NCERT Textbook - Major Domains of the Earth Class 6 Notes | EduRev

Social Studies (SST) Class 6

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Class 6 : NCERT Textbook - Major Domains of the Earth Class 6 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


MAJOR DOMAINS OF THE EARTH
As you have read in the first chapter, the earth is the
only planet which has life. Human beings can live here
because the life sustaining elements of land, water and
air are present on the earth.
The surface of the earth is a complex zone in which
three main components of the environment meet,
overlap and interact. The solid portion of the earth on
which we live is called the Lithosphere. The gaseous
layers that surround the earth, is the Atmosphere,
where oxygen, nitrogen, carbondioxide and other  gases
are found. Water covers a very big area of the earth’s
surface and this area is called the Hydrosphere. The
Hydrosphere comprises water in all its forms, that is,
ice, water and water vapour.
The Biosphere is the narrow zone where we find
land, water and air together, which contains all forms
of life.
LITHOSPHERE
The solid portion of the earth is called the Lithosphere.
It comprises the rocks of the earth’s crust and the thin
layers of soil that contain nutrient elements which
sustain organisms.
There are two main divisions of the earth’s surface.
The large landmasses are known as the continents
and the huge water bodies are called the ocean basins.
All the oceans of the world are connected with one
another. Look at the map of the world (Figure 5.1). Are
all the land masses connected with one another?
The level of seawater remains the same everywhere.
Elevation of land is measured from the level of the sea,
which is taken as zero.
5 5
Word Origin
In the Greek
language, Lithos
means Stone; Atmos
means Vapour;
Hudor means Water;
and Bios means Life.
Can you make words using
the above?
Page 2


MAJOR DOMAINS OF THE EARTH
As you have read in the first chapter, the earth is the
only planet which has life. Human beings can live here
because the life sustaining elements of land, water and
air are present on the earth.
The surface of the earth is a complex zone in which
three main components of the environment meet,
overlap and interact. The solid portion of the earth on
which we live is called the Lithosphere. The gaseous
layers that surround the earth, is the Atmosphere,
where oxygen, nitrogen, carbondioxide and other  gases
are found. Water covers a very big area of the earth’s
surface and this area is called the Hydrosphere. The
Hydrosphere comprises water in all its forms, that is,
ice, water and water vapour.
The Biosphere is the narrow zone where we find
land, water and air together, which contains all forms
of life.
LITHOSPHERE
The solid portion of the earth is called the Lithosphere.
It comprises the rocks of the earth’s crust and the thin
layers of soil that contain nutrient elements which
sustain organisms.
There are two main divisions of the earth’s surface.
The large landmasses are known as the continents
and the huge water bodies are called the ocean basins.
All the oceans of the world are connected with one
another. Look at the map of the world (Figure 5.1). Are
all the land masses connected with one another?
The level of seawater remains the same everywhere.
Elevation of land is measured from the level of the sea,
which is taken as zero.
5 5
Word Origin
In the Greek
language, Lithos
means Stone; Atmos
means Vapour;
Hudor means Water;
and Bios means Life.
Can you make words using
the above?
31 MAJOR DOMAINS OF THE EARTH
Figure 5.1 : The World : Continents and Oceans
SOUTHERN OCEAN
Page 3


MAJOR DOMAINS OF THE EARTH
As you have read in the first chapter, the earth is the
only planet which has life. Human beings can live here
because the life sustaining elements of land, water and
air are present on the earth.
The surface of the earth is a complex zone in which
three main components of the environment meet,
overlap and interact. The solid portion of the earth on
which we live is called the Lithosphere. The gaseous
layers that surround the earth, is the Atmosphere,
where oxygen, nitrogen, carbondioxide and other  gases
are found. Water covers a very big area of the earth’s
surface and this area is called the Hydrosphere. The
Hydrosphere comprises water in all its forms, that is,
ice, water and water vapour.
The Biosphere is the narrow zone where we find
land, water and air together, which contains all forms
of life.
LITHOSPHERE
The solid portion of the earth is called the Lithosphere.
It comprises the rocks of the earth’s crust and the thin
layers of soil that contain nutrient elements which
sustain organisms.
There are two main divisions of the earth’s surface.
The large landmasses are known as the continents
and the huge water bodies are called the ocean basins.
All the oceans of the world are connected with one
another. Look at the map of the world (Figure 5.1). Are
all the land masses connected with one another?
The level of seawater remains the same everywhere.
Elevation of land is measured from the level of the sea,
which is taken as zero.
5 5
Word Origin
In the Greek
language, Lithos
means Stone; Atmos
means Vapour;
Hudor means Water;
and Bios means Life.
Can you make words using
the above?
31 MAJOR DOMAINS OF THE EARTH
Figure 5.1 : The World : Continents and Oceans
SOUTHERN OCEAN
32
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
The highest mountain peak Mt. Everest is 8,848
metres above the sea level. The greatest depth of 11,022
metres is recorded at Mariana Trench in the Pacific
Ocean. Could you imagine that depth of sea is much
more than the highest point?
Continents
There are seven major continents. These are separated
by large water bodies. These continents are – Asia,
Europe, Africa, North America, South America,
Australia and Antarctica. Look at the map of the world
(Figure 5.1) and notice that the greater part of the land
mass lies in the Northern Hemisphere.
Asia is the largest continent. It covers about one-
third of the total land area of the earth. The continent
lies in the Eastern Hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer
passes through this continent. Asia is separated from
Europe by the Ural mountains on the west (Figure
5.1). The combined landmass of Europe and Asia is
called the Eurasia (Europe + Asia).
Europe is much smaller than Asia. The continent
lies to the west of Asia. The Arctic Circle passes through
it. It is bound by water bodies on three sides. Look at
the map of the world and locate it.
Africa is the second largest continent after Asia.
The Equator or 0
0
 latitude runs almost through the
middle of the continent. A large part of Africa lies in
the Northern Hemisphere. Look at the Figure 5.1; you
will find that it is the only continent through which
the Tropic of Cancer, the Equator and the Tropic of
Capricorn pass.
The Sahara Desert, the world’s largest hot desert,
is located in Africa. The continent is bound on all sides
by oceans and seas. Look at the world map (Figure 5.1).
You will notice that the world’s longest river the Nile,
flows through Africa. Notice where the Equator, the
Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn pass in
the map of Africa.
North America is the third largest continent of the
world. It is linked to South America by a very narrow
strip of land called the Isthmus of Panama. The
continent lies completely in the Northern and Western
Hemisphere. Three oceans surround this continent.
Can you name these oceans?
Do you know?
Edmund Hillary
(New Zealand)
and Tenzing Norgay
Sherpa (India) were the
first men to climb the
highest mountain peak Mt.
Everest on the planet
earth on 29
th
 May, 1953.
Junko Tabei (Japan)
was the first woman to
reach the summit on 16th
May, 1975. The first
Indian woman to climb the
highest peak on 23
rd
 May,
1984 was Bachendri Pal.
Page 4


MAJOR DOMAINS OF THE EARTH
As you have read in the first chapter, the earth is the
only planet which has life. Human beings can live here
because the life sustaining elements of land, water and
air are present on the earth.
The surface of the earth is a complex zone in which
three main components of the environment meet,
overlap and interact. The solid portion of the earth on
which we live is called the Lithosphere. The gaseous
layers that surround the earth, is the Atmosphere,
where oxygen, nitrogen, carbondioxide and other  gases
are found. Water covers a very big area of the earth’s
surface and this area is called the Hydrosphere. The
Hydrosphere comprises water in all its forms, that is,
ice, water and water vapour.
The Biosphere is the narrow zone where we find
land, water and air together, which contains all forms
of life.
LITHOSPHERE
The solid portion of the earth is called the Lithosphere.
It comprises the rocks of the earth’s crust and the thin
layers of soil that contain nutrient elements which
sustain organisms.
There are two main divisions of the earth’s surface.
The large landmasses are known as the continents
and the huge water bodies are called the ocean basins.
All the oceans of the world are connected with one
another. Look at the map of the world (Figure 5.1). Are
all the land masses connected with one another?
The level of seawater remains the same everywhere.
Elevation of land is measured from the level of the sea,
which is taken as zero.
5 5
Word Origin
In the Greek
language, Lithos
means Stone; Atmos
means Vapour;
Hudor means Water;
and Bios means Life.
Can you make words using
the above?
31 MAJOR DOMAINS OF THE EARTH
Figure 5.1 : The World : Continents and Oceans
SOUTHERN OCEAN
32
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
The highest mountain peak Mt. Everest is 8,848
metres above the sea level. The greatest depth of 11,022
metres is recorded at Mariana Trench in the Pacific
Ocean. Could you imagine that depth of sea is much
more than the highest point?
Continents
There are seven major continents. These are separated
by large water bodies. These continents are – Asia,
Europe, Africa, North America, South America,
Australia and Antarctica. Look at the map of the world
(Figure 5.1) and notice that the greater part of the land
mass lies in the Northern Hemisphere.
Asia is the largest continent. It covers about one-
third of the total land area of the earth. The continent
lies in the Eastern Hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer
passes through this continent. Asia is separated from
Europe by the Ural mountains on the west (Figure
5.1). The combined landmass of Europe and Asia is
called the Eurasia (Europe + Asia).
Europe is much smaller than Asia. The continent
lies to the west of Asia. The Arctic Circle passes through
it. It is bound by water bodies on three sides. Look at
the map of the world and locate it.
Africa is the second largest continent after Asia.
The Equator or 0
0
 latitude runs almost through the
middle of the continent. A large part of Africa lies in
the Northern Hemisphere. Look at the Figure 5.1; you
will find that it is the only continent through which
the Tropic of Cancer, the Equator and the Tropic of
Capricorn pass.
The Sahara Desert, the world’s largest hot desert,
is located in Africa. The continent is bound on all sides
by oceans and seas. Look at the world map (Figure 5.1).
You will notice that the world’s longest river the Nile,
flows through Africa. Notice where the Equator, the
Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn pass in
the map of Africa.
North America is the third largest continent of the
world. It is linked to South America by a very narrow
strip of land called the Isthmus of Panama. The
continent lies completely in the Northern and Western
Hemisphere. Three oceans surround this continent.
Can you name these oceans?
Do you know?
Edmund Hillary
(New Zealand)
and Tenzing Norgay
Sherpa (India) were the
first men to climb the
highest mountain peak Mt.
Everest on the planet
earth on 29
th
 May, 1953.
Junko Tabei (Japan)
was the first woman to
reach the summit on 16th
May, 1975. The first
Indian woman to climb the
highest peak on 23
rd
 May,
1984 was Bachendri Pal.
33 MAJOR DOMAINS OF THE EARTH
South America lies
mostly in the Southern
Hemisphere. Which two
oceans surround it on
the east and the west?
The Andes, world’s
longest mountain
range, runs through its
length from north to
south (Figure 5.1).
South America has the
world’s largest river, the
Amazon.
Australia is the
smallest continent that
lies entirely in the
Southern Hemisphere.
It is surrounded on all
sides by the oceans and
seas. It is called an
island continent.
Antarctica, completely in the Southern Hemisphere,
is a huge continent. The South Pole lies almost at the
centre of this continent. As it is located in the South
Polar Region, it is permanently covered with thick ice
sheets. There are no permanent human settlements.
Many countries have research stations in Antarctica.
India also has research stations there. These are named
as Maitri and Dakshin Gangotri.
HYDROSPHERE
The earth is called the blue planet. More than 71 per
cent of the earth is covered with water and 29 per
cent is with land. Hydrosphere consists of water in
all its forms. As running water in oceans and rivers
and in lakes, ice in glaciers, underground water and
the water vapour in atmosphere, all comprise  the
hydrosphere.
More than 97% of the Earth’s water is found in the
oceans and is too salty for human use. A large
proportion of the rest of the water is in the form of
icesheets and glaciers or under the ground and a very
small percentage is available as fresh water for human
Figure 5.2 : Isthmus and Strait
Name the Strait
between India
and Sri Lanka.
Page 5


MAJOR DOMAINS OF THE EARTH
As you have read in the first chapter, the earth is the
only planet which has life. Human beings can live here
because the life sustaining elements of land, water and
air are present on the earth.
The surface of the earth is a complex zone in which
three main components of the environment meet,
overlap and interact. The solid portion of the earth on
which we live is called the Lithosphere. The gaseous
layers that surround the earth, is the Atmosphere,
where oxygen, nitrogen, carbondioxide and other  gases
are found. Water covers a very big area of the earth’s
surface and this area is called the Hydrosphere. The
Hydrosphere comprises water in all its forms, that is,
ice, water and water vapour.
The Biosphere is the narrow zone where we find
land, water and air together, which contains all forms
of life.
LITHOSPHERE
The solid portion of the earth is called the Lithosphere.
It comprises the rocks of the earth’s crust and the thin
layers of soil that contain nutrient elements which
sustain organisms.
There are two main divisions of the earth’s surface.
The large landmasses are known as the continents
and the huge water bodies are called the ocean basins.
All the oceans of the world are connected with one
another. Look at the map of the world (Figure 5.1). Are
all the land masses connected with one another?
The level of seawater remains the same everywhere.
Elevation of land is measured from the level of the sea,
which is taken as zero.
5 5
Word Origin
In the Greek
language, Lithos
means Stone; Atmos
means Vapour;
Hudor means Water;
and Bios means Life.
Can you make words using
the above?
31 MAJOR DOMAINS OF THE EARTH
Figure 5.1 : The World : Continents and Oceans
SOUTHERN OCEAN
32
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
The highest mountain peak Mt. Everest is 8,848
metres above the sea level. The greatest depth of 11,022
metres is recorded at Mariana Trench in the Pacific
Ocean. Could you imagine that depth of sea is much
more than the highest point?
Continents
There are seven major continents. These are separated
by large water bodies. These continents are – Asia,
Europe, Africa, North America, South America,
Australia and Antarctica. Look at the map of the world
(Figure 5.1) and notice that the greater part of the land
mass lies in the Northern Hemisphere.
Asia is the largest continent. It covers about one-
third of the total land area of the earth. The continent
lies in the Eastern Hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer
passes through this continent. Asia is separated from
Europe by the Ural mountains on the west (Figure
5.1). The combined landmass of Europe and Asia is
called the Eurasia (Europe + Asia).
Europe is much smaller than Asia. The continent
lies to the west of Asia. The Arctic Circle passes through
it. It is bound by water bodies on three sides. Look at
the map of the world and locate it.
Africa is the second largest continent after Asia.
The Equator or 0
0
 latitude runs almost through the
middle of the continent. A large part of Africa lies in
the Northern Hemisphere. Look at the Figure 5.1; you
will find that it is the only continent through which
the Tropic of Cancer, the Equator and the Tropic of
Capricorn pass.
The Sahara Desert, the world’s largest hot desert,
is located in Africa. The continent is bound on all sides
by oceans and seas. Look at the world map (Figure 5.1).
You will notice that the world’s longest river the Nile,
flows through Africa. Notice where the Equator, the
Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn pass in
the map of Africa.
North America is the third largest continent of the
world. It is linked to South America by a very narrow
strip of land called the Isthmus of Panama. The
continent lies completely in the Northern and Western
Hemisphere. Three oceans surround this continent.
Can you name these oceans?
Do you know?
Edmund Hillary
(New Zealand)
and Tenzing Norgay
Sherpa (India) were the
first men to climb the
highest mountain peak Mt.
Everest on the planet
earth on 29
th
 May, 1953.
Junko Tabei (Japan)
was the first woman to
reach the summit on 16th
May, 1975. The first
Indian woman to climb the
highest peak on 23
rd
 May,
1984 was Bachendri Pal.
33 MAJOR DOMAINS OF THE EARTH
South America lies
mostly in the Southern
Hemisphere. Which two
oceans surround it on
the east and the west?
The Andes, world’s
longest mountain
range, runs through its
length from north to
south (Figure 5.1).
South America has the
world’s largest river, the
Amazon.
Australia is the
smallest continent that
lies entirely in the
Southern Hemisphere.
It is surrounded on all
sides by the oceans and
seas. It is called an
island continent.
Antarctica, completely in the Southern Hemisphere,
is a huge continent. The South Pole lies almost at the
centre of this continent. As it is located in the South
Polar Region, it is permanently covered with thick ice
sheets. There are no permanent human settlements.
Many countries have research stations in Antarctica.
India also has research stations there. These are named
as Maitri and Dakshin Gangotri.
HYDROSPHERE
The earth is called the blue planet. More than 71 per
cent of the earth is covered with water and 29 per
cent is with land. Hydrosphere consists of water in
all its forms. As running water in oceans and rivers
and in lakes, ice in glaciers, underground water and
the water vapour in atmosphere, all comprise  the
hydrosphere.
More than 97% of the Earth’s water is found in the
oceans and is too salty for human use. A large
proportion of the rest of the water is in the form of
icesheets and glaciers or under the ground and a very
small percentage is available as fresh water for human
Figure 5.2 : Isthmus and Strait
Name the Strait
between India
and Sri Lanka.
34
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
use. Hence, despite being a ‘blue planet’ we face a
shortage of water!!
Oceans
Oceans are the major part of hydrosphere. They are
all interconnected.
The ocean waters are always moving. The three chief
movements of ocean waters are the waves, the tides
and the ocean currents. The five major oceans are the
Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean,
the Southern Ocean and the Arctic Ocean, in order of
their size (Figure 5.1).
The Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean. It is spread
over one-third of the earth. Mariana Trench, the deepest
part of the earth, lies in the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific
Ocean is almost circular in shape. Asia, Australia,
Figure 5.3 : Comparative size of the continents
Count the squares given in Figure 5.3 and answer the following :
(a) Name the largest continent;  (b) Which is larger –  Europe or Australia?
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