NCERT Textbook - Mineral and Energy Resources Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

NCERT Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - Mineral and Energy Resources Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III
Chapter 7
MINERAL AND
ENERGY
RESOURCES
India is endowed with a rich variety of mineral
resources due to its varied geological structure.
Bulk of the valuable minerals are products of
pre-palaezoic age (Refer: Chapter 2 of Class XI,
Textbook: “Fundamentals of Physical
Geography” and are mainly associated with
metamorphic and igneous rocks of the
peninsular India. The vast alluvial plain tract
of north India is devoid of minerals of economic
use. The mineral resources provide the country
with the necessary base for industrial
development. In this chapter, we shall discuss
the availability of various types of mineral and
energy resources in the country.
A mineral is a natural substance of organic
or inorganic origin with definite chemical and
physical properties.
T T T T Types of ypes of ypes of ypes of ypes of Miner Miner Miner Miner Mineral R al R al R al R al Resour esour esour esour esources ces ces ces ces
On the basis of chemical and physical
properties, minerals may be grouped under two
main categories of metallics and non-metallics
which may further be classified as follows :
Fig. 7.1 : Classification of Minerals
2020-21
Page 2


Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III
Chapter 7
MINERAL AND
ENERGY
RESOURCES
India is endowed with a rich variety of mineral
resources due to its varied geological structure.
Bulk of the valuable minerals are products of
pre-palaezoic age (Refer: Chapter 2 of Class XI,
Textbook: “Fundamentals of Physical
Geography” and are mainly associated with
metamorphic and igneous rocks of the
peninsular India. The vast alluvial plain tract
of north India is devoid of minerals of economic
use. The mineral resources provide the country
with the necessary base for industrial
development. In this chapter, we shall discuss
the availability of various types of mineral and
energy resources in the country.
A mineral is a natural substance of organic
or inorganic origin with definite chemical and
physical properties.
T T T T Types of ypes of ypes of ypes of ypes of Miner Miner Miner Miner Mineral R al R al R al R al Resour esour esour esour esources ces ces ces ces
On the basis of chemical and physical
properties, minerals may be grouped under two
main categories of metallics and non-metallics
which may further be classified as follows :
Fig. 7.1 : Classification of Minerals
2020-21
As, it is clear from the Fig. 7.1 metallic
minerals are the sources of metals. Iron ore,
copper, gold produce metal and are included
in this category. Metallic minerals are further
divided into ferrous and non-ferrous metallic
minerals. Ferrous, as you know, refers to iron.
All those minerals which have iron content are
ferrous such as iron ore itself and those which
do not have iron content are non-ferrous such
as copper, bauxite, etc.
Non-metallic minerals are either organic
in origin such as fossil fuels also known as
mineral fuels which are derived from the
buried animal and plant life such as coal and
petroleum. Other type of non-metallic
minerals are inorganic in origin such as mica,
limestone and graphite, etc.
Minerals have certain characteristics.
These are unevenly distributed over space.
There is inverse relationship in quality and
quantity of minerals i.e. good quality minerals
are less in quantity as compared to low
quality minerals. The third main
characteristic is that all minerals are
exhaustible over time. These take long to
develop geologically and they cannot be
replenished immediately at the time of need.
Thus, they have to be conserved and not
misused as they do not have the second crop.
Distribution of Minerals in India Distribution of Minerals in India Distribution of Minerals in India Distribution of Minerals in India Distribution of Minerals in India
Most of the metallic minerals in India occur in
the peninsular plateau region in the old
crystalline rocks. Over 97 per cent of coal
reserves occur in the valleys of Damodar, Sone,
Mahanadi and Godavari. Petroleum reserves
are located in the sedimentary basins of Assam,
Gujarat and Mumbai High i.e. off-shore region
in the Arabian Sea. New reserves have been
located in the Krishna-Godavari and Kaveri
basins. Most of the major mineral resources
occur to the east of a line linking Mangaluru
and Kanpur.
Minerals are generally concentrated in
three broad belts in India. There may be some
sporadic occurrences here and there in isolated
pockets. These belts are :
The North-Eastern Plateau Region
This belt covers Chhotanagpur (Jharkhand),
Odisha Plateau, West Bengal and parts of
Chhattisgarh. Have you ever thought about
the reason of major iron and steel industry
being located in this region? It has variety of
minerals viz. iron ore coal, manganese,
bauxite, mica.
Find out the specific region where these Find out the specific region where these Find out the specific region where these Find out the specific region where these Find out the specific region where these
minerals are being extracted. minerals are being extracted. minerals are being extracted. minerals are being extracted. minerals are being extracted.
The South-Western Plateau Region
This belt extends over Karnataka, Goa and
contiguous Tamil Nadu uplands and Kerala.
This belt is rich in ferrous metals and bauxite.
It also contains high grade iron ore, manganese
and limestone. This belt lacks in coal deposits
except Neyveli lignite.
This belt does not have as diversified
mineral deposits as the north-eastern belt.
Kerala has deposits of monazite and thorium,
bauxite clay. Goa has iron ore deposits.
The North-Western Region
This belt extends along Aravali in Rajasthan and
part of Gujarat and minerals are associated with
Dharwar system of rocks. Copper, zinc have
been major minerals. Rajasthan is rich in
building stones i.e. sandstone, granite, marble.
Gypsum and Fuller’s earth deposits are also
extensive. Dolomite and limestone provide raw
materials for cement industry. Gujarat is known
for its petroleum deposits. You may be knowing
that Gujarat and Rajasthan both have rich
sources of salt.
Why and where Dandi March was Why and where Dandi March was Why and where Dandi March was Why and where Dandi March was Why and where Dandi March was
organised by Mahatma Gandhi? organised by Mahatma Gandhi? organised by Mahatma Gandhi? organised by Mahatma Gandhi? organised by Mahatma Gandhi?
The Himalayan belt is another mineral belt
where copper, lead, zinc, cobalt and tungsten
are known to occur. They occur on both the
eastern and western parts. Assam valley has
Mineral and Energy Resources     73
2020-21
Page 3


Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III
Chapter 7
MINERAL AND
ENERGY
RESOURCES
India is endowed with a rich variety of mineral
resources due to its varied geological structure.
Bulk of the valuable minerals are products of
pre-palaezoic age (Refer: Chapter 2 of Class XI,
Textbook: “Fundamentals of Physical
Geography” and are mainly associated with
metamorphic and igneous rocks of the
peninsular India. The vast alluvial plain tract
of north India is devoid of minerals of economic
use. The mineral resources provide the country
with the necessary base for industrial
development. In this chapter, we shall discuss
the availability of various types of mineral and
energy resources in the country.
A mineral is a natural substance of organic
or inorganic origin with definite chemical and
physical properties.
T T T T Types of ypes of ypes of ypes of ypes of Miner Miner Miner Miner Mineral R al R al R al R al Resour esour esour esour esources ces ces ces ces
On the basis of chemical and physical
properties, minerals may be grouped under two
main categories of metallics and non-metallics
which may further be classified as follows :
Fig. 7.1 : Classification of Minerals
2020-21
As, it is clear from the Fig. 7.1 metallic
minerals are the sources of metals. Iron ore,
copper, gold produce metal and are included
in this category. Metallic minerals are further
divided into ferrous and non-ferrous metallic
minerals. Ferrous, as you know, refers to iron.
All those minerals which have iron content are
ferrous such as iron ore itself and those which
do not have iron content are non-ferrous such
as copper, bauxite, etc.
Non-metallic minerals are either organic
in origin such as fossil fuels also known as
mineral fuels which are derived from the
buried animal and plant life such as coal and
petroleum. Other type of non-metallic
minerals are inorganic in origin such as mica,
limestone and graphite, etc.
Minerals have certain characteristics.
These are unevenly distributed over space.
There is inverse relationship in quality and
quantity of minerals i.e. good quality minerals
are less in quantity as compared to low
quality minerals. The third main
characteristic is that all minerals are
exhaustible over time. These take long to
develop geologically and they cannot be
replenished immediately at the time of need.
Thus, they have to be conserved and not
misused as they do not have the second crop.
Distribution of Minerals in India Distribution of Minerals in India Distribution of Minerals in India Distribution of Minerals in India Distribution of Minerals in India
Most of the metallic minerals in India occur in
the peninsular plateau region in the old
crystalline rocks. Over 97 per cent of coal
reserves occur in the valleys of Damodar, Sone,
Mahanadi and Godavari. Petroleum reserves
are located in the sedimentary basins of Assam,
Gujarat and Mumbai High i.e. off-shore region
in the Arabian Sea. New reserves have been
located in the Krishna-Godavari and Kaveri
basins. Most of the major mineral resources
occur to the east of a line linking Mangaluru
and Kanpur.
Minerals are generally concentrated in
three broad belts in India. There may be some
sporadic occurrences here and there in isolated
pockets. These belts are :
The North-Eastern Plateau Region
This belt covers Chhotanagpur (Jharkhand),
Odisha Plateau, West Bengal and parts of
Chhattisgarh. Have you ever thought about
the reason of major iron and steel industry
being located in this region? It has variety of
minerals viz. iron ore coal, manganese,
bauxite, mica.
Find out the specific region where these Find out the specific region where these Find out the specific region where these Find out the specific region where these Find out the specific region where these
minerals are being extracted. minerals are being extracted. minerals are being extracted. minerals are being extracted. minerals are being extracted.
The South-Western Plateau Region
This belt extends over Karnataka, Goa and
contiguous Tamil Nadu uplands and Kerala.
This belt is rich in ferrous metals and bauxite.
It also contains high grade iron ore, manganese
and limestone. This belt lacks in coal deposits
except Neyveli lignite.
This belt does not have as diversified
mineral deposits as the north-eastern belt.
Kerala has deposits of monazite and thorium,
bauxite clay. Goa has iron ore deposits.
The North-Western Region
This belt extends along Aravali in Rajasthan and
part of Gujarat and minerals are associated with
Dharwar system of rocks. Copper, zinc have
been major minerals. Rajasthan is rich in
building stones i.e. sandstone, granite, marble.
Gypsum and Fuller’s earth deposits are also
extensive. Dolomite and limestone provide raw
materials for cement industry. Gujarat is known
for its petroleum deposits. You may be knowing
that Gujarat and Rajasthan both have rich
sources of salt.
Why and where Dandi March was Why and where Dandi March was Why and where Dandi March was Why and where Dandi March was Why and where Dandi March was
organised by Mahatma Gandhi? organised by Mahatma Gandhi? organised by Mahatma Gandhi? organised by Mahatma Gandhi? organised by Mahatma Gandhi?
The Himalayan belt is another mineral belt
where copper, lead, zinc, cobalt and tungsten
are known to occur. They occur on both the
eastern and western parts. Assam valley has
Mineral and Energy Resources     73
2020-21
74 India : People and Economy
mineral oil deposits. Besides oil resources are
also found in off-shore-areas near Mumbai
Coast (Mumbai High).
In the following pages you will find the
spatial pattern of some of the important
minerals.
Ferrous Mineral
Ferrous minerals such as iron ore,
manganese, chromite, etc., provide a strong
base for the development of metallurgical
industries. Our country is well-placed in
respect of ferrous minerals both in reserves
and production.
Iron Ore
India is endowed with fairly abundant
resources of iron ore. It has the largest reserve
of iron ore in Asia. The two main types of ore
found in our country are haematite and
magnetite. It has great demand in
international market due to its superior
quality. The iron ore mines occur in close
proximity to the coal fields in the north-
eastern plateau region of the country which
adds to their advantage.
About 95 per cent of total reserves of iron
ore is located in the States of Odisha,
Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Goa,
Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
In Odisha, iron ore occurs in a series of hill
ranges in Sundergarh, Mayurbhanj and Jhar.
The important mines are Gurumahisani,
Sulaipet, Badampahar (Mayurbhaj), Kiruburu
(Kendujhar) and Bonai (Sundergarh). Similar
hill ranges, Jharkhand has some of the oldest
iron ore mines and most of the iron and steel
plants are located around them. Most of the
important mines such as Noamundi and Gua
are located in Poorbi and Pashchimi
Singhbhum districts. This belt further extends
to Durg, Dantewara and Bailadila. Dalli, and
Rajhara in Durg are the important mines of
iron ore in the country. In Karnataka, iron ore
deposits occur in Sandur-Hospet area of
Ballari district, Baba Budan hills and
Kudremukh in Chikkamagaluru district and
parts of Shivamogga, Chitradurg and
Tumakuru districts. The districts of
Chandrapur, Bhandara and Ratnagiri in
Maharashtra, Karimnagar and Warangal
district of Telangana, Kurnool, Cuddapah and
Anantapur districts of Andhra Pradesh, Salem
and Nilgiris districts of Tamil Nadu are other
iron mining regions. Goa has also emerged as
an important producer of iron ore.
Manganese
Manganese is an important raw material for
smelting of iron ore and also used for
manufacturing ferro alloys. Manganese
deposits are found in almost all geological
formations, however, it is mainly associated with
Dharwar system.
Odisha is the leading producer of
Manganese. Major mines in Odisha are
located in the central part of the iron ore belt
of India, particularly in Bonai, Kendujhar,
Sundergarh, Gangpur, Koraput, Kalahandi
and Bolangir.
Can you find out its reason?
2020-21
Page 4


Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III
Chapter 7
MINERAL AND
ENERGY
RESOURCES
India is endowed with a rich variety of mineral
resources due to its varied geological structure.
Bulk of the valuable minerals are products of
pre-palaezoic age (Refer: Chapter 2 of Class XI,
Textbook: “Fundamentals of Physical
Geography” and are mainly associated with
metamorphic and igneous rocks of the
peninsular India. The vast alluvial plain tract
of north India is devoid of minerals of economic
use. The mineral resources provide the country
with the necessary base for industrial
development. In this chapter, we shall discuss
the availability of various types of mineral and
energy resources in the country.
A mineral is a natural substance of organic
or inorganic origin with definite chemical and
physical properties.
T T T T Types of ypes of ypes of ypes of ypes of Miner Miner Miner Miner Mineral R al R al R al R al Resour esour esour esour esources ces ces ces ces
On the basis of chemical and physical
properties, minerals may be grouped under two
main categories of metallics and non-metallics
which may further be classified as follows :
Fig. 7.1 : Classification of Minerals
2020-21
As, it is clear from the Fig. 7.1 metallic
minerals are the sources of metals. Iron ore,
copper, gold produce metal and are included
in this category. Metallic minerals are further
divided into ferrous and non-ferrous metallic
minerals. Ferrous, as you know, refers to iron.
All those minerals which have iron content are
ferrous such as iron ore itself and those which
do not have iron content are non-ferrous such
as copper, bauxite, etc.
Non-metallic minerals are either organic
in origin such as fossil fuels also known as
mineral fuels which are derived from the
buried animal and plant life such as coal and
petroleum. Other type of non-metallic
minerals are inorganic in origin such as mica,
limestone and graphite, etc.
Minerals have certain characteristics.
These are unevenly distributed over space.
There is inverse relationship in quality and
quantity of minerals i.e. good quality minerals
are less in quantity as compared to low
quality minerals. The third main
characteristic is that all minerals are
exhaustible over time. These take long to
develop geologically and they cannot be
replenished immediately at the time of need.
Thus, they have to be conserved and not
misused as they do not have the second crop.
Distribution of Minerals in India Distribution of Minerals in India Distribution of Minerals in India Distribution of Minerals in India Distribution of Minerals in India
Most of the metallic minerals in India occur in
the peninsular plateau region in the old
crystalline rocks. Over 97 per cent of coal
reserves occur in the valleys of Damodar, Sone,
Mahanadi and Godavari. Petroleum reserves
are located in the sedimentary basins of Assam,
Gujarat and Mumbai High i.e. off-shore region
in the Arabian Sea. New reserves have been
located in the Krishna-Godavari and Kaveri
basins. Most of the major mineral resources
occur to the east of a line linking Mangaluru
and Kanpur.
Minerals are generally concentrated in
three broad belts in India. There may be some
sporadic occurrences here and there in isolated
pockets. These belts are :
The North-Eastern Plateau Region
This belt covers Chhotanagpur (Jharkhand),
Odisha Plateau, West Bengal and parts of
Chhattisgarh. Have you ever thought about
the reason of major iron and steel industry
being located in this region? It has variety of
minerals viz. iron ore coal, manganese,
bauxite, mica.
Find out the specific region where these Find out the specific region where these Find out the specific region where these Find out the specific region where these Find out the specific region where these
minerals are being extracted. minerals are being extracted. minerals are being extracted. minerals are being extracted. minerals are being extracted.
The South-Western Plateau Region
This belt extends over Karnataka, Goa and
contiguous Tamil Nadu uplands and Kerala.
This belt is rich in ferrous metals and bauxite.
It also contains high grade iron ore, manganese
and limestone. This belt lacks in coal deposits
except Neyveli lignite.
This belt does not have as diversified
mineral deposits as the north-eastern belt.
Kerala has deposits of monazite and thorium,
bauxite clay. Goa has iron ore deposits.
The North-Western Region
This belt extends along Aravali in Rajasthan and
part of Gujarat and minerals are associated with
Dharwar system of rocks. Copper, zinc have
been major minerals. Rajasthan is rich in
building stones i.e. sandstone, granite, marble.
Gypsum and Fuller’s earth deposits are also
extensive. Dolomite and limestone provide raw
materials for cement industry. Gujarat is known
for its petroleum deposits. You may be knowing
that Gujarat and Rajasthan both have rich
sources of salt.
Why and where Dandi March was Why and where Dandi March was Why and where Dandi March was Why and where Dandi March was Why and where Dandi March was
organised by Mahatma Gandhi? organised by Mahatma Gandhi? organised by Mahatma Gandhi? organised by Mahatma Gandhi? organised by Mahatma Gandhi?
The Himalayan belt is another mineral belt
where copper, lead, zinc, cobalt and tungsten
are known to occur. They occur on both the
eastern and western parts. Assam valley has
Mineral and Energy Resources     73
2020-21
74 India : People and Economy
mineral oil deposits. Besides oil resources are
also found in off-shore-areas near Mumbai
Coast (Mumbai High).
In the following pages you will find the
spatial pattern of some of the important
minerals.
Ferrous Mineral
Ferrous minerals such as iron ore,
manganese, chromite, etc., provide a strong
base for the development of metallurgical
industries. Our country is well-placed in
respect of ferrous minerals both in reserves
and production.
Iron Ore
India is endowed with fairly abundant
resources of iron ore. It has the largest reserve
of iron ore in Asia. The two main types of ore
found in our country are haematite and
magnetite. It has great demand in
international market due to its superior
quality. The iron ore mines occur in close
proximity to the coal fields in the north-
eastern plateau region of the country which
adds to their advantage.
About 95 per cent of total reserves of iron
ore is located in the States of Odisha,
Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Goa,
Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
In Odisha, iron ore occurs in a series of hill
ranges in Sundergarh, Mayurbhanj and Jhar.
The important mines are Gurumahisani,
Sulaipet, Badampahar (Mayurbhaj), Kiruburu
(Kendujhar) and Bonai (Sundergarh). Similar
hill ranges, Jharkhand has some of the oldest
iron ore mines and most of the iron and steel
plants are located around them. Most of the
important mines such as Noamundi and Gua
are located in Poorbi and Pashchimi
Singhbhum districts. This belt further extends
to Durg, Dantewara and Bailadila. Dalli, and
Rajhara in Durg are the important mines of
iron ore in the country. In Karnataka, iron ore
deposits occur in Sandur-Hospet area of
Ballari district, Baba Budan hills and
Kudremukh in Chikkamagaluru district and
parts of Shivamogga, Chitradurg and
Tumakuru districts. The districts of
Chandrapur, Bhandara and Ratnagiri in
Maharashtra, Karimnagar and Warangal
district of Telangana, Kurnool, Cuddapah and
Anantapur districts of Andhra Pradesh, Salem
and Nilgiris districts of Tamil Nadu are other
iron mining regions. Goa has also emerged as
an important producer of iron ore.
Manganese
Manganese is an important raw material for
smelting of iron ore and also used for
manufacturing ferro alloys. Manganese
deposits are found in almost all geological
formations, however, it is mainly associated with
Dharwar system.
Odisha is the leading producer of
Manganese. Major mines in Odisha are
located in the central part of the iron ore belt
of India, particularly in Bonai, Kendujhar,
Sundergarh, Gangpur, Koraput, Kalahandi
and Bolangir.
Can you find out its reason?
2020-21
Mineral and Energy Resources     75
Fig. 7.2 : India – Metallic Minerals (Ferrous)
2020-21
Page 5


Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III
Chapter 7
MINERAL AND
ENERGY
RESOURCES
India is endowed with a rich variety of mineral
resources due to its varied geological structure.
Bulk of the valuable minerals are products of
pre-palaezoic age (Refer: Chapter 2 of Class XI,
Textbook: “Fundamentals of Physical
Geography” and are mainly associated with
metamorphic and igneous rocks of the
peninsular India. The vast alluvial plain tract
of north India is devoid of minerals of economic
use. The mineral resources provide the country
with the necessary base for industrial
development. In this chapter, we shall discuss
the availability of various types of mineral and
energy resources in the country.
A mineral is a natural substance of organic
or inorganic origin with definite chemical and
physical properties.
T T T T Types of ypes of ypes of ypes of ypes of Miner Miner Miner Miner Mineral R al R al R al R al Resour esour esour esour esources ces ces ces ces
On the basis of chemical and physical
properties, minerals may be grouped under two
main categories of metallics and non-metallics
which may further be classified as follows :
Fig. 7.1 : Classification of Minerals
2020-21
As, it is clear from the Fig. 7.1 metallic
minerals are the sources of metals. Iron ore,
copper, gold produce metal and are included
in this category. Metallic minerals are further
divided into ferrous and non-ferrous metallic
minerals. Ferrous, as you know, refers to iron.
All those minerals which have iron content are
ferrous such as iron ore itself and those which
do not have iron content are non-ferrous such
as copper, bauxite, etc.
Non-metallic minerals are either organic
in origin such as fossil fuels also known as
mineral fuels which are derived from the
buried animal and plant life such as coal and
petroleum. Other type of non-metallic
minerals are inorganic in origin such as mica,
limestone and graphite, etc.
Minerals have certain characteristics.
These are unevenly distributed over space.
There is inverse relationship in quality and
quantity of minerals i.e. good quality minerals
are less in quantity as compared to low
quality minerals. The third main
characteristic is that all minerals are
exhaustible over time. These take long to
develop geologically and they cannot be
replenished immediately at the time of need.
Thus, they have to be conserved and not
misused as they do not have the second crop.
Distribution of Minerals in India Distribution of Minerals in India Distribution of Minerals in India Distribution of Minerals in India Distribution of Minerals in India
Most of the metallic minerals in India occur in
the peninsular plateau region in the old
crystalline rocks. Over 97 per cent of coal
reserves occur in the valleys of Damodar, Sone,
Mahanadi and Godavari. Petroleum reserves
are located in the sedimentary basins of Assam,
Gujarat and Mumbai High i.e. off-shore region
in the Arabian Sea. New reserves have been
located in the Krishna-Godavari and Kaveri
basins. Most of the major mineral resources
occur to the east of a line linking Mangaluru
and Kanpur.
Minerals are generally concentrated in
three broad belts in India. There may be some
sporadic occurrences here and there in isolated
pockets. These belts are :
The North-Eastern Plateau Region
This belt covers Chhotanagpur (Jharkhand),
Odisha Plateau, West Bengal and parts of
Chhattisgarh. Have you ever thought about
the reason of major iron and steel industry
being located in this region? It has variety of
minerals viz. iron ore coal, manganese,
bauxite, mica.
Find out the specific region where these Find out the specific region where these Find out the specific region where these Find out the specific region where these Find out the specific region where these
minerals are being extracted. minerals are being extracted. minerals are being extracted. minerals are being extracted. minerals are being extracted.
The South-Western Plateau Region
This belt extends over Karnataka, Goa and
contiguous Tamil Nadu uplands and Kerala.
This belt is rich in ferrous metals and bauxite.
It also contains high grade iron ore, manganese
and limestone. This belt lacks in coal deposits
except Neyveli lignite.
This belt does not have as diversified
mineral deposits as the north-eastern belt.
Kerala has deposits of monazite and thorium,
bauxite clay. Goa has iron ore deposits.
The North-Western Region
This belt extends along Aravali in Rajasthan and
part of Gujarat and minerals are associated with
Dharwar system of rocks. Copper, zinc have
been major minerals. Rajasthan is rich in
building stones i.e. sandstone, granite, marble.
Gypsum and Fuller’s earth deposits are also
extensive. Dolomite and limestone provide raw
materials for cement industry. Gujarat is known
for its petroleum deposits. You may be knowing
that Gujarat and Rajasthan both have rich
sources of salt.
Why and where Dandi March was Why and where Dandi March was Why and where Dandi March was Why and where Dandi March was Why and where Dandi March was
organised by Mahatma Gandhi? organised by Mahatma Gandhi? organised by Mahatma Gandhi? organised by Mahatma Gandhi? organised by Mahatma Gandhi?
The Himalayan belt is another mineral belt
where copper, lead, zinc, cobalt and tungsten
are known to occur. They occur on both the
eastern and western parts. Assam valley has
Mineral and Energy Resources     73
2020-21
74 India : People and Economy
mineral oil deposits. Besides oil resources are
also found in off-shore-areas near Mumbai
Coast (Mumbai High).
In the following pages you will find the
spatial pattern of some of the important
minerals.
Ferrous Mineral
Ferrous minerals such as iron ore,
manganese, chromite, etc., provide a strong
base for the development of metallurgical
industries. Our country is well-placed in
respect of ferrous minerals both in reserves
and production.
Iron Ore
India is endowed with fairly abundant
resources of iron ore. It has the largest reserve
of iron ore in Asia. The two main types of ore
found in our country are haematite and
magnetite. It has great demand in
international market due to its superior
quality. The iron ore mines occur in close
proximity to the coal fields in the north-
eastern plateau region of the country which
adds to their advantage.
About 95 per cent of total reserves of iron
ore is located in the States of Odisha,
Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Goa,
Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
In Odisha, iron ore occurs in a series of hill
ranges in Sundergarh, Mayurbhanj and Jhar.
The important mines are Gurumahisani,
Sulaipet, Badampahar (Mayurbhaj), Kiruburu
(Kendujhar) and Bonai (Sundergarh). Similar
hill ranges, Jharkhand has some of the oldest
iron ore mines and most of the iron and steel
plants are located around them. Most of the
important mines such as Noamundi and Gua
are located in Poorbi and Pashchimi
Singhbhum districts. This belt further extends
to Durg, Dantewara and Bailadila. Dalli, and
Rajhara in Durg are the important mines of
iron ore in the country. In Karnataka, iron ore
deposits occur in Sandur-Hospet area of
Ballari district, Baba Budan hills and
Kudremukh in Chikkamagaluru district and
parts of Shivamogga, Chitradurg and
Tumakuru districts. The districts of
Chandrapur, Bhandara and Ratnagiri in
Maharashtra, Karimnagar and Warangal
district of Telangana, Kurnool, Cuddapah and
Anantapur districts of Andhra Pradesh, Salem
and Nilgiris districts of Tamil Nadu are other
iron mining regions. Goa has also emerged as
an important producer of iron ore.
Manganese
Manganese is an important raw material for
smelting of iron ore and also used for
manufacturing ferro alloys. Manganese
deposits are found in almost all geological
formations, however, it is mainly associated with
Dharwar system.
Odisha is the leading producer of
Manganese. Major mines in Odisha are
located in the central part of the iron ore belt
of India, particularly in Bonai, Kendujhar,
Sundergarh, Gangpur, Koraput, Kalahandi
and Bolangir.
Can you find out its reason?
2020-21
Mineral and Energy Resources     75
Fig. 7.2 : India – Metallic Minerals (Ferrous)
2020-21
76 India : People and Economy
Karnataka is another major producer and
here the mines are located in Dharwar, Ballari,
Belagavi, North Canara, Chikkmagaluru,
Shivamogga, Chitradurg and Tumakuru.
Maharashtra is also an important producer of
manganese, which is mined in Nagpur,
Bhandara and Ratnagiri districts. The
disadvantage to these mines is that they are
located far from steel plants. The manganese
belt of Madhya Pradesh extends in a belt in
Balaghat-Chhindwara-Nimar-Mandla and
Jhabua districts.
Telangana, Goa, and Jharkhand are other
minor producers of manganese.
Non-Ferrous Minerals
India is poorly endowed with non-ferrous
metallic minerals except bauxite.
Bauxite
Bauxite is the ore, which is used in
manufacturing of aluminium. Bauxite is found
mainly in tertiary deposits and is associated
with laterite rocks occurring extensively either
on the plateau or hill ranges of peninsular India
and also in the coastal tracts of the country.
Odisha happens to be the largest producer
of Bauxite. Kalahandi and Sambalpur are the
leading producers. The other two areas which
have been increasing their production are
Bolangir and Koraput. The patlands of
Lohardaga in Jharkhand have rich deposits.
Gujarat, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and
Maharashtra are other major producers.
Bhavanagar,  and Jamnagar in Gujarat have the
major deposits. Chhattisgarh has bauxite
deposits in Amarkantak plateau while Katni-
Jabalpur area and Balaghat in M.P. have
important deposits of bauxite. Kolaba, Thane,
Ratnagiri, Satara, Pune and Kolhapur in
Maharashtra are important producers. Tamil
Nadu, Karnataka and Goa are minor producers
of bauxite.
Copper
Copper is an indispensable  metal in the
electrical industry for making wires, electric
motors, transformers and generators. It is
alloyable, malleable and ductile. It is also mixed
with gold to provide strength to jewellery.
The Copper deposits mainly occur in
Singhbhum district in Jharkhand, Balaghat
district in Madhya Pradesh and Jhunjhunu and
Alwar districts in Rajasthan.
Minor producers of Copper are Agnigundala
in Guntur District (Andhra Pradesh), Chitradurg
and Hasan districts (Karnataka) and South Arcot
district (Tamil Nadu).
Non-metallic Minerals
Among the non-metallic minerals produced in
India, mica is the important one. The other
minerals extracted for local consumption are
limestone, dolomite and phosphate.
Mica
Mica is mainly used in the electrical and
electronic industries. It can be split into very
thin sheets which are tough and flexible. Mica
in India is produced in Jharkhand, Andhra
Pradesh, Telanganga and Rajasthan followed
by Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Madhya
Pradesh. In Jharkhand, high quality mica is
obtained in a belt extending over a distance of
about 150 km, in length and about 22 km, in
width in lower Hazaribagh plateau. In Andhra
Pradesh, Nellore district produces the best
quality mica. In Rajasthan, mica belt extends
for about 320 kms from Jaipur to Bhilwara
and around Udaipur. Mica deposits also occur
in Mysuru and Hasan districts of Karanataka,
Coimbatore, Tiruchirapalli, Madurai and
Kanniyakumari in Tamil Nadu, Alleppey in
Kerala, Ratnagiri in Maharashtra, Purulia and
Bankura in West Bengal.
Energy Resources
Mineral fuels are essential for generation of
power, required by agriculture, industry,
transport and other sectors of the economy.
Mineral fuels like coal, petroleum and natural
gas (known as fossil fuels), nuclear energy
minerals, are the conventional sources of
energy. These conventional sources are
exhaustible resources.
2020-21
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