NCERT Textbook - The Making of Regional Cultures Class 7 Notes | EduRev

History(Prelims) by UPSC Toppers

Created by: Rohini Seth

Class 7 : NCERT Textbook - The Making of Regional Cultures Class 7 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


122 OUR PASTS – II
?
9
Find out how
many states have
been created in
the last 10 years.
Is each of these
states a region?
THE MAKING OF THE MAKING OF THE MAKING OF THE MAKING OF THE MAKING OF
REGIONAL CULTURES REGIONAL CULTURES REGIONAL CULTURES REGIONAL CULTURES REGIONAL CULTURES
O
ne of the commonest ways of describing people
is in terms of the language they speak. When we
refer to a person as a Tamil or an Oriya, this usually
means that he or she speaks Tamil or Oriya and lives
in Tamil Nadu or Orissa. We also tend to associate
each region with distinctive kinds of food, clothes,
poetry, dance, music and painting. Sometimes we take
these identities for granted and assume that they have
existed from time immemorial. However, the frontiers
separating regions have evolved over time (and in fact
are still changing). Also, what we understand as
regional cultures today are often the product of complex
processes of intermixing of local traditions with ideas
from other parts of the subcontinent. As we will see,
some traditions appear specific to some regions, others
seem to be similar across regions, and yet others derive
from older practices in a particular area, but take a
new form in other regions.
The Cheras and the Development The Cheras and the Development The Cheras and the Development The Cheras and the Development The Cheras and the Development
of Malayalam of Malayalam of Malayalam of Malayalam of Malayalam
Let us begin by looking at an example of the
connection between language and region. The Chera
kingdom of Mahodayapuram was established in the
ninth century in the south-western part of the
peninsula, part of present-day Kerala. It is likely that
Malayalam was spoken in this area. The rulers
introduced the Malayalam language and script in their
inscriptions. In fact, this is one of the earliest
examples of the use of a regional language in official
records in the subcontinent.
©NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


122 OUR PASTS – II
?
9
Find out how
many states have
been created in
the last 10 years.
Is each of these
states a region?
THE MAKING OF THE MAKING OF THE MAKING OF THE MAKING OF THE MAKING OF
REGIONAL CULTURES REGIONAL CULTURES REGIONAL CULTURES REGIONAL CULTURES REGIONAL CULTURES
O
ne of the commonest ways of describing people
is in terms of the language they speak. When we
refer to a person as a Tamil or an Oriya, this usually
means that he or she speaks Tamil or Oriya and lives
in Tamil Nadu or Orissa. We also tend to associate
each region with distinctive kinds of food, clothes,
poetry, dance, music and painting. Sometimes we take
these identities for granted and assume that they have
existed from time immemorial. However, the frontiers
separating regions have evolved over time (and in fact
are still changing). Also, what we understand as
regional cultures today are often the product of complex
processes of intermixing of local traditions with ideas
from other parts of the subcontinent. As we will see,
some traditions appear specific to some regions, others
seem to be similar across regions, and yet others derive
from older practices in a particular area, but take a
new form in other regions.
The Cheras and the Development The Cheras and the Development The Cheras and the Development The Cheras and the Development The Cheras and the Development
of Malayalam of Malayalam of Malayalam of Malayalam of Malayalam
Let us begin by looking at an example of the
connection between language and region. The Chera
kingdom of Mahodayapuram was established in the
ninth century in the south-western part of the
peninsula, part of present-day Kerala. It is likely that
Malayalam was spoken in this area. The rulers
introduced the Malayalam language and script in their
inscriptions. In fact, this is one of the earliest
examples of the use of a regional language in official
records in the subcontinent.
©NCERT
not to be republished
123
THE MAKING OF
REGIONAL CULTURES
?
Find out when the
language(s) you
speak at home
were first used
for writing.
Fig. 1
An early Kerala
inscription, composed
in Malayalam.
At the same time, the Cheras also drew upon
Sanskritic traditions. The temple theatre of Kerala,
which is traced to this period, borrowed stories from
the Sanskrit epics. The first literary works in
Malayalam, dated to about the twelfth century, are
directly indebted to Sanskrit.  Interestingly enough, a
fourteenth-century text, the Lilatilakam, dealing with
grammar and poetics, was composed in Manipravalam
– literally, “diamonds and corals” referring to the two
languages, Sanskrit and the regional language.
Rulers and Religious Traditions: Rulers and Religious Traditions: Rulers and Religious Traditions: Rulers and Religious Traditions: Rulers and Religious Traditions:
The Jagannatha Cult The Jagannatha Cult The Jagannatha Cult The Jagannatha Cult The Jagannatha Cult
In other regions, regional cultures grew around
religious traditions. The best example of this process
is the cult of Jagannatha (literally, lord of the world,
a name for Vishnu) at Puri, Orissa. To
date, the local tribal people make the
wooden image of the deity, which
suggests that the deity was originally
a local god, who was later identified
with Vishnu.
In the twelfth century, one of the
most important rulers of the Ganga
dynasty, Anantavarman, decided to
erect a temple for Purushottama
Jagannatha at Puri. Subsequently, in
1230, king Anangabhima III dedicated
his kingdom to the deity and proclaimed
himself as the “deputy” of the god.
Fig. 2
The icons of
Balabhadra,
Subhadra and
Jagannatha, palm-
leaf manuscript,
Orissa.
©NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


122 OUR PASTS – II
?
9
Find out how
many states have
been created in
the last 10 years.
Is each of these
states a region?
THE MAKING OF THE MAKING OF THE MAKING OF THE MAKING OF THE MAKING OF
REGIONAL CULTURES REGIONAL CULTURES REGIONAL CULTURES REGIONAL CULTURES REGIONAL CULTURES
O
ne of the commonest ways of describing people
is in terms of the language they speak. When we
refer to a person as a Tamil or an Oriya, this usually
means that he or she speaks Tamil or Oriya and lives
in Tamil Nadu or Orissa. We also tend to associate
each region with distinctive kinds of food, clothes,
poetry, dance, music and painting. Sometimes we take
these identities for granted and assume that they have
existed from time immemorial. However, the frontiers
separating regions have evolved over time (and in fact
are still changing). Also, what we understand as
regional cultures today are often the product of complex
processes of intermixing of local traditions with ideas
from other parts of the subcontinent. As we will see,
some traditions appear specific to some regions, others
seem to be similar across regions, and yet others derive
from older practices in a particular area, but take a
new form in other regions.
The Cheras and the Development The Cheras and the Development The Cheras and the Development The Cheras and the Development The Cheras and the Development
of Malayalam of Malayalam of Malayalam of Malayalam of Malayalam
Let us begin by looking at an example of the
connection between language and region. The Chera
kingdom of Mahodayapuram was established in the
ninth century in the south-western part of the
peninsula, part of present-day Kerala. It is likely that
Malayalam was spoken in this area. The rulers
introduced the Malayalam language and script in their
inscriptions. In fact, this is one of the earliest
examples of the use of a regional language in official
records in the subcontinent.
©NCERT
not to be republished
123
THE MAKING OF
REGIONAL CULTURES
?
Find out when the
language(s) you
speak at home
were first used
for writing.
Fig. 1
An early Kerala
inscription, composed
in Malayalam.
At the same time, the Cheras also drew upon
Sanskritic traditions. The temple theatre of Kerala,
which is traced to this period, borrowed stories from
the Sanskrit epics. The first literary works in
Malayalam, dated to about the twelfth century, are
directly indebted to Sanskrit.  Interestingly enough, a
fourteenth-century text, the Lilatilakam, dealing with
grammar and poetics, was composed in Manipravalam
– literally, “diamonds and corals” referring to the two
languages, Sanskrit and the regional language.
Rulers and Religious Traditions: Rulers and Religious Traditions: Rulers and Religious Traditions: Rulers and Religious Traditions: Rulers and Religious Traditions:
The Jagannatha Cult The Jagannatha Cult The Jagannatha Cult The Jagannatha Cult The Jagannatha Cult
In other regions, regional cultures grew around
religious traditions. The best example of this process
is the cult of Jagannatha (literally, lord of the world,
a name for Vishnu) at Puri, Orissa. To
date, the local tribal people make the
wooden image of the deity, which
suggests that the deity was originally
a local god, who was later identified
with Vishnu.
In the twelfth century, one of the
most important rulers of the Ganga
dynasty, Anantavarman, decided to
erect a temple for Purushottama
Jagannatha at Puri. Subsequently, in
1230, king Anangabhima III dedicated
his kingdom to the deity and proclaimed
himself as the “deputy” of the god.
Fig. 2
The icons of
Balabhadra,
Subhadra and
Jagannatha, palm-
leaf manuscript,
Orissa.
©NCERT
not to be republished
124 OUR PASTS – II
As the temple gained in importance
as a centre of pilgrimage, its authority
in social and political matters also
increased. All those who conquered
Orissa, such as the Mughals, the
Marathas and the English East India
Company, attempted to gain control
over the temple. They felt that this
would make their rule acceptable to
the local people.
The Rajputs and The Rajputs and The Rajputs and The Rajputs and The Rajputs and
Traditions of Heroism Traditions of Heroism Traditions of Heroism Traditions of Heroism Traditions of Heroism
In the nineteenth century, the
region that constitutes most of
present-day Rajasthan, was called
Rajputana by the British. While this
may suggest that this was an area that was inhabited
only or mainly by Rajputs, this is only partly true.
There were (and are) several groups who identify
themselves as Rajputs in many areas of northern and
central India. And of course, there are several peoples
other than Rajputs who live in Rajasthan. However,
the Rajputs are often recognised as contributing to
the distinctive culture of Rajasthan.
These cultural traditions
were closely linked with
the ideals and aspirations
of rulers. From about the
eighth century, most of
the present-day state of
Rajasthan was ruled by
various Rajput families.
Prithviraj (Chapter 2) was
one such ruler. These rulers
cherished the ideal of the
hero who fought valiantly,
often choosing death on the
battlefield rather than face
Fig. 3
Jagannatha temple,
Puri.
Fig. 4
Prince Raj Singh of
Bikaner.
©NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


122 OUR PASTS – II
?
9
Find out how
many states have
been created in
the last 10 years.
Is each of these
states a region?
THE MAKING OF THE MAKING OF THE MAKING OF THE MAKING OF THE MAKING OF
REGIONAL CULTURES REGIONAL CULTURES REGIONAL CULTURES REGIONAL CULTURES REGIONAL CULTURES
O
ne of the commonest ways of describing people
is in terms of the language they speak. When we
refer to a person as a Tamil or an Oriya, this usually
means that he or she speaks Tamil or Oriya and lives
in Tamil Nadu or Orissa. We also tend to associate
each region with distinctive kinds of food, clothes,
poetry, dance, music and painting. Sometimes we take
these identities for granted and assume that they have
existed from time immemorial. However, the frontiers
separating regions have evolved over time (and in fact
are still changing). Also, what we understand as
regional cultures today are often the product of complex
processes of intermixing of local traditions with ideas
from other parts of the subcontinent. As we will see,
some traditions appear specific to some regions, others
seem to be similar across regions, and yet others derive
from older practices in a particular area, but take a
new form in other regions.
The Cheras and the Development The Cheras and the Development The Cheras and the Development The Cheras and the Development The Cheras and the Development
of Malayalam of Malayalam of Malayalam of Malayalam of Malayalam
Let us begin by looking at an example of the
connection between language and region. The Chera
kingdom of Mahodayapuram was established in the
ninth century in the south-western part of the
peninsula, part of present-day Kerala. It is likely that
Malayalam was spoken in this area. The rulers
introduced the Malayalam language and script in their
inscriptions. In fact, this is one of the earliest
examples of the use of a regional language in official
records in the subcontinent.
©NCERT
not to be republished
123
THE MAKING OF
REGIONAL CULTURES
?
Find out when the
language(s) you
speak at home
were first used
for writing.
Fig. 1
An early Kerala
inscription, composed
in Malayalam.
At the same time, the Cheras also drew upon
Sanskritic traditions. The temple theatre of Kerala,
which is traced to this period, borrowed stories from
the Sanskrit epics. The first literary works in
Malayalam, dated to about the twelfth century, are
directly indebted to Sanskrit.  Interestingly enough, a
fourteenth-century text, the Lilatilakam, dealing with
grammar and poetics, was composed in Manipravalam
– literally, “diamonds and corals” referring to the two
languages, Sanskrit and the regional language.
Rulers and Religious Traditions: Rulers and Religious Traditions: Rulers and Religious Traditions: Rulers and Religious Traditions: Rulers and Religious Traditions:
The Jagannatha Cult The Jagannatha Cult The Jagannatha Cult The Jagannatha Cult The Jagannatha Cult
In other regions, regional cultures grew around
religious traditions. The best example of this process
is the cult of Jagannatha (literally, lord of the world,
a name for Vishnu) at Puri, Orissa. To
date, the local tribal people make the
wooden image of the deity, which
suggests that the deity was originally
a local god, who was later identified
with Vishnu.
In the twelfth century, one of the
most important rulers of the Ganga
dynasty, Anantavarman, decided to
erect a temple for Purushottama
Jagannatha at Puri. Subsequently, in
1230, king Anangabhima III dedicated
his kingdom to the deity and proclaimed
himself as the “deputy” of the god.
Fig. 2
The icons of
Balabhadra,
Subhadra and
Jagannatha, palm-
leaf manuscript,
Orissa.
©NCERT
not to be republished
124 OUR PASTS – II
As the temple gained in importance
as a centre of pilgrimage, its authority
in social and political matters also
increased. All those who conquered
Orissa, such as the Mughals, the
Marathas and the English East India
Company, attempted to gain control
over the temple. They felt that this
would make their rule acceptable to
the local people.
The Rajputs and The Rajputs and The Rajputs and The Rajputs and The Rajputs and
Traditions of Heroism Traditions of Heroism Traditions of Heroism Traditions of Heroism Traditions of Heroism
In the nineteenth century, the
region that constitutes most of
present-day Rajasthan, was called
Rajputana by the British. While this
may suggest that this was an area that was inhabited
only or mainly by Rajputs, this is only partly true.
There were (and are) several groups who identify
themselves as Rajputs in many areas of northern and
central India. And of course, there are several peoples
other than Rajputs who live in Rajasthan. However,
the Rajputs are often recognised as contributing to
the distinctive culture of Rajasthan.
These cultural traditions
were closely linked with
the ideals and aspirations
of rulers. From about the
eighth century, most of
the present-day state of
Rajasthan was ruled by
various Rajput families.
Prithviraj (Chapter 2) was
one such ruler. These rulers
cherished the ideal of the
hero who fought valiantly,
often choosing death on the
battlefield rather than face
Fig. 3
Jagannatha temple,
Puri.
Fig. 4
Prince Raj Singh of
Bikaner.
©NCERT
not to be republished
125
defeat. Stories about Rajput heroes were recorded in
poems and songs, which were recited by specially
trained minstrels. These preserved the memories of
heroes and were expected to inspire others to follow
their example. Ordinary people were also attracted by
these stories – which often depicted dramatic situations,
and a range of strong emotions – loyalty, friendship,
love, valour, anger, etc.
Did women find a place within these stories?
Sometimes, they figure as the “cause” for conflicts, as
men fought with one another to either “win” or “protect”
women. Women are also depicted as following their
heroic husbands in both life and death – there are
stories about the practice of sati or the immolation of
widows on the funeral pyre of their husbands. So those
Map 1
Regions discussed in
this chapter.
THE MAKING OF
REGIONAL CULTURES
©NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


122 OUR PASTS – II
?
9
Find out how
many states have
been created in
the last 10 years.
Is each of these
states a region?
THE MAKING OF THE MAKING OF THE MAKING OF THE MAKING OF THE MAKING OF
REGIONAL CULTURES REGIONAL CULTURES REGIONAL CULTURES REGIONAL CULTURES REGIONAL CULTURES
O
ne of the commonest ways of describing people
is in terms of the language they speak. When we
refer to a person as a Tamil or an Oriya, this usually
means that he or she speaks Tamil or Oriya and lives
in Tamil Nadu or Orissa. We also tend to associate
each region with distinctive kinds of food, clothes,
poetry, dance, music and painting. Sometimes we take
these identities for granted and assume that they have
existed from time immemorial. However, the frontiers
separating regions have evolved over time (and in fact
are still changing). Also, what we understand as
regional cultures today are often the product of complex
processes of intermixing of local traditions with ideas
from other parts of the subcontinent. As we will see,
some traditions appear specific to some regions, others
seem to be similar across regions, and yet others derive
from older practices in a particular area, but take a
new form in other regions.
The Cheras and the Development The Cheras and the Development The Cheras and the Development The Cheras and the Development The Cheras and the Development
of Malayalam of Malayalam of Malayalam of Malayalam of Malayalam
Let us begin by looking at an example of the
connection between language and region. The Chera
kingdom of Mahodayapuram was established in the
ninth century in the south-western part of the
peninsula, part of present-day Kerala. It is likely that
Malayalam was spoken in this area. The rulers
introduced the Malayalam language and script in their
inscriptions. In fact, this is one of the earliest
examples of the use of a regional language in official
records in the subcontinent.
©NCERT
not to be republished
123
THE MAKING OF
REGIONAL CULTURES
?
Find out when the
language(s) you
speak at home
were first used
for writing.
Fig. 1
An early Kerala
inscription, composed
in Malayalam.
At the same time, the Cheras also drew upon
Sanskritic traditions. The temple theatre of Kerala,
which is traced to this period, borrowed stories from
the Sanskrit epics. The first literary works in
Malayalam, dated to about the twelfth century, are
directly indebted to Sanskrit.  Interestingly enough, a
fourteenth-century text, the Lilatilakam, dealing with
grammar and poetics, was composed in Manipravalam
– literally, “diamonds and corals” referring to the two
languages, Sanskrit and the regional language.
Rulers and Religious Traditions: Rulers and Religious Traditions: Rulers and Religious Traditions: Rulers and Religious Traditions: Rulers and Religious Traditions:
The Jagannatha Cult The Jagannatha Cult The Jagannatha Cult The Jagannatha Cult The Jagannatha Cult
In other regions, regional cultures grew around
religious traditions. The best example of this process
is the cult of Jagannatha (literally, lord of the world,
a name for Vishnu) at Puri, Orissa. To
date, the local tribal people make the
wooden image of the deity, which
suggests that the deity was originally
a local god, who was later identified
with Vishnu.
In the twelfth century, one of the
most important rulers of the Ganga
dynasty, Anantavarman, decided to
erect a temple for Purushottama
Jagannatha at Puri. Subsequently, in
1230, king Anangabhima III dedicated
his kingdom to the deity and proclaimed
himself as the “deputy” of the god.
Fig. 2
The icons of
Balabhadra,
Subhadra and
Jagannatha, palm-
leaf manuscript,
Orissa.
©NCERT
not to be republished
124 OUR PASTS – II
As the temple gained in importance
as a centre of pilgrimage, its authority
in social and political matters also
increased. All those who conquered
Orissa, such as the Mughals, the
Marathas and the English East India
Company, attempted to gain control
over the temple. They felt that this
would make their rule acceptable to
the local people.
The Rajputs and The Rajputs and The Rajputs and The Rajputs and The Rajputs and
Traditions of Heroism Traditions of Heroism Traditions of Heroism Traditions of Heroism Traditions of Heroism
In the nineteenth century, the
region that constitutes most of
present-day Rajasthan, was called
Rajputana by the British. While this
may suggest that this was an area that was inhabited
only or mainly by Rajputs, this is only partly true.
There were (and are) several groups who identify
themselves as Rajputs in many areas of northern and
central India. And of course, there are several peoples
other than Rajputs who live in Rajasthan. However,
the Rajputs are often recognised as contributing to
the distinctive culture of Rajasthan.
These cultural traditions
were closely linked with
the ideals and aspirations
of rulers. From about the
eighth century, most of
the present-day state of
Rajasthan was ruled by
various Rajput families.
Prithviraj (Chapter 2) was
one such ruler. These rulers
cherished the ideal of the
hero who fought valiantly,
often choosing death on the
battlefield rather than face
Fig. 3
Jagannatha temple,
Puri.
Fig. 4
Prince Raj Singh of
Bikaner.
©NCERT
not to be republished
125
defeat. Stories about Rajput heroes were recorded in
poems and songs, which were recited by specially
trained minstrels. These preserved the memories of
heroes and were expected to inspire others to follow
their example. Ordinary people were also attracted by
these stories – which often depicted dramatic situations,
and a range of strong emotions – loyalty, friendship,
love, valour, anger, etc.
Did women find a place within these stories?
Sometimes, they figure as the “cause” for conflicts, as
men fought with one another to either “win” or “protect”
women. Women are also depicted as following their
heroic husbands in both life and death – there are
stories about the practice of sati or the immolation of
widows on the funeral pyre of their husbands. So those
Map 1
Regions discussed in
this chapter.
THE MAKING OF
REGIONAL CULTURES
©NCERT
not to be republished
126 OUR PASTS – II
who followed the heroic ideal often had to pay for it
with their lives.
Beyond Regional Frontiers: Beyond Regional Frontiers: Beyond Regional Frontiers: Beyond Regional Frontiers: Beyond Regional Frontiers:
The Story of The Story of The Story of The Story of The Story of Kathak Kathak Kathak Kathak Kathak
If heroic traditions can be found in different regions in
different forms, the same is true of dance. Let us look
at the history of one dance form, Kathak, now
associated with several parts of north India. The term
kathak is derived from katha, a word used in Sanskrit
and other languages for story. The kathaks were
originally a caste of story-tellers in temples of north
India, who embellished their performances with
gestures and songs. Kathak began evolving into a
distinct mode of dance in the fifteenth and sixteenth
centuries with the spread of the bhakti movement. The
legends of Radha-Krishna were enacted in folk plays
called rasa lila, which combined folk dance with the
basic gestures of the kathak story-tellers.
Under the Mughal emperors and their nobles, Kathak
was performed in the court, where it acquired its present
features and developed into a form of dance with a
distinctive style. Subsequently, it developed in two
traditions or gharanas: one in the courts of Rajasthan
(Jaipur) and the other in Lucknow. Under the patronage
of Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh,
it grew into a major art form. By the third quarter
of the nineteenth
century it was firmly
entrenched as a dance
form not only in these
two regions, but in
the adjoining areas
of present-day Punjab,
Haryana, Jammu
and Kashmir, Bihar
and Madhya Pradesh.
Emphasis was laid
on intricate and
?
Find out whether
there are
traditions of
heroes/heroines
in your town or
village. What are
the qualities
associated with
them? In what
ways are these
similar to or
different from the
heroic ideals of
the Rajputs?
Fig. 5
Dance class,
Lakshmana temple,
Khajuraho.
©NCERT
not to be republished
Read More
Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Complete Syllabus of Class 7

Dynamic Test

Content Category

Related Searches

video lectures

,

Summary

,

Exam

,

mock tests for examination

,

Important questions

,

Extra Questions

,

ppt

,

pdf

,

NCERT Textbook - The Making of Regional Cultures Class 7 Notes | EduRev

,

Viva Questions

,

Sample Paper

,

NCERT Textbook - The Making of Regional Cultures Class 7 Notes | EduRev

,

NCERT Textbook - The Making of Regional Cultures Class 7 Notes | EduRev

,

practice quizzes

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

Semester Notes

,

study material

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

past year papers

,

MCQs

,

Objective type Questions

,

Free

;