NCERT Textbook - Comparison Class 10 Notes | EduRev

English Grammar (Communicative) Interact In English Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook - Comparison Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


8
131
A. Introduction
A.1
Some basic facts about comparatives:
•
•
•
•
    When we compare we estimate, measure or note the similarity or dissimilarity    
between two or more people, places, things or ideas. And we often compare 
them in terms of size, shape, weight, colour, quality, manner, number, 
quantity, grade, actions, intensity, age, looks, feelings etc. 
Do you know what term is used for the class of words we use for 
comparison?
In this unit you will learn the various ways of comparing in English. You will 
also get some practice in using them. 
Comparatives are gradable expressions we use to compare.
Comparatives often say how things are different in quality or quantity or how 
something changes and becomes different over time:
Your house may be bigger but mine is more environment-friendly.
This poem is not as good as the one you wrote yesterday.
There are more girls than boys in this class.
The climate is getting hotter and hotter every year.
Comparatives show how two things are or are not of the same quality and 
quantity:
She is as beautiful as her mother.
She is not as beautiful as her mother.
'There are as many stars in the sky as there are grains of sands on this beach.'
Comparatives  single out one thing as having a unique quality or define a 
specific member in a set or group:
COMPARISON
Page 2


8
131
A. Introduction
A.1
Some basic facts about comparatives:
•
•
•
•
    When we compare we estimate, measure or note the similarity or dissimilarity    
between two or more people, places, things or ideas. And we often compare 
them in terms of size, shape, weight, colour, quality, manner, number, 
quantity, grade, actions, intensity, age, looks, feelings etc. 
Do you know what term is used for the class of words we use for 
comparison?
In this unit you will learn the various ways of comparing in English. You will 
also get some practice in using them. 
Comparatives are gradable expressions we use to compare.
Comparatives often say how things are different in quality or quantity or how 
something changes and becomes different over time:
Your house may be bigger but mine is more environment-friendly.
This poem is not as good as the one you wrote yesterday.
There are more girls than boys in this class.
The climate is getting hotter and hotter every year.
Comparatives show how two things are or are not of the same quality and 
quantity:
She is as beautiful as her mother.
She is not as beautiful as her mother.
'There are as many stars in the sky as there are grains of sands on this beach.'
Comparatives  single out one thing as having a unique quality or define a 
specific member in a set or group:
COMPARISON CBSE
132
Kolkatta is the largest city in India.
(Kolkatta is the city that is larger than any other city in India.)
India has produced many great cricketers but Sachin Tendulkar is the greatest.
India has produced many great cricketers but Sachin Tendulkar is greater 
than all of them.
Comparatives express choices and preferences:
I will have tea rather than coffee. (I find coffee too strong.)
Comparatives can also express attitudes:
Ali has as many as ten Limousines. 
(Very few people can afford to own one. Ali must be very rich!) 
Comparatives can also express an assumption.
Hyderabadi biryani is always the most delicious.
(Assumption: Biryani is delicious)
Walking is the least expensive kind of exercise.
(Assumption: There are many inexpensive types of exercise.)
Some comparatives occur before the noun they describe and some after.
India has produced many great cricketers but Sachin Tendulkar is the
greatest.
Comparatives can be very elaborate i.e. they can consist of several words and 
may appear to be sentences.
The palace was not as huge as I had imagined it would be.
Comparatives affect both adjectives and adverbs.
She is more beautiful than her sister. (adjective)
She sings more beautifully than her sister. (adverb)
•
•
•
•
•
•
Page 3


8
131
A. Introduction
A.1
Some basic facts about comparatives:
•
•
•
•
    When we compare we estimate, measure or note the similarity or dissimilarity    
between two or more people, places, things or ideas. And we often compare 
them in terms of size, shape, weight, colour, quality, manner, number, 
quantity, grade, actions, intensity, age, looks, feelings etc. 
Do you know what term is used for the class of words we use for 
comparison?
In this unit you will learn the various ways of comparing in English. You will 
also get some practice in using them. 
Comparatives are gradable expressions we use to compare.
Comparatives often say how things are different in quality or quantity or how 
something changes and becomes different over time:
Your house may be bigger but mine is more environment-friendly.
This poem is not as good as the one you wrote yesterday.
There are more girls than boys in this class.
The climate is getting hotter and hotter every year.
Comparatives show how two things are or are not of the same quality and 
quantity:
She is as beautiful as her mother.
She is not as beautiful as her mother.
'There are as many stars in the sky as there are grains of sands on this beach.'
Comparatives  single out one thing as having a unique quality or define a 
specific member in a set or group:
COMPARISON CBSE
132
Kolkatta is the largest city in India.
(Kolkatta is the city that is larger than any other city in India.)
India has produced many great cricketers but Sachin Tendulkar is the greatest.
India has produced many great cricketers but Sachin Tendulkar is greater 
than all of them.
Comparatives express choices and preferences:
I will have tea rather than coffee. (I find coffee too strong.)
Comparatives can also express attitudes:
Ali has as many as ten Limousines. 
(Very few people can afford to own one. Ali must be very rich!) 
Comparatives can also express an assumption.
Hyderabadi biryani is always the most delicious.
(Assumption: Biryani is delicious)
Walking is the least expensive kind of exercise.
(Assumption: There are many inexpensive types of exercise.)
Some comparatives occur before the noun they describe and some after.
India has produced many great cricketers but Sachin Tendulkar is the
greatest.
Comparatives can be very elaborate i.e. they can consist of several words and 
may appear to be sentences.
The palace was not as huge as I had imagined it would be.
Comparatives affect both adjectives and adverbs.
She is more beautiful than her sister. (adjective)
She sings more beautifully than her sister. (adverb)
•
•
•
•
•
•
CBSE
133
A.2 Study the table below and notice how the words of comparison are used.
Example
These mangoes are sweeter than those.
Ramesh Krishnan can run faster than 
Leander.
The Hero Honda is a more expensive 
motorcycle than the Kawasaki Bajaj.
White rice cooks more quickly than 
brown.
The sponge soaked up the water and 
became heavier.
Govind is happier than he used to be.
The red dress is nearly as good as the 
blue.
The President is the same age as the 
Prime Minister.
Kiran is not as heavy as Amber.
Swapna is not as friendly as her brother.
Travelling by bus is less expensive than
by train.
Geetesh works less enthusiastically than
his brother.
Ice-cream tastes better than Lassi.
Life in a village is worse than in a city.
Notes
-er for adjectives and adverbs of one 
syllable.
more….. than for adjectives and adverbs 
of two or more syllables
Adjectives of two syllables ending in 
-y take -ier form
Comparison with as… as Expresses 
equality (or near equality with words 
such as nearly, almost, about,  etc. )
We use not as + adjective or adverb and 
less + adjective or adverb.
Irregular comparative form
Page 4


8
131
A. Introduction
A.1
Some basic facts about comparatives:
•
•
•
•
    When we compare we estimate, measure or note the similarity or dissimilarity    
between two or more people, places, things or ideas. And we often compare 
them in terms of size, shape, weight, colour, quality, manner, number, 
quantity, grade, actions, intensity, age, looks, feelings etc. 
Do you know what term is used for the class of words we use for 
comparison?
In this unit you will learn the various ways of comparing in English. You will 
also get some practice in using them. 
Comparatives are gradable expressions we use to compare.
Comparatives often say how things are different in quality or quantity or how 
something changes and becomes different over time:
Your house may be bigger but mine is more environment-friendly.
This poem is not as good as the one you wrote yesterday.
There are more girls than boys in this class.
The climate is getting hotter and hotter every year.
Comparatives show how two things are or are not of the same quality and 
quantity:
She is as beautiful as her mother.
She is not as beautiful as her mother.
'There are as many stars in the sky as there are grains of sands on this beach.'
Comparatives  single out one thing as having a unique quality or define a 
specific member in a set or group:
COMPARISON CBSE
132
Kolkatta is the largest city in India.
(Kolkatta is the city that is larger than any other city in India.)
India has produced many great cricketers but Sachin Tendulkar is the greatest.
India has produced many great cricketers but Sachin Tendulkar is greater 
than all of them.
Comparatives express choices and preferences:
I will have tea rather than coffee. (I find coffee too strong.)
Comparatives can also express attitudes:
Ali has as many as ten Limousines. 
(Very few people can afford to own one. Ali must be very rich!) 
Comparatives can also express an assumption.
Hyderabadi biryani is always the most delicious.
(Assumption: Biryani is delicious)
Walking is the least expensive kind of exercise.
(Assumption: There are many inexpensive types of exercise.)
Some comparatives occur before the noun they describe and some after.
India has produced many great cricketers but Sachin Tendulkar is the
greatest.
Comparatives can be very elaborate i.e. they can consist of several words and 
may appear to be sentences.
The palace was not as huge as I had imagined it would be.
Comparatives affect both adjectives and adverbs.
She is more beautiful than her sister. (adjective)
She sings more beautifully than her sister. (adverb)
•
•
•
•
•
•
CBSE
133
A.2 Study the table below and notice how the words of comparison are used.
Example
These mangoes are sweeter than those.
Ramesh Krishnan can run faster than 
Leander.
The Hero Honda is a more expensive 
motorcycle than the Kawasaki Bajaj.
White rice cooks more quickly than 
brown.
The sponge soaked up the water and 
became heavier.
Govind is happier than he used to be.
The red dress is nearly as good as the 
blue.
The President is the same age as the 
Prime Minister.
Kiran is not as heavy as Amber.
Swapna is not as friendly as her brother.
Travelling by bus is less expensive than
by train.
Geetesh works less enthusiastically than
his brother.
Ice-cream tastes better than Lassi.
Life in a village is worse than in a city.
Notes
-er for adjectives and adverbs of one 
syllable.
more….. than for adjectives and adverbs 
of two or more syllables
Adjectives of two syllables ending in 
-y take -ier form
Comparison with as… as Expresses 
equality (or near equality with words 
such as nearly, almost, about,  etc. )
We use not as + adjective or adverb and 
less + adjective or adverb.
Irregular comparative form
CBSE
134
Have you noticed that the above examples have expressions like as…as,
more…than, -er…than, the…-est or the most….? Why? Discuss with a partner. 
The examples in the followinExample
Adjective Comparative Superlative
tall tall(er) tall(est)
bright bright(er) brighter(est)
simple simple(r) simple(st)
clever clever(er) clever(est)
happy happi(er) happi(est)
busy busi(er) busi(est)
beautiful more beautiful most beautiful
dangerous more dangerous most dangerous
good better best
well better best
bad worse worst
ill worse worst
old elder/older eldest/older
far farther/further farthest/furthest
Adjective Comparative form Superlative form
Single syllable adjectives
Adjectives of two syllables
Adjectives ending in 'y'
Write your conclusions here:
Page 5


8
131
A. Introduction
A.1
Some basic facts about comparatives:
•
•
•
•
    When we compare we estimate, measure or note the similarity or dissimilarity    
between two or more people, places, things or ideas. And we often compare 
them in terms of size, shape, weight, colour, quality, manner, number, 
quantity, grade, actions, intensity, age, looks, feelings etc. 
Do you know what term is used for the class of words we use for 
comparison?
In this unit you will learn the various ways of comparing in English. You will 
also get some practice in using them. 
Comparatives are gradable expressions we use to compare.
Comparatives often say how things are different in quality or quantity or how 
something changes and becomes different over time:
Your house may be bigger but mine is more environment-friendly.
This poem is not as good as the one you wrote yesterday.
There are more girls than boys in this class.
The climate is getting hotter and hotter every year.
Comparatives show how two things are or are not of the same quality and 
quantity:
She is as beautiful as her mother.
She is not as beautiful as her mother.
'There are as many stars in the sky as there are grains of sands on this beach.'
Comparatives  single out one thing as having a unique quality or define a 
specific member in a set or group:
COMPARISON CBSE
132
Kolkatta is the largest city in India.
(Kolkatta is the city that is larger than any other city in India.)
India has produced many great cricketers but Sachin Tendulkar is the greatest.
India has produced many great cricketers but Sachin Tendulkar is greater 
than all of them.
Comparatives express choices and preferences:
I will have tea rather than coffee. (I find coffee too strong.)
Comparatives can also express attitudes:
Ali has as many as ten Limousines. 
(Very few people can afford to own one. Ali must be very rich!) 
Comparatives can also express an assumption.
Hyderabadi biryani is always the most delicious.
(Assumption: Biryani is delicious)
Walking is the least expensive kind of exercise.
(Assumption: There are many inexpensive types of exercise.)
Some comparatives occur before the noun they describe and some after.
India has produced many great cricketers but Sachin Tendulkar is the
greatest.
Comparatives can be very elaborate i.e. they can consist of several words and 
may appear to be sentences.
The palace was not as huge as I had imagined it would be.
Comparatives affect both adjectives and adverbs.
She is more beautiful than her sister. (adjective)
She sings more beautifully than her sister. (adverb)
•
•
•
•
•
•
CBSE
133
A.2 Study the table below and notice how the words of comparison are used.
Example
These mangoes are sweeter than those.
Ramesh Krishnan can run faster than 
Leander.
The Hero Honda is a more expensive 
motorcycle than the Kawasaki Bajaj.
White rice cooks more quickly than 
brown.
The sponge soaked up the water and 
became heavier.
Govind is happier than he used to be.
The red dress is nearly as good as the 
blue.
The President is the same age as the 
Prime Minister.
Kiran is not as heavy as Amber.
Swapna is not as friendly as her brother.
Travelling by bus is less expensive than
by train.
Geetesh works less enthusiastically than
his brother.
Ice-cream tastes better than Lassi.
Life in a village is worse than in a city.
Notes
-er for adjectives and adverbs of one 
syllable.
more….. than for adjectives and adverbs 
of two or more syllables
Adjectives of two syllables ending in 
-y take -ier form
Comparison with as… as Expresses 
equality (or near equality with words 
such as nearly, almost, about,  etc. )
We use not as + adjective or adverb and 
less + adjective or adverb.
Irregular comparative form
CBSE
134
Have you noticed that the above examples have expressions like as…as,
more…than, -er…than, the…-est or the most….? Why? Discuss with a partner. 
The examples in the followinExample
Adjective Comparative Superlative
tall tall(er) tall(est)
bright bright(er) brighter(est)
simple simple(r) simple(st)
clever clever(er) clever(est)
happy happi(er) happi(est)
busy busi(er) busi(est)
beautiful more beautiful most beautiful
dangerous more dangerous most dangerous
good better best
well better best
bad worse worst
ill worse worst
old elder/older eldest/older
far farther/further farthest/furthest
Adjective Comparative form Superlative form
Single syllable adjectives
Adjectives of two syllables
Adjectives ending in 'y'
Write your conclusions here:
CBSE
135
Adjectives  of more than two syllables 
Adjectives that do not have regular forms
Example: My partner is taller than me.
His family isn't as rich as mine.
1. ____________________________________________________________
2. ____________________________________________________________
3. ____________________________________________________________
4. ____________________________________________________________
5. ____________________________________________________________
6. ____________________________________________________________
Characteristics You (Write your name Your partner (Write 
here:_____________) his/her name
here:_____________)
Height
Weight
Age (years and months)
Hair
Number of members in the family
Distance of home from school
…
…
Now write six comparative sentences. Use the information in Table A.1 that you 
worked out with your partner.
A.3 Work with your partner and fill in the table with information about 
yourselves. You may add other characteristics, if you like. When you have 
finished, compare the results.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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