NCERT Textbook - Motivation and Emotion Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Psychology Class 11

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Motivation and Emotion Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Chapter
9
Motivation and Emotion
• understand the nature of human motivation,
• describe the nature of some important motives,
• describe the nature of emotional expression,
• understand the relationship between culture and emotion, and
• know how to manage your own emotions.
After reading this chapter, you would be able to
Introduction
Nature of Motivation
Types of Motives
Biological Motives
Psychosocial Motives
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Self-Motivation (Box 9.1)
Nature of Emotions
Physiological Bases of Emotions
Physiology of Emotion (Box 9.2)
Lie Detection (Box 9.3)
Cognitive Bases of Emotions
Cultural Bases of Emotions
Expression of Emotions
Culture and Emotional Expression
Culture and Emotional Labeling
Managing Negative Emotions
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (Box 9.4)
Management of Examination Anxiety (Box 9.5)
Enhancing Positive Emotions
Emotional Intelligence (Box 9.6)
Key Terms
Summary
Review Questions
Project Ideas
Contents
Motivation and Emotion
Emotion has taught mankind
to reason.
– Marquis de Vauvenargues
2019-20
Page 2


Chapter
9
Motivation and Emotion
• understand the nature of human motivation,
• describe the nature of some important motives,
• describe the nature of emotional expression,
• understand the relationship between culture and emotion, and
• know how to manage your own emotions.
After reading this chapter, you would be able to
Introduction
Nature of Motivation
Types of Motives
Biological Motives
Psychosocial Motives
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Self-Motivation (Box 9.1)
Nature of Emotions
Physiological Bases of Emotions
Physiology of Emotion (Box 9.2)
Lie Detection (Box 9.3)
Cognitive Bases of Emotions
Cultural Bases of Emotions
Expression of Emotions
Culture and Emotional Expression
Culture and Emotional Labeling
Managing Negative Emotions
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (Box 9.4)
Management of Examination Anxiety (Box 9.5)
Enhancing Positive Emotions
Emotional Intelligence (Box 9.6)
Key Terms
Summary
Review Questions
Project Ideas
Contents
Motivation and Emotion
Emotion has taught mankind
to reason.
– Marquis de Vauvenargues
2019-20
Psychology
170
Sunita, a girl from a little known town, puts in 10-12 hours of hard work everyday
in order to get through the various engineering entrance examinations. Hemant, a
physically challenged boy, wants to take part in an expedition and trains himself
extensively in a mountaineering institute. Aman saves money from his scholarship
so that he can buy a gift for his mother. These are just a few examples, which
indicate the role motivation plays in human behaviour. Each of these behaviours
are caused by an underlying motive. Behaviour is goal-driven. Goal-seeking
behaviour tends to persist until the goal is achieved. For achieving their goals people
plan and undertake different activities. How is Sunita going to feel if after all the
hard work she has put in, she does not succeed or Aman’s scholarship money gets
stolen. Sunita, perhaps, will be sad and Aman angry. This chapter will help you to
understand the basic concepts of motivation and emotion, and related developments
in these two areas. You will also get to know the concepts of frustration and conflict.
The basic emotions, their biological bases, overt expressions, cultural influences,
their relationship with motivation, and some techniques to help you manage your
emotions better will also be dealt with.
Introduction
NATURE OF MOTIVATION
The concept of motivation focuses on
explaining what “moves” behaviour.  In fact,
the term motivation is derived from the Latin
word ‘movere’, referring to movement of
activity. Most of our everyday explanation of
behaviour is given in terms of motives. Why
do you come to the school or college? There
may be any number of reasons for this
behaviour, such as you want to learn or to
make friends, you need a diploma or degree
to get a good job, you want to make your
parents happy, and so on.  Some combination
of these reasons and/or others would explain
why you choose to go in for higher education.
Motives also help in making predictions about
behaviour. A person will work hard in school,
in sports, in business, in music, and in many
other situations, if s/he has a very strong need
for achievement. Hence, motives are the
general states that enable us to make
predictions about behaviour in many different
situations. In other words, motivation is one
of the determinants of behaviour. Instincts,
drives, needs, goals, and incentives come
under the broad cluster of motivation.
The Motivational Cycle
Psychologists now use the concept of need to
describe the motivational properties of
behaviour. A need is lack or deficit of some
necessity.  The condition of need leads to drive.
Fig.9.1 : The Motivational Cycle
Need
Reduction of
arousal
Goal-directed
behaviour
Achievement
Drive
Arousal
2019-20
Page 3


Chapter
9
Motivation and Emotion
• understand the nature of human motivation,
• describe the nature of some important motives,
• describe the nature of emotional expression,
• understand the relationship between culture and emotion, and
• know how to manage your own emotions.
After reading this chapter, you would be able to
Introduction
Nature of Motivation
Types of Motives
Biological Motives
Psychosocial Motives
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Self-Motivation (Box 9.1)
Nature of Emotions
Physiological Bases of Emotions
Physiology of Emotion (Box 9.2)
Lie Detection (Box 9.3)
Cognitive Bases of Emotions
Cultural Bases of Emotions
Expression of Emotions
Culture and Emotional Expression
Culture and Emotional Labeling
Managing Negative Emotions
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (Box 9.4)
Management of Examination Anxiety (Box 9.5)
Enhancing Positive Emotions
Emotional Intelligence (Box 9.6)
Key Terms
Summary
Review Questions
Project Ideas
Contents
Motivation and Emotion
Emotion has taught mankind
to reason.
– Marquis de Vauvenargues
2019-20
Psychology
170
Sunita, a girl from a little known town, puts in 10-12 hours of hard work everyday
in order to get through the various engineering entrance examinations. Hemant, a
physically challenged boy, wants to take part in an expedition and trains himself
extensively in a mountaineering institute. Aman saves money from his scholarship
so that he can buy a gift for his mother. These are just a few examples, which
indicate the role motivation plays in human behaviour. Each of these behaviours
are caused by an underlying motive. Behaviour is goal-driven. Goal-seeking
behaviour tends to persist until the goal is achieved. For achieving their goals people
plan and undertake different activities. How is Sunita going to feel if after all the
hard work she has put in, she does not succeed or Aman’s scholarship money gets
stolen. Sunita, perhaps, will be sad and Aman angry. This chapter will help you to
understand the basic concepts of motivation and emotion, and related developments
in these two areas. You will also get to know the concepts of frustration and conflict.
The basic emotions, their biological bases, overt expressions, cultural influences,
their relationship with motivation, and some techniques to help you manage your
emotions better will also be dealt with.
Introduction
NATURE OF MOTIVATION
The concept of motivation focuses on
explaining what “moves” behaviour.  In fact,
the term motivation is derived from the Latin
word ‘movere’, referring to movement of
activity. Most of our everyday explanation of
behaviour is given in terms of motives. Why
do you come to the school or college? There
may be any number of reasons for this
behaviour, such as you want to learn or to
make friends, you need a diploma or degree
to get a good job, you want to make your
parents happy, and so on.  Some combination
of these reasons and/or others would explain
why you choose to go in for higher education.
Motives also help in making predictions about
behaviour. A person will work hard in school,
in sports, in business, in music, and in many
other situations, if s/he has a very strong need
for achievement. Hence, motives are the
general states that enable us to make
predictions about behaviour in many different
situations. In other words, motivation is one
of the determinants of behaviour. Instincts,
drives, needs, goals, and incentives come
under the broad cluster of motivation.
The Motivational Cycle
Psychologists now use the concept of need to
describe the motivational properties of
behaviour. A need is lack or deficit of some
necessity.  The condition of need leads to drive.
Fig.9.1 : The Motivational Cycle
Need
Reduction of
arousal
Goal-directed
behaviour
Achievement
Drive
Arousal
2019-20
Chapter 9 • Motivation and Emotion
171
A drive is a state of tension or arousal
produced by a need. It energises random
activity. When one of the random activities
leads to a goal, it reduces the drive, and the
organism stops being active. The organism
returns to a balanced state. Thus, the cycle of
motivational events can be presented as shown
in Fig.9.1.
Are there different types of motives? Are
there any biological bases explaining different
kinds of motives? What happens if your motive
remains unfulfilled? These are some of the
questions we will discuss in the following
sections.
TYPES OF MOTIVES
Basically, there are two types of motives :
biological and psychosocial. Biological motives
are also known as physiological motives as
they are guided mostly by the physiological
mechanisms of the body. Psychosocial
motives, on the other hand, are primarily
learned from the individual’s interactions with
the various environmental factors.
However, both types of motives are
interdependent on each other. That is, in some
kind of situations the biological factors may
trigger a motive whereas in some other
situations, the psychosocial factors may
trigger the motive. Hence, you should keep in
mind that no motive is absolutely biological
or psychosocial per se, rather they are aroused
in the individual with varying combinations.
Biological Motives
The biological or physiological approach to
explain motivation is the earliest attempt to
understand causes of behaviour. Most of
the theories, which developed later, carry
traces of the influence of the biological
approach. The approach adhering to the
concept of adaptive act holds that organisms
have needs (internal physiological imbalances)
that produce drive, which stimulates
behaviour leading to certain actions towards
achieving certain goals, which reduce the
drive. The earliest explanations of motivation
relied on the concept of instinct. The term
instinct denotes inborn patterns of behaviour
that are biologically determined rather than
learned. Some common human instincts
include curiosity, flight, repulsion,
reproduction, parental care, etc.  Instincts are
innate tendencies found in all members of a
species that direct behaviour in predictable
ways. The term instinct most approximately
refers to an urge to do something. Instinct has
an “impetus” which drives the organism to do
something to reduce that impetus. Some of
the basic biological needs explained by this
approach are hunger, thirst, and sex, which
are essential for the sustenance of the
individual.
Fig.9.2 : Types of Motives
Biological Motives
Focus on the innate, biological causes
of motivation like hormones,
neurotransmitters, brain structures
(hypothalamus, limbic system, etc.).
For example, hunger, thirst and
sex motives.
Psychosocial Motives
Focus on psychological and social
(as well as environmental) factors and
how they interact with each other to
produce motivation. For example,
need for achievement, affiliation, power,
curiosity and exploration, and self-
actualisation motives.
Types of Motives
2019-20
Page 4


Chapter
9
Motivation and Emotion
• understand the nature of human motivation,
• describe the nature of some important motives,
• describe the nature of emotional expression,
• understand the relationship between culture and emotion, and
• know how to manage your own emotions.
After reading this chapter, you would be able to
Introduction
Nature of Motivation
Types of Motives
Biological Motives
Psychosocial Motives
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Self-Motivation (Box 9.1)
Nature of Emotions
Physiological Bases of Emotions
Physiology of Emotion (Box 9.2)
Lie Detection (Box 9.3)
Cognitive Bases of Emotions
Cultural Bases of Emotions
Expression of Emotions
Culture and Emotional Expression
Culture and Emotional Labeling
Managing Negative Emotions
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (Box 9.4)
Management of Examination Anxiety (Box 9.5)
Enhancing Positive Emotions
Emotional Intelligence (Box 9.6)
Key Terms
Summary
Review Questions
Project Ideas
Contents
Motivation and Emotion
Emotion has taught mankind
to reason.
– Marquis de Vauvenargues
2019-20
Psychology
170
Sunita, a girl from a little known town, puts in 10-12 hours of hard work everyday
in order to get through the various engineering entrance examinations. Hemant, a
physically challenged boy, wants to take part in an expedition and trains himself
extensively in a mountaineering institute. Aman saves money from his scholarship
so that he can buy a gift for his mother. These are just a few examples, which
indicate the role motivation plays in human behaviour. Each of these behaviours
are caused by an underlying motive. Behaviour is goal-driven. Goal-seeking
behaviour tends to persist until the goal is achieved. For achieving their goals people
plan and undertake different activities. How is Sunita going to feel if after all the
hard work she has put in, she does not succeed or Aman’s scholarship money gets
stolen. Sunita, perhaps, will be sad and Aman angry. This chapter will help you to
understand the basic concepts of motivation and emotion, and related developments
in these two areas. You will also get to know the concepts of frustration and conflict.
The basic emotions, their biological bases, overt expressions, cultural influences,
their relationship with motivation, and some techniques to help you manage your
emotions better will also be dealt with.
Introduction
NATURE OF MOTIVATION
The concept of motivation focuses on
explaining what “moves” behaviour.  In fact,
the term motivation is derived from the Latin
word ‘movere’, referring to movement of
activity. Most of our everyday explanation of
behaviour is given in terms of motives. Why
do you come to the school or college? There
may be any number of reasons for this
behaviour, such as you want to learn or to
make friends, you need a diploma or degree
to get a good job, you want to make your
parents happy, and so on.  Some combination
of these reasons and/or others would explain
why you choose to go in for higher education.
Motives also help in making predictions about
behaviour. A person will work hard in school,
in sports, in business, in music, and in many
other situations, if s/he has a very strong need
for achievement. Hence, motives are the
general states that enable us to make
predictions about behaviour in many different
situations. In other words, motivation is one
of the determinants of behaviour. Instincts,
drives, needs, goals, and incentives come
under the broad cluster of motivation.
The Motivational Cycle
Psychologists now use the concept of need to
describe the motivational properties of
behaviour. A need is lack or deficit of some
necessity.  The condition of need leads to drive.
Fig.9.1 : The Motivational Cycle
Need
Reduction of
arousal
Goal-directed
behaviour
Achievement
Drive
Arousal
2019-20
Chapter 9 • Motivation and Emotion
171
A drive is a state of tension or arousal
produced by a need. It energises random
activity. When one of the random activities
leads to a goal, it reduces the drive, and the
organism stops being active. The organism
returns to a balanced state. Thus, the cycle of
motivational events can be presented as shown
in Fig.9.1.
Are there different types of motives? Are
there any biological bases explaining different
kinds of motives? What happens if your motive
remains unfulfilled? These are some of the
questions we will discuss in the following
sections.
TYPES OF MOTIVES
Basically, there are two types of motives :
biological and psychosocial. Biological motives
are also known as physiological motives as
they are guided mostly by the physiological
mechanisms of the body. Psychosocial
motives, on the other hand, are primarily
learned from the individual’s interactions with
the various environmental factors.
However, both types of motives are
interdependent on each other. That is, in some
kind of situations the biological factors may
trigger a motive whereas in some other
situations, the psychosocial factors may
trigger the motive. Hence, you should keep in
mind that no motive is absolutely biological
or psychosocial per se, rather they are aroused
in the individual with varying combinations.
Biological Motives
The biological or physiological approach to
explain motivation is the earliest attempt to
understand causes of behaviour. Most of
the theories, which developed later, carry
traces of the influence of the biological
approach. The approach adhering to the
concept of adaptive act holds that organisms
have needs (internal physiological imbalances)
that produce drive, which stimulates
behaviour leading to certain actions towards
achieving certain goals, which reduce the
drive. The earliest explanations of motivation
relied on the concept of instinct. The term
instinct denotes inborn patterns of behaviour
that are biologically determined rather than
learned. Some common human instincts
include curiosity, flight, repulsion,
reproduction, parental care, etc.  Instincts are
innate tendencies found in all members of a
species that direct behaviour in predictable
ways. The term instinct most approximately
refers to an urge to do something. Instinct has
an “impetus” which drives the organism to do
something to reduce that impetus. Some of
the basic biological needs explained by this
approach are hunger, thirst, and sex, which
are essential for the sustenance of the
individual.
Fig.9.2 : Types of Motives
Biological Motives
Focus on the innate, biological causes
of motivation like hormones,
neurotransmitters, brain structures
(hypothalamus, limbic system, etc.).
For example, hunger, thirst and
sex motives.
Psychosocial Motives
Focus on psychological and social
(as well as environmental) factors and
how they interact with each other to
produce motivation. For example,
need for achievement, affiliation, power,
curiosity and exploration, and self-
actualisation motives.
Types of Motives
2019-20
Psychology
172
Hunger
When someone is hungry, the need for food
dominates everything else. It motivates people
to obtain and consume food. Of course we
must eat to live. But, what makes you feel
hungry? Studies have indicated that many
events inside and outside the body may trigger
hunger or inhibit it. The stimuli for hunger
include stomach contractions, which signify
that the stomach is empty, a low concentration
of glucose in the blood, a low level of protein
and the amount of fats stored in the body.
The liver also responds to the lack of bodily
fuel by sending nerve impulses to the brain.
The aroma, taste or appearance of food may
also result in a desire to eat. It may be noted
that none of these alone gives you the feeling
that you are hungry. All in combination act
with external factors (such as taste, colour,
by observing others eating, and the smell of
food, etc.) to help you understand that you
are hungry. Thus, it can be said that our food
intake is regulated by a complex feeding-
satiety system located in the hypothalamus,
liver, and other parts of the body as well as
the external cues available in the environment.
Some physiologists hold that changes in
the metabolic functions of the liver result in a
feeling of hunger. The liver sends a signal to a
part of the brain called hypothalamus. The
two regions of hypothalamus involved in
hunger are - the lateral hypothalamus (LH)
and the ventro-medial hypothalamus (VMH).
LH is considered to be the excitatory area.
Animals eat when this area is stimulated.
When it is damaged, animals stop eating and
die of starvation. The VMH is located in the
middle of the hypothalamus, which is
otherwise known as hunger-controlling area
which inhibits the hunger drive. Now can you
guess about people who overeat and become
obese, and people who eat very little or who
are on a diet?
Thirst
What would happen to you, if you were
deprived of water for a long time?  What makes
you feel thirsty? When we are deprived of water
for a period of several hours, the mouth and
throat become dry, which leads to dehydration
of body tissues. Drinking water is necessary
to wet a dry mouth. But a dry mouth does not
always result in water drinking behaviour. In
fact processes within the body itself control
thirst and drinking of water. Water must get
into the tissues sufficiently to remove the
dryness of mouth and throat.
Motivation to drink water is mainly
triggered by the conditions of the body: loss
of water from cells and reduction of blood
volume. When water is lost by bodily fluids,
water leaves the interior of the cells. The
anterior hypothalamus contains nerve cells
called ‘osmoreceptors’, which generate nerve
impulses in case of cell dehydration. These
nerve impulses act as a signal for thirst and
drinking; when thirst is regulated by loss of
water from the osmoreceptors, it is called
cellular-dehydration thirst. But what
mechanisms stop the drinking of water? Some
researchers assume that the mechanism
which explains the intake of water is also
responsible for stopping the intake of water.
Others have pointed out that the role of stimuli
resulting from the intake of water in the
stomach must have something to do with
stopping of drinking water. However, the
precise physiological mechanisms underlying
the thirst drive are yet to be understood.
Sex
One of the most powerful drives in both
animals and human beings is the sex drive.
Motivation to engage in sexual activity is a very
strong factor influencing human behaviour.
However, sex is far more than a biological
motive. It is different from other primary
motives (hunger, thirst) in many ways like,
(a) sexual activity is not necessary for an
individual’s survival; (b) homeostasis (the
tendency of the organism as a whole to
maintain constancy or to attempt to restore
equilibrium if constancy is disturbed) is not
the goal of sexual activity; and (c) sex drive
develops with age, etc. In case of lower
animals, it depends on many physiological
2019-20
Page 5


Chapter
9
Motivation and Emotion
• understand the nature of human motivation,
• describe the nature of some important motives,
• describe the nature of emotional expression,
• understand the relationship between culture and emotion, and
• know how to manage your own emotions.
After reading this chapter, you would be able to
Introduction
Nature of Motivation
Types of Motives
Biological Motives
Psychosocial Motives
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Self-Motivation (Box 9.1)
Nature of Emotions
Physiological Bases of Emotions
Physiology of Emotion (Box 9.2)
Lie Detection (Box 9.3)
Cognitive Bases of Emotions
Cultural Bases of Emotions
Expression of Emotions
Culture and Emotional Expression
Culture and Emotional Labeling
Managing Negative Emotions
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (Box 9.4)
Management of Examination Anxiety (Box 9.5)
Enhancing Positive Emotions
Emotional Intelligence (Box 9.6)
Key Terms
Summary
Review Questions
Project Ideas
Contents
Motivation and Emotion
Emotion has taught mankind
to reason.
– Marquis de Vauvenargues
2019-20
Psychology
170
Sunita, a girl from a little known town, puts in 10-12 hours of hard work everyday
in order to get through the various engineering entrance examinations. Hemant, a
physically challenged boy, wants to take part in an expedition and trains himself
extensively in a mountaineering institute. Aman saves money from his scholarship
so that he can buy a gift for his mother. These are just a few examples, which
indicate the role motivation plays in human behaviour. Each of these behaviours
are caused by an underlying motive. Behaviour is goal-driven. Goal-seeking
behaviour tends to persist until the goal is achieved. For achieving their goals people
plan and undertake different activities. How is Sunita going to feel if after all the
hard work she has put in, she does not succeed or Aman’s scholarship money gets
stolen. Sunita, perhaps, will be sad and Aman angry. This chapter will help you to
understand the basic concepts of motivation and emotion, and related developments
in these two areas. You will also get to know the concepts of frustration and conflict.
The basic emotions, their biological bases, overt expressions, cultural influences,
their relationship with motivation, and some techniques to help you manage your
emotions better will also be dealt with.
Introduction
NATURE OF MOTIVATION
The concept of motivation focuses on
explaining what “moves” behaviour.  In fact,
the term motivation is derived from the Latin
word ‘movere’, referring to movement of
activity. Most of our everyday explanation of
behaviour is given in terms of motives. Why
do you come to the school or college? There
may be any number of reasons for this
behaviour, such as you want to learn or to
make friends, you need a diploma or degree
to get a good job, you want to make your
parents happy, and so on.  Some combination
of these reasons and/or others would explain
why you choose to go in for higher education.
Motives also help in making predictions about
behaviour. A person will work hard in school,
in sports, in business, in music, and in many
other situations, if s/he has a very strong need
for achievement. Hence, motives are the
general states that enable us to make
predictions about behaviour in many different
situations. In other words, motivation is one
of the determinants of behaviour. Instincts,
drives, needs, goals, and incentives come
under the broad cluster of motivation.
The Motivational Cycle
Psychologists now use the concept of need to
describe the motivational properties of
behaviour. A need is lack or deficit of some
necessity.  The condition of need leads to drive.
Fig.9.1 : The Motivational Cycle
Need
Reduction of
arousal
Goal-directed
behaviour
Achievement
Drive
Arousal
2019-20
Chapter 9 • Motivation and Emotion
171
A drive is a state of tension or arousal
produced by a need. It energises random
activity. When one of the random activities
leads to a goal, it reduces the drive, and the
organism stops being active. The organism
returns to a balanced state. Thus, the cycle of
motivational events can be presented as shown
in Fig.9.1.
Are there different types of motives? Are
there any biological bases explaining different
kinds of motives? What happens if your motive
remains unfulfilled? These are some of the
questions we will discuss in the following
sections.
TYPES OF MOTIVES
Basically, there are two types of motives :
biological and psychosocial. Biological motives
are also known as physiological motives as
they are guided mostly by the physiological
mechanisms of the body. Psychosocial
motives, on the other hand, are primarily
learned from the individual’s interactions with
the various environmental factors.
However, both types of motives are
interdependent on each other. That is, in some
kind of situations the biological factors may
trigger a motive whereas in some other
situations, the psychosocial factors may
trigger the motive. Hence, you should keep in
mind that no motive is absolutely biological
or psychosocial per se, rather they are aroused
in the individual with varying combinations.
Biological Motives
The biological or physiological approach to
explain motivation is the earliest attempt to
understand causes of behaviour. Most of
the theories, which developed later, carry
traces of the influence of the biological
approach. The approach adhering to the
concept of adaptive act holds that organisms
have needs (internal physiological imbalances)
that produce drive, which stimulates
behaviour leading to certain actions towards
achieving certain goals, which reduce the
drive. The earliest explanations of motivation
relied on the concept of instinct. The term
instinct denotes inborn patterns of behaviour
that are biologically determined rather than
learned. Some common human instincts
include curiosity, flight, repulsion,
reproduction, parental care, etc.  Instincts are
innate tendencies found in all members of a
species that direct behaviour in predictable
ways. The term instinct most approximately
refers to an urge to do something. Instinct has
an “impetus” which drives the organism to do
something to reduce that impetus. Some of
the basic biological needs explained by this
approach are hunger, thirst, and sex, which
are essential for the sustenance of the
individual.
Fig.9.2 : Types of Motives
Biological Motives
Focus on the innate, biological causes
of motivation like hormones,
neurotransmitters, brain structures
(hypothalamus, limbic system, etc.).
For example, hunger, thirst and
sex motives.
Psychosocial Motives
Focus on psychological and social
(as well as environmental) factors and
how they interact with each other to
produce motivation. For example,
need for achievement, affiliation, power,
curiosity and exploration, and self-
actualisation motives.
Types of Motives
2019-20
Psychology
172
Hunger
When someone is hungry, the need for food
dominates everything else. It motivates people
to obtain and consume food. Of course we
must eat to live. But, what makes you feel
hungry? Studies have indicated that many
events inside and outside the body may trigger
hunger or inhibit it. The stimuli for hunger
include stomach contractions, which signify
that the stomach is empty, a low concentration
of glucose in the blood, a low level of protein
and the amount of fats stored in the body.
The liver also responds to the lack of bodily
fuel by sending nerve impulses to the brain.
The aroma, taste or appearance of food may
also result in a desire to eat. It may be noted
that none of these alone gives you the feeling
that you are hungry. All in combination act
with external factors (such as taste, colour,
by observing others eating, and the smell of
food, etc.) to help you understand that you
are hungry. Thus, it can be said that our food
intake is regulated by a complex feeding-
satiety system located in the hypothalamus,
liver, and other parts of the body as well as
the external cues available in the environment.
Some physiologists hold that changes in
the metabolic functions of the liver result in a
feeling of hunger. The liver sends a signal to a
part of the brain called hypothalamus. The
two regions of hypothalamus involved in
hunger are - the lateral hypothalamus (LH)
and the ventro-medial hypothalamus (VMH).
LH is considered to be the excitatory area.
Animals eat when this area is stimulated.
When it is damaged, animals stop eating and
die of starvation. The VMH is located in the
middle of the hypothalamus, which is
otherwise known as hunger-controlling area
which inhibits the hunger drive. Now can you
guess about people who overeat and become
obese, and people who eat very little or who
are on a diet?
Thirst
What would happen to you, if you were
deprived of water for a long time?  What makes
you feel thirsty? When we are deprived of water
for a period of several hours, the mouth and
throat become dry, which leads to dehydration
of body tissues. Drinking water is necessary
to wet a dry mouth. But a dry mouth does not
always result in water drinking behaviour. In
fact processes within the body itself control
thirst and drinking of water. Water must get
into the tissues sufficiently to remove the
dryness of mouth and throat.
Motivation to drink water is mainly
triggered by the conditions of the body: loss
of water from cells and reduction of blood
volume. When water is lost by bodily fluids,
water leaves the interior of the cells. The
anterior hypothalamus contains nerve cells
called ‘osmoreceptors’, which generate nerve
impulses in case of cell dehydration. These
nerve impulses act as a signal for thirst and
drinking; when thirst is regulated by loss of
water from the osmoreceptors, it is called
cellular-dehydration thirst. But what
mechanisms stop the drinking of water? Some
researchers assume that the mechanism
which explains the intake of water is also
responsible for stopping the intake of water.
Others have pointed out that the role of stimuli
resulting from the intake of water in the
stomach must have something to do with
stopping of drinking water. However, the
precise physiological mechanisms underlying
the thirst drive are yet to be understood.
Sex
One of the most powerful drives in both
animals and human beings is the sex drive.
Motivation to engage in sexual activity is a very
strong factor influencing human behaviour.
However, sex is far more than a biological
motive. It is different from other primary
motives (hunger, thirst) in many ways like,
(a) sexual activity is not necessary for an
individual’s survival; (b) homeostasis (the
tendency of the organism as a whole to
maintain constancy or to attempt to restore
equilibrium if constancy is disturbed) is not
the goal of sexual activity; and (c) sex drive
develops with age, etc. In case of lower
animals, it depends on many physiological
2019-20
Chapter 9 • Motivation and Emotion
173
conditions; in case of human beings, the sex
drive is very closely regulated biologically,
sometimes it is very difficult to classify sex
purely as a biological drive.
Physiologists suggest that intensity of the
sexual urge is dependent upon chemical
substances circulating in the blood, known
as sex hormones. Studies on animals as well
as human beings have mentioned that sex
hormones secreted by gonads, i.e. testes in
males and the ovaries in females are
responsible for sexual motivation. Sexual
motivation is also influenced by other
endocrine glands, such as adrenal and
pituitary glands. Sexual drive in human
beings is primarily stimulated by external
stimuli and its expression depends upon
cultural learning.
Psychosocial Motives
Social motives are mostly learned or acquired.
Social groups such as family, neighbourhood,
friends, and relatives do contribute a lot in
acquiring social motives. These are complex
forms of motives mainly resulting from the
individual’s interaction with her/his social
environment.
Need for Affiliation
Most of us need company or friend or want to
maintain some form of relationship with
others. Nobody likes to remain alone all the
time. As soon as people see some kinds of
similarities among themselves or they like each
other, they form a group. Formation of group
or collectivity is an important feature of human
life. Often people try desperately to get close
to other people, to seek their help, and to
become members of their group.  Seeking other
human beings and wanting to be close to them
both physically and psychologically is called
affiliation. It involves motivation for social
contact. Need for affiliation is aroused when
individuals feel threatened or helpless and also
when they are happy.  People high on this need
are motivated to seek the company of others
and to maintain friendly relationships with
other people.
Need for Power
Need for power is an ability of a person to
produce intended effects on the behaviour and
emotions of another person.  The various goals
of power motivation are to influence, control,
persuade, lead, and charm others and most
importantly to enhance one’s own reputation
in the eyes of other people.
David McClelland (1975) described four
general ways of expression of the power
motive.  First, people do things to gain feeling
of power and strength from sources outside
themselves by reading stories about sports
stars or attaching themselves to a popular
figure. Second, power can also be felt from
sources within us and may be expressed by
building up the body and mastering urges and
impulses. Third, people do things as
individuals to have an impact on others. For
example, a person argues, or competes with
another individual in order to have an impact
or influence on that person. Fourth, people
do things as members of organisations to have
an impact on others as in the case of the leader
of a political party; the individual may use the
party apparatus to influence others.  However,
for any individual, one of these ways of
expressing power motivation may dominate,
but with age and life experiences, it varies.
Need for Achievement
You might have observed some students work
very hard and compete with others for good
marks/grades in the examination, as good
marks/grades will create opportunities for
higher studies and better job prospects. It is
the achievement motivation, which refers to
the desire of a person to meet standards of
excellence. Need for achievement, also known
as n-Ach, energises and directs behaviour as
well as influences the perception of situations.
During the formative years of social
development, children acquire achievement
motivation.  The sources from which they learn
it, include parents, other role models, and
socio-cultural influences. Persons high in
achievement motivation tend to prefer tasks
that are moderately difficult and challenging.
2019-20
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