NCERT Textbook - Development Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Political Science Class 11

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Development Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Development
Development
Political Theory
143
Chapter 10
Development
Overview
In this chapter, we will start with the common understanding of development
and the problems presented by this understanding. In the later sections’ we will
explore the ways in which these problems can be addressed and discuss some
alternative ways of thinking about development. After going through this chapter
you should be able to
o explain the meaning of the term development.
o discuss the achievements and problems of existing models of development.
o discuss some of the alternative models of development which have been put
forward.
2020-21
Page 2


Development
Development
Political Theory
143
Chapter 10
Development
Overview
In this chapter, we will start with the common understanding of development
and the problems presented by this understanding. In the later sections’ we will
explore the ways in which these problems can be addressed and discuss some
alternative ways of thinking about development. After going through this chapter
you should be able to
o explain the meaning of the term development.
o discuss the achievements and problems of existing models of development.
o discuss some of the alternative models of development which have been put
forward.
2020-21
Development
Development
144
Political Theory
10.1 INTRODUCTION
Suppose in a school each class brings out an annual class magazine
as one of their extra-curricular activities. In one class, the teacher takes
the last year’s magazine as a model, makes a plan of what this year’s
magazine should contain in terms of topics, articles, poetry, etc. and
then divides and assigns topics to different students. It is possible
that as a result a student interested in cricket may find that she has
been allotted a different topic and the one who has been allotted cricket
is actually keen to write a play. It is also possible that in this scheme
three students may want to get together to work out a series of cartoons
but find that they have been placed in different groups. In another
class, however, the content of the magazine is debated by the students.
There are many disagreements but eventually a plan for a magazine
emerges about which all are in agreement.
In your opinion, which class will come up with a magazine in
which the students get to realise their particular interests in the best
possible manner? The first may produce a good-looking magazine
but will the content be engrossing? Will the person who wants to
write on cricket, write with equal passion on her assigned topic?
Which magazine will be seen as unique and which as standard?
Which class will feel that working on the magazine was interesting
and which class will do it as just routine homework?
For a society, deciding about what constitutes development is a
bit like students deciding about what kind of school magazine they
want and how they should work on it. We could mechanically follow
a model which has been previously used in our own, or other
countries, or we could plan keeping in mind the good of the society
as a whole as well as the rights of those people whose lives may be
directly affected by development projects. The leaders can either
concentrate on implementing plans regardless of protests or they
can proceed democratically, carrying the people with them.
In the broadest sense of the term, development conveys the ideas
of improvement, progress, well-being and an aspiration for a better
life.  Through its notion of development a society articulates what
constitutes its vision for the society as a whole and how best to achieve
2020-21
Page 3


Development
Development
Political Theory
143
Chapter 10
Development
Overview
In this chapter, we will start with the common understanding of development
and the problems presented by this understanding. In the later sections’ we will
explore the ways in which these problems can be addressed and discuss some
alternative ways of thinking about development. After going through this chapter
you should be able to
o explain the meaning of the term development.
o discuss the achievements and problems of existing models of development.
o discuss some of the alternative models of development which have been put
forward.
2020-21
Development
Development
144
Political Theory
10.1 INTRODUCTION
Suppose in a school each class brings out an annual class magazine
as one of their extra-curricular activities. In one class, the teacher takes
the last year’s magazine as a model, makes a plan of what this year’s
magazine should contain in terms of topics, articles, poetry, etc. and
then divides and assigns topics to different students. It is possible
that as a result a student interested in cricket may find that she has
been allotted a different topic and the one who has been allotted cricket
is actually keen to write a play. It is also possible that in this scheme
three students may want to get together to work out a series of cartoons
but find that they have been placed in different groups. In another
class, however, the content of the magazine is debated by the students.
There are many disagreements but eventually a plan for a magazine
emerges about which all are in agreement.
In your opinion, which class will come up with a magazine in
which the students get to realise their particular interests in the best
possible manner? The first may produce a good-looking magazine
but will the content be engrossing? Will the person who wants to
write on cricket, write with equal passion on her assigned topic?
Which magazine will be seen as unique and which as standard?
Which class will feel that working on the magazine was interesting
and which class will do it as just routine homework?
For a society, deciding about what constitutes development is a
bit like students deciding about what kind of school magazine they
want and how they should work on it. We could mechanically follow
a model which has been previously used in our own, or other
countries, or we could plan keeping in mind the good of the society
as a whole as well as the rights of those people whose lives may be
directly affected by development projects. The leaders can either
concentrate on implementing plans regardless of protests or they
can proceed democratically, carrying the people with them.
In the broadest sense of the term, development conveys the ideas
of improvement, progress, well-being and an aspiration for a better
life.  Through its notion of development a society articulates what
constitutes its vision for the society as a whole and how best to achieve
2020-21
Development
Development
Political Theory
145
it. However, the term development is also often used in a narrower
sense to refer to more limited goals such as increasing the rate of
economic growth, or modernising the society. Development has
unfortunately often come to be identified with achieving pre-set
targets, or completing projects like dams, or factories, hospitals,
rather than with realising the broader vision of development which
the society upholds. In the process some sections of society may
have benefited while others may have had to suffer loss of their homes,
or lands, or way of life, without any compensatory gains.
 Issues such as whether the rights of people have been respected
in the course of development, whether the benefits and burdens of
development have been justly distributed, or whether decisions
regarding development priorities have been democratically made,
have been raised in many countries. Hence, development has become
the subject of considerable controversy today. The models of
development which have been adopted in different countries have
become the subject of debate and criticism and alternative models
have been put forward. In such a situation the broader
understanding of development can serve as a standard by which the
development experience of a country is examined.
10.2 THE CHALLENGE OF DEVELOPMENT
The concept of development gained importance after the second half
of the twentieth century. This was the time when a large number of
countries in Asia and Africa gained political independence. Most were
impoverished and their populations had a low standard of living.
Education, health and other facilities were poor. They were often
described as ‘underdeveloped’ or ‘developing’. The comparison was
with the richer countries in Western Europe and the United States.
In the 1950s and 1960s when most countries of Asia and Africa
had achieved independence from colonial rule, the most urgent task
in front of them was to solve the pressing problems of poverty,
malnourishment, unemployment, illiteracy and the lack of basic
amenities that a majority of their populations faced. They argued
that the reason why they were backward was because under colonial
rule their resources had been used not for their own benefit but for
2020-21
Page 4


Development
Development
Political Theory
143
Chapter 10
Development
Overview
In this chapter, we will start with the common understanding of development
and the problems presented by this understanding. In the later sections’ we will
explore the ways in which these problems can be addressed and discuss some
alternative ways of thinking about development. After going through this chapter
you should be able to
o explain the meaning of the term development.
o discuss the achievements and problems of existing models of development.
o discuss some of the alternative models of development which have been put
forward.
2020-21
Development
Development
144
Political Theory
10.1 INTRODUCTION
Suppose in a school each class brings out an annual class magazine
as one of their extra-curricular activities. In one class, the teacher takes
the last year’s magazine as a model, makes a plan of what this year’s
magazine should contain in terms of topics, articles, poetry, etc. and
then divides and assigns topics to different students. It is possible
that as a result a student interested in cricket may find that she has
been allotted a different topic and the one who has been allotted cricket
is actually keen to write a play. It is also possible that in this scheme
three students may want to get together to work out a series of cartoons
but find that they have been placed in different groups. In another
class, however, the content of the magazine is debated by the students.
There are many disagreements but eventually a plan for a magazine
emerges about which all are in agreement.
In your opinion, which class will come up with a magazine in
which the students get to realise their particular interests in the best
possible manner? The first may produce a good-looking magazine
but will the content be engrossing? Will the person who wants to
write on cricket, write with equal passion on her assigned topic?
Which magazine will be seen as unique and which as standard?
Which class will feel that working on the magazine was interesting
and which class will do it as just routine homework?
For a society, deciding about what constitutes development is a
bit like students deciding about what kind of school magazine they
want and how they should work on it. We could mechanically follow
a model which has been previously used in our own, or other
countries, or we could plan keeping in mind the good of the society
as a whole as well as the rights of those people whose lives may be
directly affected by development projects. The leaders can either
concentrate on implementing plans regardless of protests or they
can proceed democratically, carrying the people with them.
In the broadest sense of the term, development conveys the ideas
of improvement, progress, well-being and an aspiration for a better
life.  Through its notion of development a society articulates what
constitutes its vision for the society as a whole and how best to achieve
2020-21
Development
Development
Political Theory
145
it. However, the term development is also often used in a narrower
sense to refer to more limited goals such as increasing the rate of
economic growth, or modernising the society. Development has
unfortunately often come to be identified with achieving pre-set
targets, or completing projects like dams, or factories, hospitals,
rather than with realising the broader vision of development which
the society upholds. In the process some sections of society may
have benefited while others may have had to suffer loss of their homes,
or lands, or way of life, without any compensatory gains.
 Issues such as whether the rights of people have been respected
in the course of development, whether the benefits and burdens of
development have been justly distributed, or whether decisions
regarding development priorities have been democratically made,
have been raised in many countries. Hence, development has become
the subject of considerable controversy today. The models of
development which have been adopted in different countries have
become the subject of debate and criticism and alternative models
have been put forward. In such a situation the broader
understanding of development can serve as a standard by which the
development experience of a country is examined.
10.2 THE CHALLENGE OF DEVELOPMENT
The concept of development gained importance after the second half
of the twentieth century. This was the time when a large number of
countries in Asia and Africa gained political independence. Most were
impoverished and their populations had a low standard of living.
Education, health and other facilities were poor. They were often
described as ‘underdeveloped’ or ‘developing’. The comparison was
with the richer countries in Western Europe and the United States.
In the 1950s and 1960s when most countries of Asia and Africa
had achieved independence from colonial rule, the most urgent task
in front of them was to solve the pressing problems of poverty,
malnourishment, unemployment, illiteracy and the lack of basic
amenities that a majority of their populations faced. They argued
that the reason why they were backward was because under colonial
rule their resources had been used not for their own benefit but for
2020-21
Development
Development
146
Political Theory
the benefit of their colonial masters.  With Independence, they could
reorganise their resources in the best possible manner to serve their
national interests. Therefore it was now possible for them to formulate
such policies which would allow them to overcome their
backwardness and move towards achieving the standards of their
former colonial masters. This provided the impetus for these
countries to undertake development projects.
The concept of development has
undergone many changes over the
years. In the initial years the focus
was on catching up with the west
in terms of economic growth and
modernisation of  societies. Developing
countries adopted goals like
faster economic growth through
industrialisation, modernisation of
agriculture and extending and
modernising education. It was believed
at the time that the state was the only
agency capable of initiating this kind
of social and economic change. Many
countries embarked upon ambitious
projects of development, often with the
help of loans and aid from the
developed countries.
In India a series of Five Year Plans for development were made
starting from the 1950s, and these included a number of mega
projects such as the Bhakra Nangal Dam, setting up steel plants in
different parts of the country, mining, fertilizer production and
improving agricultural techniques. It was hoped that a multi-
pronged strategy would have an impact on the economy and
significantly increase the wealth of the country. It was also hoped
that the emerging prosperity would gradually ‘trickle down’ to the
poorest sections of society and help to reduce inequality. A great
deal of faith was placed in adopting the latest discoveries of science
and state of the art technologies. New educational institutions like
the Indian Institutes of Technology were set up and collaboration
If this project comes up we will be finished!
R. K. Laxman in the Times of  India
2020-21
Page 5


Development
Development
Political Theory
143
Chapter 10
Development
Overview
In this chapter, we will start with the common understanding of development
and the problems presented by this understanding. In the later sections’ we will
explore the ways in which these problems can be addressed and discuss some
alternative ways of thinking about development. After going through this chapter
you should be able to
o explain the meaning of the term development.
o discuss the achievements and problems of existing models of development.
o discuss some of the alternative models of development which have been put
forward.
2020-21
Development
Development
144
Political Theory
10.1 INTRODUCTION
Suppose in a school each class brings out an annual class magazine
as one of their extra-curricular activities. In one class, the teacher takes
the last year’s magazine as a model, makes a plan of what this year’s
magazine should contain in terms of topics, articles, poetry, etc. and
then divides and assigns topics to different students. It is possible
that as a result a student interested in cricket may find that she has
been allotted a different topic and the one who has been allotted cricket
is actually keen to write a play. It is also possible that in this scheme
three students may want to get together to work out a series of cartoons
but find that they have been placed in different groups. In another
class, however, the content of the magazine is debated by the students.
There are many disagreements but eventually a plan for a magazine
emerges about which all are in agreement.
In your opinion, which class will come up with a magazine in
which the students get to realise their particular interests in the best
possible manner? The first may produce a good-looking magazine
but will the content be engrossing? Will the person who wants to
write on cricket, write with equal passion on her assigned topic?
Which magazine will be seen as unique and which as standard?
Which class will feel that working on the magazine was interesting
and which class will do it as just routine homework?
For a society, deciding about what constitutes development is a
bit like students deciding about what kind of school magazine they
want and how they should work on it. We could mechanically follow
a model which has been previously used in our own, or other
countries, or we could plan keeping in mind the good of the society
as a whole as well as the rights of those people whose lives may be
directly affected by development projects. The leaders can either
concentrate on implementing plans regardless of protests or they
can proceed democratically, carrying the people with them.
In the broadest sense of the term, development conveys the ideas
of improvement, progress, well-being and an aspiration for a better
life.  Through its notion of development a society articulates what
constitutes its vision for the society as a whole and how best to achieve
2020-21
Development
Development
Political Theory
145
it. However, the term development is also often used in a narrower
sense to refer to more limited goals such as increasing the rate of
economic growth, or modernising the society. Development has
unfortunately often come to be identified with achieving pre-set
targets, or completing projects like dams, or factories, hospitals,
rather than with realising the broader vision of development which
the society upholds. In the process some sections of society may
have benefited while others may have had to suffer loss of their homes,
or lands, or way of life, without any compensatory gains.
 Issues such as whether the rights of people have been respected
in the course of development, whether the benefits and burdens of
development have been justly distributed, or whether decisions
regarding development priorities have been democratically made,
have been raised in many countries. Hence, development has become
the subject of considerable controversy today. The models of
development which have been adopted in different countries have
become the subject of debate and criticism and alternative models
have been put forward. In such a situation the broader
understanding of development can serve as a standard by which the
development experience of a country is examined.
10.2 THE CHALLENGE OF DEVELOPMENT
The concept of development gained importance after the second half
of the twentieth century. This was the time when a large number of
countries in Asia and Africa gained political independence. Most were
impoverished and their populations had a low standard of living.
Education, health and other facilities were poor. They were often
described as ‘underdeveloped’ or ‘developing’. The comparison was
with the richer countries in Western Europe and the United States.
In the 1950s and 1960s when most countries of Asia and Africa
had achieved independence from colonial rule, the most urgent task
in front of them was to solve the pressing problems of poverty,
malnourishment, unemployment, illiteracy and the lack of basic
amenities that a majority of their populations faced. They argued
that the reason why they were backward was because under colonial
rule their resources had been used not for their own benefit but for
2020-21
Development
Development
146
Political Theory
the benefit of their colonial masters.  With Independence, they could
reorganise their resources in the best possible manner to serve their
national interests. Therefore it was now possible for them to formulate
such policies which would allow them to overcome their
backwardness and move towards achieving the standards of their
former colonial masters. This provided the impetus for these
countries to undertake development projects.
The concept of development has
undergone many changes over the
years. In the initial years the focus
was on catching up with the west
in terms of economic growth and
modernisation of  societies. Developing
countries adopted goals like
faster economic growth through
industrialisation, modernisation of
agriculture and extending and
modernising education. It was believed
at the time that the state was the only
agency capable of initiating this kind
of social and economic change. Many
countries embarked upon ambitious
projects of development, often with the
help of loans and aid from the
developed countries.
In India a series of Five Year Plans for development were made
starting from the 1950s, and these included a number of mega
projects such as the Bhakra Nangal Dam, setting up steel plants in
different parts of the country, mining, fertilizer production and
improving agricultural techniques. It was hoped that a multi-
pronged strategy would have an impact on the economy and
significantly increase the wealth of the country. It was also hoped
that the emerging prosperity would gradually ‘trickle down’ to the
poorest sections of society and help to reduce inequality. A great
deal of faith was placed in adopting the latest discoveries of science
and state of the art technologies. New educational institutions like
the Indian Institutes of Technology were set up and collaboration
If this project comes up we will be finished!
R. K. Laxman in the Times of  India
2020-21
Development
Development
Political Theory
147
with advanced countries in order to have access to their knowledge
became a top priority. It was believed that the process of development
would make the society more modern and forward looking and set it
on the path of growth.
However, the model of development adopted by India and other
countries has come under a great deal of criticism over the years
and this has led to some rethinking about the goals and processes of
development today.
10.3 CRITICISMS OF DEVELOPMENT MODELS
Critics of development have pointed out that the kind
of development models which have been adopted in
many countries has proved very costly for the
developing countries. The financial costs have been
enormous, putting many countries into long-term
debt. Africa is still suffering from the enormous debts
which it ran up by borrowings from the richer countries.
The gains in terms of growth have not been
commensurate and poverty and disease continue to
plague the continent.
The Social Costs of Development
This model of development has also had high social costs.
A large number of people have been displaced from their
homes and localities due to the construction of big dams,
industrial activities and mining activities, or other
projects. Displacement results in loss of livelihood and
increases impoverishment. If rural agricultural
communities are displaced from their traditional occupations and
regions they end up at the margins of society, swelling the large
number of urban and rural poor. Traditional skills acquired over an
extended period may be lost. There is also a loss of culture because
when people are relocated they lose a whole way of community life.
Such displacement has led to struggles in many countries.
Displaced people have not always accepted their fate passively.
You may have heard about the ‘Narmada Bachao Andolan’ which
Is any major
developmental project
(e.g. building of dam,
road, rail or industry
etc.) taking place in
your area?  Has there
been any protest or
complaint against that
project? What issues
have been raised
by the protesters?
What is the response of
the government to
these issues? Meet
some protesters and
government officials to
find out their versions.
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2020-21
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