4 – 3x = 0 can be written as –3x + 0.y + 4 = 0. Example 2 : Write each of the following as an equation in two variables: (i) x = –5 (ii) y = 2 (iii) 2x = 3 (iv) 5y = 2 Solution : (i) x = –5 can be written as 1.x + 0.y = –5, or 1.x + 0.y + 5 = 0. (ii) y = 2 can be written as 0.x + 1.y = 2, or 0.x + 1.y – 2 = 0. (iii) 2x = 3 can be written as 2x + 0.y – 3 = 0. (iv) 5y = 2 can be written as 0.x + 5y – 2 = 0. EXERCISE 4.1 1. The cost of a notebook is twice the cost of a pen. Write a linear equation in two variables to represent this statement. (Take the cost of a notebook to be ` x and that of a pen to be ` y). 2. Express the following linear equations in the form ax + by + c = 0 and indicate the values of a, b and c in each case: (i) 2x + 3y = 9.35 (ii) x – 5 y – 10 = 0 (iii) –2x + 3y = 6 (iv) x = 3y (v) 2x = –5y (vi) 3x + 2 = 0 (vii) y – 2 = 0 (viii) 5 = 2x 4.3 Solution of a Linear Equation You have seen that every linear equation in one variable has a unique solution. What can you say about the solution of a linear equation involving two variables? As there are two variables in the equation, a solution means a pair of values, one for x and one for y which satisfy the given equation. Let us consider the equation 2x + 3y = 12. Here, x = 3 and y = 2 is a solution because when you substitute x = 3 and y = 2 in the equation above, you find that 2x + 3y = (2 × 3) + (3 × 2) = 12 This solution is written as an ordered pair (3, 2), first writing the value for x and then the value for y. Similarly, (0, 4) is also a solution for the equation above. LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES 69 File Name : C:\Computer Station\Maths-IX\Chapter\Chap-4\Chap-4 (02-01-2006).PM65 On the other hand, (1, 4) is not a solution of 2x + 3y = 12, because on putting x = 1 and y = 4 we get 2x + 3y = 14, which is not 12. Note that (0, 4) is a solution but not (4, 0). You have seen at least two solutions for 2x + 3y = 12, i.e., (3, 2) and (0, 4). Can you find any other solution? Do you agree that (6, 0) is another solution? Verify the same. In fact, we can get many many solutions in the following way. Pick a value of your choice for x (say x = 2) in 2x + 3y = 12. Then the equation reduces to 4 + 3y = 12, which is a linear equation in one variable. On solving this, you get y = 8 3 . So 8 2, 3 ?? ?? ?? is another solution of 2x + 3y = 12. Similarly, choosing x = – 5, you find that the equation becomes –10 + 3y = 12. This gives y = 22 3 . So, 22 5, 3 ?? ? ?? ?? is another solution of 2x + 3y = 12. So there is no end to different solutions of a linear equation in two variables. That is, a linear equation in two variables has infinitely many solutions. Example 3 : Find four different solutions of the equation x + 2y = 6. Solution : By inspection, x = 2, y = 2 is a solution because for x = 2, y = 2 x + 2y = 2 + 4 = 6 Now, let us choose x = 0. With this value of x, the given equation reduces to 2y = 6 which has the unique solution y = 3. So x = 0, y = 3 is also a solution of x + 2y = 6. Similarly, taking y = 0, the given equation reduces to x = 6. So, x = 6, y = 0 is a solution of x + 2y = 6 as well. Finally, let us take y = 1. The given equation now reduces to x + 2 = 6, whose solution is given by x = 4. Therefore, (4, 1) is also a solution of the given equation. So four of the infinitely many solutions of the given equation are: (2, 2), (0, 3), (6, 0) and (4, 1). Remark : Note that an easy way of getting a solution is to take x = 0 and get the corresponding value of y. Similarly, we can put y = 0 and obtain the corresponding value of x. Example 4 : Find two solutions for each of the following equations: (i) 4x + 3y = 12 (ii) 2x + 5y = 0 (iii) 3y + 4 = 0 Solution : (i) Taking x = 0, we get 3y = 12, i.e., y = 4. So, (0, 4) is a solution of the given equation. Similarly, by taking y = 0, we get x = 3. Thus, (3, 0) is also a solution. (ii) Taking x = 0, we get 5y = 0, i.e., y = 0. So (0, 0) is a solution of the given equation. Page 5 66 MA THEMATICS File Name : C:\Computer Station\Maths-IX\Chapter\Chap-4\Chap-4 (02-01-2006).PM65 CHAPTER 4 LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES The principal use of the Analytic Art is to bring Mathematical Problems to Equations and to exhibit those Equations in the most simple terms that can be. —Edmund Halley 4.1 Introduction In earlier classes, you have studied linear equations in one variable. Can you write down a linear equation in one variable? You may say that x + 1 = 0, x + 2 = 0 and 2 y + 3 = 0 are examples of linear equations in one variable. You also know that such equations have a unique (i.e., one and only one) solution. Y ou may also remember how to represent the solution on a number line. In this chapter, the knowledge of linear equations in one variable shall be recalled and extended to that of two variables. You will be considering questions like: Does a linear equation in two variables have a solution? If yes, is it unique? What does the solution look like on the Cartesian plane? You shall also use the concepts you studied in Chapter 3 to answer these questions. 4.2 Linear Equations Let us first recall what you have studied so far. Consider the following equation: 2x + 5 = 0 Its solution, i.e., the root of the equation, is 5 2 ? . This can be represented on the number line as shown below: Fig. 4.1 LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES 67 File Name : C:\Computer Station\Maths-IX\Chapter\Chap-4\Chap-4 (02-01-2006).PM65 While solving an equation, you must always keep the following points in mind: The solution of a linear equation is not affected when: (i) the same number is added to (or subtracted from) both the sides of the equation. (ii) you multiply or divide both the sides of the equation by the same non-zero number. Let us now consider the following situation: In a One-day International Cricket match between India and Sri Lanka played in Nagpur, two Indian batsmen together scored 176 runs. Express this information in the form of an equation. Here, you can see that the score of neither of them is known, i.e., there are two unknown quantities. Let us use x and y to denote them. So, the number of runs scored by one of the batsmen is x, and the number of runs scored by the other is y. We know that x + y = 176, which is the required equation. This is an example of a linear equation in two variables. It is customary to denote the variables in such equations by x and y, but other letters may also be used. Some examples of linear equations in two variables are: 1.2s + 3t = 5, p + 4q = 7, pu + 5v = 9 and 3 = 2 x – 7y. Note that you can put these equations in the form 1.2s + 3t – 5 = 0, p + 4q – 7 = 0, pu + 5v – 9 = 0 and 2 x – 7y – 3 = 0, respectively. So, any equation which can be put in the form ax + by + c = 0, where a, b and c are real numbers, and a and b are not both zero, is called a linear equation in two variables. This means that you can think of many many such equations. Example 1 : Write each of the following equations in the form ax + by + c = 0 and indicate the values of a, b and c in each case: (i) 2x + 3y = 4.37 (ii) x – 4 = 3 y (iii) 4 = 5x – 3y (iv) 2x = y Solution : (i) 2x + 3y = 4.37 can be written as 2x + 3y – 4.37 = 0. Here a = 2, b = 3 and c = – 4.37. (ii) The equation x – 4 = 3 y can be written as x – 3 y – 4 = 0. Here a = 1, b = – 3 and c = – 4. (iii) The equation 4 = 5x – 3y can be written as 5x – 3y – 4 = 0. Here a = 5, b = –3 and c = – 4. Do you agree that it can also be written as –5x + 3y + 4 = 0 ? In this case a = –5, b = 3 and c = 4. 68 MA THEMATICS File Name : C:\Computer Station\Maths-IX\Chapter\Chap-4\Chap-4 (02-01-2006).PM65 (iv) The equation 2x = y can be written as 2x – y + 0 = 0. Here a = 2, b = –1 and c = 0. Equations of the type ax + b = 0 are also examples of linear equations in two variables because they can be expressed as ax + 0.y + b =0 For example, 4 – 3x = 0 can be written as –3x + 0.y + 4 = 0. Example 2 : Write each of the following as an equation in two variables: (i) x = –5 (ii) y = 2 (iii) 2x = 3 (iv) 5y = 2 Solution : (i) x = –5 can be written as 1.x + 0.y = –5, or 1.x + 0.y + 5 = 0. (ii) y = 2 can be written as 0.x + 1.y = 2, or 0.x + 1.y – 2 = 0. (iii) 2x = 3 can be written as 2x + 0.y – 3 = 0. (iv) 5y = 2 can be written as 0.x + 5y – 2 = 0. EXERCISE 4.1 1. The cost of a notebook is twice the cost of a pen. Write a linear equation in two variables to represent this statement. (Take the cost of a notebook to be ` x and that of a pen to be ` y). 2. Express the following linear equations in the form ax + by + c = 0 and indicate the values of a, b and c in each case: (i) 2x + 3y = 9.35 (ii) x – 5 y – 10 = 0 (iii) –2x + 3y = 6 (iv) x = 3y (v) 2x = –5y (vi) 3x + 2 = 0 (vii) y – 2 = 0 (viii) 5 = 2x 4.3 Solution of a Linear Equation You have seen that every linear equation in one variable has a unique solution. What can you say about the solution of a linear equation involving two variables? As there are two variables in the equation, a solution means a pair of values, one for x and one for y which satisfy the given equation. Let us consider the equation 2x + 3y = 12. Here, x = 3 and y = 2 is a solution because when you substitute x = 3 and y = 2 in the equation above, you find that 2x + 3y = (2 × 3) + (3 × 2) = 12 This solution is written as an ordered pair (3, 2), first writing the value for x and then the value for y. Similarly, (0, 4) is also a solution for the equation above. LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES 69 File Name : C:\Computer Station\Maths-IX\Chapter\Chap-4\Chap-4 (02-01-2006).PM65 On the other hand, (1, 4) is not a solution of 2x + 3y = 12, because on putting x = 1 and y = 4 we get 2x + 3y = 14, which is not 12. Note that (0, 4) is a solution but not (4, 0). You have seen at least two solutions for 2x + 3y = 12, i.e., (3, 2) and (0, 4). Can you find any other solution? Do you agree that (6, 0) is another solution? Verify the same. In fact, we can get many many solutions in the following way. Pick a value of your choice for x (say x = 2) in 2x + 3y = 12. Then the equation reduces to 4 + 3y = 12, which is a linear equation in one variable. On solving this, you get y = 8 3 . So 8 2, 3 ?? ?? ?? is another solution of 2x + 3y = 12. Similarly, choosing x = – 5, you find that the equation becomes –10 + 3y = 12. This gives y = 22 3 . So, 22 5, 3 ?? ? ?? ?? is another solution of 2x + 3y = 12. So there is no end to different solutions of a linear equation in two variables. That is, a linear equation in two variables has infinitely many solutions. Example 3 : Find four different solutions of the equation x + 2y = 6. Solution : By inspection, x = 2, y = 2 is a solution because for x = 2, y = 2 x + 2y = 2 + 4 = 6 Now, let us choose x = 0. With this value of x, the given equation reduces to 2y = 6 which has the unique solution y = 3. So x = 0, y = 3 is also a solution of x + 2y = 6. Similarly, taking y = 0, the given equation reduces to x = 6. So, x = 6, y = 0 is a solution of x + 2y = 6 as well. Finally, let us take y = 1. The given equation now reduces to x + 2 = 6, whose solution is given by x = 4. Therefore, (4, 1) is also a solution of the given equation. So four of the infinitely many solutions of the given equation are: (2, 2), (0, 3), (6, 0) and (4, 1). Remark : Note that an easy way of getting a solution is to take x = 0 and get the corresponding value of y. Similarly, we can put y = 0 and obtain the corresponding value of x. Example 4 : Find two solutions for each of the following equations: (i) 4x + 3y = 12 (ii) 2x + 5y = 0 (iii) 3y + 4 = 0 Solution : (i) Taking x = 0, we get 3y = 12, i.e., y = 4. So, (0, 4) is a solution of the given equation. Similarly, by taking y = 0, we get x = 3. Thus, (3, 0) is also a solution. (ii) Taking x = 0, we get 5y = 0, i.e., y = 0. So (0, 0) is a solution of the given equation. 70 MA THEMATICS File Name : C:\Computer Station\Maths-IX\Chapter\Chap-4\Chap-4 (02-01-2006).PM65 Now, if you take y = 0, you again get (0, 0) as a solution, which is the same as the earlier one. To get another solution, take x = 1, say. Then you can check that the corresponding value of y is 2 . 5 ? So 2 1, 5 ?? ? ?? ?? is another solution of 2x + 5y = 0. (iii) Writing the equation 3y + 4 = 0 as 0.x + 3y + 4 = 0, you will find that y = 4 – 3 for any value of x. Thus, two solutions can be given as 44 0, – and 1, – 33 ?? ? ? ?? ? ? ?? ? ? . EXERCISE 4.2 1. Which one of the following options is true, and why? y = 3x + 5 has (i) a unique solution, (ii) only two solutions, (iii) infinitely many solutions 2. Write four solutions for each of the following equations: (i) 2x + y = 7 (ii) px + y = 9 (iii) x = 4y 3. Check which of the following are solutions of the equation x – 2y = 4 and which are not: (i) (0, 2) (ii) (2, 0) (iii) (4, 0) (iv) ?? 2, 4 2 (v) (1, 1) 4. Find the value of k, if x = 2, y = 1 is a solution of the equation 2x + 3y = k. 4.4 Graph of a Linear Equation in Two V ariables So far, you have obtained the solutions of a linear equation in two variables algebraically. Now, let us look at their geometric representation. You know that each such equation has infinitely many solutions. How can we show them in the coordinate plane? You may have got some indication in which we write the solution as pairs of values. The solutions of the linear equation in Example 3, namely, x + 2y = 6 (1) can be expressed in the form of a table as follows by writing the values of y below the corresponding values of x : Table 1 x 024 6 . . . y 321 0 . . .Read More

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