NCERT Textbook: Maps

``` Page 1

MAPS
4
4
Let’s Do
Take an old
rubber ball and
draw whatever
you like all over it. You
may also mark north
pole and south pole on
it. Now cut this ball
with a knife and try to
flatten it. Notice how the
drawings are distorted.
You have learnt in the previous chapter about the
advantages of a globe. However, globe has limitations
as well. A globe can be useful when we want to study
the earth as a whole. But, when we want to study only
a part of the earth, as about our country, states,
districts, towns and villages, it is of little help. In such
a situation we use maps. A map is a representation or
a drawing of the earth’s surface or a part of it drawn
on a flat surface according to a scale. But it is
impossible to flatten a round shape completely.
We find that maps are useful to us for various
purposes. One map shows a small area and a few facts.
Another map may contain as many facts as a big book.
When many maps are put together we get an Atlas.
Atlases are of various sizes, measurements drawn on
a globe. They are of different types. Some of them are
described below.
PHYSICAL MAPS
Maps showing natural features of the earth such as
mountains, plateaus, plains, rivers, oceans etc. are
called physical or relief maps.
POLITICAL MAPS
Maps showing cities, towns and villages, and different
countries and states of the world with their boundaries
are called political maps.
THEMATIC MAPS
Some maps focus on specific information; such as road
N
S
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 2

MAPS
4
4
Let’s Do
Take an old
rubber ball and
draw whatever
you like all over it. You
may also mark north
pole and south pole on
it. Now cut this ball
with a knife and try to
flatten it. Notice how the
drawings are distorted.
You have learnt in the previous chapter about the
advantages of a globe. However, globe has limitations
as well. A globe can be useful when we want to study
the earth as a whole. But, when we want to study only
a part of the earth, as about our country, states,
districts, towns and villages, it is of little help. In such
a situation we use maps. A map is a representation or
a drawing of the earth’s surface or a part of it drawn
on a flat surface according to a scale. But it is
impossible to flatten a round shape completely.
We find that maps are useful to us for various
purposes. One map shows a small area and a few facts.
Another map may contain as many facts as a big book.
When many maps are put together we get an Atlas.
Atlases are of various sizes, measurements drawn on
a globe. They are of different types. Some of them are
described below.
PHYSICAL MAPS
Maps showing natural features of the earth such as
mountains, plateaus, plains, rivers, oceans etc. are
called physical or relief maps.
POLITICAL MAPS
Maps showing cities, towns and villages, and different
countries and states of the world with their boundaries
are called political maps.
THEMATIC MAPS
Some maps focus on specific information; such as road
N
S
Rationalised 2023-24
24
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
Let’s Do
Look at the
Figure 4.1.
There is a scale.
It may be used for
measuring distance
between places. For
example the distance
between the well and the
tree is 5 cm. It means
that the actual distance
is 50 metres. Now the
distance between the PO
(A) to Karim’s house (E)
is 12 cm. It means 120
metres on the ground but
you can not fly like a bird
directly from E to A. You
will have to walk on the
total walking distance
from E to C, then C to M,
M to B and B to A. Add
all these distances. This
will be the total walking
distance from Karim’s
house to the post office.
maps, rainfall maps, maps showing distribution of
forests, industries etc. are known as thematic maps.
Suitable titles are given on the basis of information
provided in these maps.
There are three Components of Maps – distance,
direction and symbol.
DISTANCE
Maps are drawings, which reduce the entire world or a
part of it to fit on a sheet of paper. Or we can say maps
are drawn to reduced scales. But this reduction is done
very carefully so that the distance between the places
is real. It can only be possible when a small distance
on paper represents a large distance on the ground.
Therefore, a scale is chosen for this purpose. Scale is
the ratio between the actual distance on the ground
and the distance shown on the map. For example, the
km. If you show this 10 km. distance by 2 cm on a
map, it means, 1 cm on the map will show 5 km. on
the ground. The scale of your drawing will be 1cm = 5
km. Thus, scale is very important in any map. If you
know the scale, you will be able to calculate the
distance between any two places on a map.
When large areas like continents or countries are
to be shown on a paper, then we use a small scale. For
example 5 cm. on the map shows 500  km. of the
ground. It is called a small scale map.
When a small area like your village or town is to be
shown on paper, then we use a large scale that is 5
cm. on the map shows 500 metres only on the ground.
It is called a large scale map.
scale maps.
DIRECTION
Most maps contain an arrow marked with the letter
‘N’ at the upper right hand corner. This arrow shows
the north direction. It is called the north line. When
you know the north, you can find out other directions,
for example east, west and south. There are four major
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 3

MAPS
4
4
Let’s Do
Take an old
rubber ball and
draw whatever
you like all over it. You
may also mark north
pole and south pole on
it. Now cut this ball
with a knife and try to
flatten it. Notice how the
drawings are distorted.
You have learnt in the previous chapter about the
advantages of a globe. However, globe has limitations
as well. A globe can be useful when we want to study
the earth as a whole. But, when we want to study only
a part of the earth, as about our country, states,
districts, towns and villages, it is of little help. In such
a situation we use maps. A map is a representation or
a drawing of the earth’s surface or a part of it drawn
on a flat surface according to a scale. But it is
impossible to flatten a round shape completely.
We find that maps are useful to us for various
purposes. One map shows a small area and a few facts.
Another map may contain as many facts as a big book.
When many maps are put together we get an Atlas.
Atlases are of various sizes, measurements drawn on
a globe. They are of different types. Some of them are
described below.
PHYSICAL MAPS
Maps showing natural features of the earth such as
mountains, plateaus, plains, rivers, oceans etc. are
called physical or relief maps.
POLITICAL MAPS
Maps showing cities, towns and villages, and different
countries and states of the world with their boundaries
are called political maps.
THEMATIC MAPS
Some maps focus on specific information; such as road
N
S
Rationalised 2023-24
24
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
Let’s Do
Look at the
Figure 4.1.
There is a scale.
It may be used for
measuring distance
between places. For
example the distance
between the well and the
tree is 5 cm. It means
that the actual distance
is 50 metres. Now the
distance between the PO
(A) to Karim’s house (E)
is 12 cm. It means 120
metres on the ground but
you can not fly like a bird
directly from E to A. You
will have to walk on the
total walking distance
from E to C, then C to M,
M to B and B to A. Add
all these distances. This
will be the total walking
distance from Karim’s
house to the post office.
maps, rainfall maps, maps showing distribution of
forests, industries etc. are known as thematic maps.
Suitable titles are given on the basis of information
provided in these maps.
There are three Components of Maps – distance,
direction and symbol.
DISTANCE
Maps are drawings, which reduce the entire world or a
part of it to fit on a sheet of paper. Or we can say maps
are drawn to reduced scales. But this reduction is done
very carefully so that the distance between the places
is real. It can only be possible when a small distance
on paper represents a large distance on the ground.
Therefore, a scale is chosen for this purpose. Scale is
the ratio between the actual distance on the ground
and the distance shown on the map. For example, the
km. If you show this 10 km. distance by 2 cm on a
map, it means, 1 cm on the map will show 5 km. on
the ground. The scale of your drawing will be 1cm = 5
km. Thus, scale is very important in any map. If you
know the scale, you will be able to calculate the
distance between any two places on a map.
When large areas like continents or countries are
to be shown on a paper, then we use a small scale. For
example 5 cm. on the map shows 500  km. of the
ground. It is called a small scale map.
When a small area like your village or town is to be
shown on paper, then we use a large scale that is 5
cm. on the map shows 500 metres only on the ground.
It is called a large scale map.
scale maps.
DIRECTION
Most maps contain an arrow marked with the letter
‘N’ at the upper right hand corner. This arrow shows
the north direction. It is called the north line. When
you know the north, you can find out other directions,
for example east, west and south. There are four major
Rationalised 2023-24
25
MAPS
Figure 4.1 : Map of a village
directions, North, South, East and West {Figure 4.2
(a)}. They are called cardinal points. Other four
intermediate directions are north-east (NE), south-
east(SE), south-west (SW) and north-west (NW). We
can locate any place more accurately with the help of
these intermediate directions.
Find out the following directions from the
Figure 4.1: (a) The direction of the Community Centre,
the playground from Vikas’s house (b) the direction
of school from shops.
We can find out the direction of a place with the
help of a compass. It is an instrument used to find
out main directions. Its magnetic needle always points
towards north-south direction {Figure 4.2 (b)}.
Figure 4.2 (a) : Cardinal Directions
Figure 4.2 (b) : A compass
N
S
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 4

MAPS
4
4
Let’s Do
Take an old
rubber ball and
draw whatever
you like all over it. You
may also mark north
pole and south pole on
it. Now cut this ball
with a knife and try to
flatten it. Notice how the
drawings are distorted.
You have learnt in the previous chapter about the
advantages of a globe. However, globe has limitations
as well. A globe can be useful when we want to study
the earth as a whole. But, when we want to study only
a part of the earth, as about our country, states,
districts, towns and villages, it is of little help. In such
a situation we use maps. A map is a representation or
a drawing of the earth’s surface or a part of it drawn
on a flat surface according to a scale. But it is
impossible to flatten a round shape completely.
We find that maps are useful to us for various
purposes. One map shows a small area and a few facts.
Another map may contain as many facts as a big book.
When many maps are put together we get an Atlas.
Atlases are of various sizes, measurements drawn on
a globe. They are of different types. Some of them are
described below.
PHYSICAL MAPS
Maps showing natural features of the earth such as
mountains, plateaus, plains, rivers, oceans etc. are
called physical or relief maps.
POLITICAL MAPS
Maps showing cities, towns and villages, and different
countries and states of the world with their boundaries
are called political maps.
THEMATIC MAPS
Some maps focus on specific information; such as road
N
S
Rationalised 2023-24
24
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
Let’s Do
Look at the
Figure 4.1.
There is a scale.
It may be used for
measuring distance
between places. For
example the distance
between the well and the
tree is 5 cm. It means
that the actual distance
is 50 metres. Now the
distance between the PO
(A) to Karim’s house (E)
is 12 cm. It means 120
metres on the ground but
you can not fly like a bird
directly from E to A. You
will have to walk on the
total walking distance
from E to C, then C to M,
M to B and B to A. Add
all these distances. This
will be the total walking
distance from Karim’s
house to the post office.
maps, rainfall maps, maps showing distribution of
forests, industries etc. are known as thematic maps.
Suitable titles are given on the basis of information
provided in these maps.
There are three Components of Maps – distance,
direction and symbol.
DISTANCE
Maps are drawings, which reduce the entire world or a
part of it to fit on a sheet of paper. Or we can say maps
are drawn to reduced scales. But this reduction is done
very carefully so that the distance between the places
is real. It can only be possible when a small distance
on paper represents a large distance on the ground.
Therefore, a scale is chosen for this purpose. Scale is
the ratio between the actual distance on the ground
and the distance shown on the map. For example, the
km. If you show this 10 km. distance by 2 cm on a
map, it means, 1 cm on the map will show 5 km. on
the ground. The scale of your drawing will be 1cm = 5
km. Thus, scale is very important in any map. If you
know the scale, you will be able to calculate the
distance between any two places on a map.
When large areas like continents or countries are
to be shown on a paper, then we use a small scale. For
example 5 cm. on the map shows 500  km. of the
ground. It is called a small scale map.
When a small area like your village or town is to be
shown on paper, then we use a large scale that is 5
cm. on the map shows 500 metres only on the ground.
It is called a large scale map.
scale maps.
DIRECTION
Most maps contain an arrow marked with the letter
‘N’ at the upper right hand corner. This arrow shows
the north direction. It is called the north line. When
you know the north, you can find out other directions,
for example east, west and south. There are four major
Rationalised 2023-24
25
MAPS
Figure 4.1 : Map of a village
directions, North, South, East and West {Figure 4.2
(a)}. They are called cardinal points. Other four
intermediate directions are north-east (NE), south-
east(SE), south-west (SW) and north-west (NW). We
can locate any place more accurately with the help of
these intermediate directions.
Find out the following directions from the
Figure 4.1: (a) The direction of the Community Centre,
the playground from Vikas’s house (b) the direction
of school from shops.
We can find out the direction of a place with the
help of a compass. It is an instrument used to find
out main directions. Its magnetic needle always points
towards north-south direction {Figure 4.2 (b)}.
Figure 4.2 (a) : Cardinal Directions
Figure 4.2 (b) : A compass
N
S
Rationalised 2023-24
26
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
Various colours are used for the same purpose. For
example, generally blue is used for showing water
bodies, brown for mountain, yellow for plateau and
green is used for plains.
SYMBOLS
It is the third important component of a map. It is not
possible to draw on a map the actual shape and size of
different features such as buildings, roads, bridges,
trees, railway lines or a well. So, they are shown by
using certain letters, shades, colours, pictures and lines
These symbols give a lot of  information in a limited
space. With the use of these symbols, maps can be
drawn easily and are simple to read. Even if you don’t
know the language of an area and therefore cannot
ask someone for directions, you can collect information
from maps with the help of these symbols. Maps have
a universal language that can be understood by all.
There is an international agreement regarding the use
of these symbols. These are called conventional
symbols. Some of the conventional symbols are shown
in the Figure 4.3.
Figure 4.3 : Conventional Symbols
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 5

MAPS
4
4
Let’s Do
Take an old
rubber ball and
draw whatever
you like all over it. You
may also mark north
pole and south pole on
it. Now cut this ball
with a knife and try to
flatten it. Notice how the
drawings are distorted.
You have learnt in the previous chapter about the
advantages of a globe. However, globe has limitations
as well. A globe can be useful when we want to study
the earth as a whole. But, when we want to study only
a part of the earth, as about our country, states,
districts, towns and villages, it is of little help. In such
a situation we use maps. A map is a representation or
a drawing of the earth’s surface or a part of it drawn
on a flat surface according to a scale. But it is
impossible to flatten a round shape completely.
We find that maps are useful to us for various
purposes. One map shows a small area and a few facts.
Another map may contain as many facts as a big book.
When many maps are put together we get an Atlas.
Atlases are of various sizes, measurements drawn on
a globe. They are of different types. Some of them are
described below.
PHYSICAL MAPS
Maps showing natural features of the earth such as
mountains, plateaus, plains, rivers, oceans etc. are
called physical or relief maps.
POLITICAL MAPS
Maps showing cities, towns and villages, and different
countries and states of the world with their boundaries
are called political maps.
THEMATIC MAPS
Some maps focus on specific information; such as road
N
S
Rationalised 2023-24
24
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
Let’s Do
Look at the
Figure 4.1.
There is a scale.
It may be used for
measuring distance
between places. For
example the distance
between the well and the
tree is 5 cm. It means
that the actual distance
is 50 metres. Now the
distance between the PO
(A) to Karim’s house (E)
is 12 cm. It means 120
metres on the ground but
you can not fly like a bird
directly from E to A. You
will have to walk on the
total walking distance
from E to C, then C to M,
M to B and B to A. Add
all these distances. This
will be the total walking
distance from Karim’s
house to the post office.
maps, rainfall maps, maps showing distribution of
forests, industries etc. are known as thematic maps.
Suitable titles are given on the basis of information
provided in these maps.
There are three Components of Maps – distance,
direction and symbol.
DISTANCE
Maps are drawings, which reduce the entire world or a
part of it to fit on a sheet of paper. Or we can say maps
are drawn to reduced scales. But this reduction is done
very carefully so that the distance between the places
is real. It can only be possible when a small distance
on paper represents a large distance on the ground.
Therefore, a scale is chosen for this purpose. Scale is
the ratio between the actual distance on the ground
and the distance shown on the map. For example, the
km. If you show this 10 km. distance by 2 cm on a
map, it means, 1 cm on the map will show 5 km. on
the ground. The scale of your drawing will be 1cm = 5
km. Thus, scale is very important in any map. If you
know the scale, you will be able to calculate the
distance between any two places on a map.
When large areas like continents or countries are
to be shown on a paper, then we use a small scale. For
example 5 cm. on the map shows 500  km. of the
ground. It is called a small scale map.
When a small area like your village or town is to be
shown on paper, then we use a large scale that is 5
cm. on the map shows 500 metres only on the ground.
It is called a large scale map.
scale maps.
DIRECTION
Most maps contain an arrow marked with the letter
‘N’ at the upper right hand corner. This arrow shows
the north direction. It is called the north line. When
you know the north, you can find out other directions,
for example east, west and south. There are four major
Rationalised 2023-24
25
MAPS
Figure 4.1 : Map of a village
directions, North, South, East and West {Figure 4.2
(a)}. They are called cardinal points. Other four
intermediate directions are north-east (NE), south-
east(SE), south-west (SW) and north-west (NW). We
can locate any place more accurately with the help of
these intermediate directions.
Find out the following directions from the
Figure 4.1: (a) The direction of the Community Centre,
the playground from Vikas’s house (b) the direction
of school from shops.
We can find out the direction of a place with the
help of a compass. It is an instrument used to find
out main directions. Its magnetic needle always points
towards north-south direction {Figure 4.2 (b)}.
Figure 4.2 (a) : Cardinal Directions
Figure 4.2 (b) : A compass
N
S
Rationalised 2023-24
26
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
Various colours are used for the same purpose. For
example, generally blue is used for showing water
bodies, brown for mountain, yellow for plateau and
green is used for plains.
SYMBOLS
It is the third important component of a map. It is not
possible to draw on a map the actual shape and size of
different features such as buildings, roads, bridges,
trees, railway lines or a well. So, they are shown by
using certain letters, shades, colours, pictures and lines
These symbols give a lot of  information in a limited
space. With the use of these symbols, maps can be
drawn easily and are simple to read. Even if you don’t
know the language of an area and therefore cannot
ask someone for directions, you can collect information
from maps with the help of these symbols. Maps have
a universal language that can be understood by all.
There is an international agreement regarding the use
of these symbols. These are called conventional
symbols. Some of the conventional symbols are shown
in the Figure 4.3.
Figure 4.3 : Conventional Symbols
Rationalised 2023-24
27
MAPS
Figure 4.4 : Sunderpur village and its surrounding areas
Look at the Figure 4.4 and
find out :
(i) In which direction is
the river flowing?
passes by the side of
village Dumri?
(iii) On what type of
railway line is
Sunderpur situated ?
(iv) On which side of the
railway bridge is the
police station
situated?
(v) On which side of the
railway line do the
following lie :
(a) Chhatri
(b) Church  (c) Pond
(d) Mosque  (e) River
(f) Post and
Telegraph Office
(g) Graveyard
SKETCH
A sketch is a drawing mainly based on memory and
spot observation and not to scale. Sometimes a rough
drawing is required of an area to tell where a
particular place is located with respect to other
places. Suppose, you want to go to your friend’s
house, but you don’t know the way. Your friend may
make a rough drawing to show the way to his house.
Such a rough drawing is drawn without scale, and
is called a sketch map.
PLAN
A plan is a drawing of a small area on a large scale. A
large-scale map gives lot of  information, but there are
certain things which we may sometimes want to know
for example the length and breadth of a room, which
can’t be shown in a map. At that time, we can refer
drawings drawn to scale called a plan.
Let’s Do Visit web portal School Bhuvan-NCERT and
draw online neighbourhood map on satellite imageries.
Rationalised 2023-24
```

## Geography for UPSC CSE

180 videos|471 docs|221 tests

## FAQs on NCERT Textbook: Maps - Geography for UPSC CSE

 1. What are maps used for?
Ans. Maps are used to represent a specific area of the Earth's surface, showing natural and cultural features. They are used for navigation, planning travel routes, understanding topography, and analyzing geographical data.
 2. How are maps created?
Ans. Maps are created using various methods, such as surveying, remote sensing, and GIS. Surveying involves measuring the Earth's surface using a variety of tools, including GPS, while remote sensing uses satellite imagery and aerial photography to create maps. GIS (Geographic Information System) combines various data sources to create digital maps.
 3. How can one read a map?
Ans. To read a map, one must first understand the scale, legend, and symbols used on the map. The scale represents the relationship between the distance on the map and the actual distance on the ground. The legend explains the symbols used on the map, while symbols represent features such as roads, rivers, and buildings.
 4. What are the different types of maps?
Ans. The different types of maps include physical maps, political maps, topographic maps, climate maps, and thematic maps. Physical maps show the natural features of an area, such as mountains and rivers, while political maps show the boundaries between countries and states. Topographic maps show elevations and contours of the land, while climate maps show the weather patterns of an area. Thematic maps focus on a specific theme, such as population density or economic activity.
 5. How have maps evolved over time?
Ans. Maps have evolved over time, from simple hand-drawn maps to digital maps created using advanced technology. Early maps were made using basic tools such as compasses and protractors, while modern maps are created using satellite imagery and GIS. Maps have also become more detailed and accurate over time, providing more information about the Earth's surface.

## Geography for UPSC CSE

180 videos|471 docs|221 tests

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