NCERT Textbook - Water Resources Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

NCERT Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

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Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Water Resources Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III
Chapter 6
WATER RESOURCES
Do you think that what exists today will
continue to be so, or the future is going to be
different in some respects? It can be said with
some certainty that the societies will witness
demographic transition, geographical shift of
population, technological advancement,
degradation of environment and water scarcity.
Water scarcity is possibly to pose the greatest
challenge on account of its increased demand
coupled with shrinking supplies due to over
utilisation and pollution. Water is a cyclic
resource with abundant supplies on the globe.
Approximately, 71 per cent of the earth’s
surface is covered with it but fresh water
constitutes only about 3 per cent of the total
water.  In fact, a very small proportion of fresh
water is effectively available for human use. The
availability of fresh water varies over space and
time. The tensions and disputes on sharing and
control of this scare resource are becoming
contested issues among communities, regions,
and states. The assessment, efficient use and
conservation of water, therefore, become
necessary to ensure development.  In this
chapter, we shall discuss water resources in
India, its geographical distribution, sectoral
utilisation, and methods of its conservation and
management.
Water Resources of India Water Resources of India Water Resources of India Water Resources of India Water Resources of India
India accounts for about 2.45 per cent of world’s
surface area, 4 per cent of the world’s water
resources and about 16 per cent of world’s
population. The total water available from
precipitation in the country in a year is about
4,000 cubic km. The availability from surface
water and replenishable groundwater is 1,869
cubic km. Out of this only 60 per cent can be
put to beneficial uses. Thus, the total utilisable
water resource in the country is only 1,122
cubic km.
Surface Water Resources
There are four major sources of surface water.
These are rivers, lakes, ponds, and tanks. In
the country, there are about 10,360 rivers
and their tributaries longer than 1.6 km each.
The mean annual flow in all the river basins
in India is estimated to be 1,869 cubic km.
2015-16
Page 2


Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III
Chapter 6
WATER RESOURCES
Do you think that what exists today will
continue to be so, or the future is going to be
different in some respects? It can be said with
some certainty that the societies will witness
demographic transition, geographical shift of
population, technological advancement,
degradation of environment and water scarcity.
Water scarcity is possibly to pose the greatest
challenge on account of its increased demand
coupled with shrinking supplies due to over
utilisation and pollution. Water is a cyclic
resource with abundant supplies on the globe.
Approximately, 71 per cent of the earth’s
surface is covered with it but fresh water
constitutes only about 3 per cent of the total
water.  In fact, a very small proportion of fresh
water is effectively available for human use. The
availability of fresh water varies over space and
time. The tensions and disputes on sharing and
control of this scare resource are becoming
contested issues among communities, regions,
and states. The assessment, efficient use and
conservation of water, therefore, become
necessary to ensure development.  In this
chapter, we shall discuss water resources in
India, its geographical distribution, sectoral
utilisation, and methods of its conservation and
management.
Water Resources of India Water Resources of India Water Resources of India Water Resources of India Water Resources of India
India accounts for about 2.45 per cent of world’s
surface area, 4 per cent of the world’s water
resources and about 16 per cent of world’s
population. The total water available from
precipitation in the country in a year is about
4,000 cubic km. The availability from surface
water and replenishable groundwater is 1,869
cubic km. Out of this only 60 per cent can be
put to beneficial uses. Thus, the total utilisable
water resource in the country is only 1,122
cubic km.
Surface Water Resources
There are four major sources of surface water.
These are rivers, lakes, ponds, and tanks. In
the country, there are about 10,360 rivers
and their tributaries longer than 1.6 km each.
The mean annual flow in all the river basins
in India is estimated to be 1,869 cubic km.
2015-16
harnessed, but it is yet to be done in the
Brahmaputra and the Ganga basins.
Groundwater Resources
The total replenishable groundwater
resources in the country are about 432 cubic
km. Table 6.1 shows that the Ganga and the
Brahamaputra basins, have about 46 per
cent of the total replenishable groundwater
resources. The level of groundwater
utilisation is relatively high in the river basins
lying in north-western region and parts of
south India.
The groundwater utilisation is very high
in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan,
and Tamil Nadu. However, there are States like
Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Kerala, etc., which utilise
only a small proportion of their groundwater
potentials. States like Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh,
Bihar, Tripura and Maharashtra are utilising
their ground water resources at a moderate
rate. If the present trend continues, the
However, due to topographical, hydrological
and other constraints, only about 690 cubic
km (32 per cent) of the available surface water
can be utilised. Water flow in a river depends
on size of its catchment area or river basin
and rainfall within its catchment area. You
have studied in your Class XI textbook “India
: Physical Environment” that precipitation in
India has very high spatial variation, and it is
mainly concentrated in Monsoon season. You
also have studied in the textbook that some
of the rivers in the country like the Ganga,
the Brahmaputra, and the Indus have huge
catchment areas. Given that precipitation is
relatively high in the catchment areas of the
Ganga, the Brahmaputra and the Barak
rivers, these rivers, although account for only
about one-third of the total area in the
country, have 60 per cent of the total surface
water resources. Much of the annual water
flow in south Indian rivers like the Godavari,
the Krishna, and the Kaveri has been
S. Name of Basin Total Replenishable Level of Groundwater
No. Ground Water Resources Utilisation (%)
1. Brahmani with Baitarni 4.05 8.45
2. Brahmaputra 26.55 3.37
3. Chambal Composite 7.19 40.09
4. Kaveri 12.3 55.33
5. Ganga 170.99 33.52
6. Godavari 40.65 19.53
7. Indus 26.49 77.71
8. Krishna 26.41 30.39
9. Kuchchh and Saurashtra including river Luni 11.23 51.14
10. Chennai and South Tamil Nadu 18.22 57.68
11. Mahanadi 16.46 6.95
12. Meghna (Barak & Others) 8.52 3.94
13. Narmada 10.83 21.74
14. Northeast Composite 18.84 17.2
15. Pennar 4.93 36.6
16. Subarnrekha 1.82 9.57
17. Tapi 8.27 33.05
18. Western Ghat 17.69 22.88
Total 431.42 31.97
Table 6.1 : Basinwise Ground water Potential and Utilisation in India (Cubic Km/Year)
Source: Ministry of Water Resources, Govt. of India, New Delhi;
http://wrmin.nic.in/resource/gwresource1.htm
Water Resources     61
2015-16
Page 3


Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III
Chapter 6
WATER RESOURCES
Do you think that what exists today will
continue to be so, or the future is going to be
different in some respects? It can be said with
some certainty that the societies will witness
demographic transition, geographical shift of
population, technological advancement,
degradation of environment and water scarcity.
Water scarcity is possibly to pose the greatest
challenge on account of its increased demand
coupled with shrinking supplies due to over
utilisation and pollution. Water is a cyclic
resource with abundant supplies on the globe.
Approximately, 71 per cent of the earth’s
surface is covered with it but fresh water
constitutes only about 3 per cent of the total
water.  In fact, a very small proportion of fresh
water is effectively available for human use. The
availability of fresh water varies over space and
time. The tensions and disputes on sharing and
control of this scare resource are becoming
contested issues among communities, regions,
and states. The assessment, efficient use and
conservation of water, therefore, become
necessary to ensure development.  In this
chapter, we shall discuss water resources in
India, its geographical distribution, sectoral
utilisation, and methods of its conservation and
management.
Water Resources of India Water Resources of India Water Resources of India Water Resources of India Water Resources of India
India accounts for about 2.45 per cent of world’s
surface area, 4 per cent of the world’s water
resources and about 16 per cent of world’s
population. The total water available from
precipitation in the country in a year is about
4,000 cubic km. The availability from surface
water and replenishable groundwater is 1,869
cubic km. Out of this only 60 per cent can be
put to beneficial uses. Thus, the total utilisable
water resource in the country is only 1,122
cubic km.
Surface Water Resources
There are four major sources of surface water.
These are rivers, lakes, ponds, and tanks. In
the country, there are about 10,360 rivers
and their tributaries longer than 1.6 km each.
The mean annual flow in all the river basins
in India is estimated to be 1,869 cubic km.
2015-16
harnessed, but it is yet to be done in the
Brahmaputra and the Ganga basins.
Groundwater Resources
The total replenishable groundwater
resources in the country are about 432 cubic
km. Table 6.1 shows that the Ganga and the
Brahamaputra basins, have about 46 per
cent of the total replenishable groundwater
resources. The level of groundwater
utilisation is relatively high in the river basins
lying in north-western region and parts of
south India.
The groundwater utilisation is very high
in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan,
and Tamil Nadu. However, there are States like
Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Kerala, etc., which utilise
only a small proportion of their groundwater
potentials. States like Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh,
Bihar, Tripura and Maharashtra are utilising
their ground water resources at a moderate
rate. If the present trend continues, the
However, due to topographical, hydrological
and other constraints, only about 690 cubic
km (32 per cent) of the available surface water
can be utilised. Water flow in a river depends
on size of its catchment area or river basin
and rainfall within its catchment area. You
have studied in your Class XI textbook “India
: Physical Environment” that precipitation in
India has very high spatial variation, and it is
mainly concentrated in Monsoon season. You
also have studied in the textbook that some
of the rivers in the country like the Ganga,
the Brahmaputra, and the Indus have huge
catchment areas. Given that precipitation is
relatively high in the catchment areas of the
Ganga, the Brahmaputra and the Barak
rivers, these rivers, although account for only
about one-third of the total area in the
country, have 60 per cent of the total surface
water resources. Much of the annual water
flow in south Indian rivers like the Godavari,
the Krishna, and the Kaveri has been
S. Name of Basin Total Replenishable Level of Groundwater
No. Ground Water Resources Utilisation (%)
1. Brahmani with Baitarni 4.05 8.45
2. Brahmaputra 26.55 3.37
3. Chambal Composite 7.19 40.09
4. Kaveri 12.3 55.33
5. Ganga 170.99 33.52
6. Godavari 40.65 19.53
7. Indus 26.49 77.71
8. Krishna 26.41 30.39
9. Kuchchh and Saurashtra including river Luni 11.23 51.14
10. Chennai and South Tamil Nadu 18.22 57.68
11. Mahanadi 16.46 6.95
12. Meghna (Barak & Others) 8.52 3.94
13. Narmada 10.83 21.74
14. Northeast Composite 18.84 17.2
15. Pennar 4.93 36.6
16. Subarnrekha 1.82 9.57
17. Tapi 8.27 33.05
18. Western Ghat 17.69 22.88
Total 431.42 31.97
Table 6.1 : Basinwise Ground water Potential and Utilisation in India (Cubic Km/Year)
Source: Ministry of Water Resources, Govt. of India, New Delhi;
http://wrmin.nic.in/resource/gwresource1.htm
Water Resources     61
2015-16
62 India : People and Economy
Fig. 6.1 : India – River Basins
2015-16
Page 4


Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III
Chapter 6
WATER RESOURCES
Do you think that what exists today will
continue to be so, or the future is going to be
different in some respects? It can be said with
some certainty that the societies will witness
demographic transition, geographical shift of
population, technological advancement,
degradation of environment and water scarcity.
Water scarcity is possibly to pose the greatest
challenge on account of its increased demand
coupled with shrinking supplies due to over
utilisation and pollution. Water is a cyclic
resource with abundant supplies on the globe.
Approximately, 71 per cent of the earth’s
surface is covered with it but fresh water
constitutes only about 3 per cent of the total
water.  In fact, a very small proportion of fresh
water is effectively available for human use. The
availability of fresh water varies over space and
time. The tensions and disputes on sharing and
control of this scare resource are becoming
contested issues among communities, regions,
and states. The assessment, efficient use and
conservation of water, therefore, become
necessary to ensure development.  In this
chapter, we shall discuss water resources in
India, its geographical distribution, sectoral
utilisation, and methods of its conservation and
management.
Water Resources of India Water Resources of India Water Resources of India Water Resources of India Water Resources of India
India accounts for about 2.45 per cent of world’s
surface area, 4 per cent of the world’s water
resources and about 16 per cent of world’s
population. The total water available from
precipitation in the country in a year is about
4,000 cubic km. The availability from surface
water and replenishable groundwater is 1,869
cubic km. Out of this only 60 per cent can be
put to beneficial uses. Thus, the total utilisable
water resource in the country is only 1,122
cubic km.
Surface Water Resources
There are four major sources of surface water.
These are rivers, lakes, ponds, and tanks. In
the country, there are about 10,360 rivers
and their tributaries longer than 1.6 km each.
The mean annual flow in all the river basins
in India is estimated to be 1,869 cubic km.
2015-16
harnessed, but it is yet to be done in the
Brahmaputra and the Ganga basins.
Groundwater Resources
The total replenishable groundwater
resources in the country are about 432 cubic
km. Table 6.1 shows that the Ganga and the
Brahamaputra basins, have about 46 per
cent of the total replenishable groundwater
resources. The level of groundwater
utilisation is relatively high in the river basins
lying in north-western region and parts of
south India.
The groundwater utilisation is very high
in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan,
and Tamil Nadu. However, there are States like
Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Kerala, etc., which utilise
only a small proportion of their groundwater
potentials. States like Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh,
Bihar, Tripura and Maharashtra are utilising
their ground water resources at a moderate
rate. If the present trend continues, the
However, due to topographical, hydrological
and other constraints, only about 690 cubic
km (32 per cent) of the available surface water
can be utilised. Water flow in a river depends
on size of its catchment area or river basin
and rainfall within its catchment area. You
have studied in your Class XI textbook “India
: Physical Environment” that precipitation in
India has very high spatial variation, and it is
mainly concentrated in Monsoon season. You
also have studied in the textbook that some
of the rivers in the country like the Ganga,
the Brahmaputra, and the Indus have huge
catchment areas. Given that precipitation is
relatively high in the catchment areas of the
Ganga, the Brahmaputra and the Barak
rivers, these rivers, although account for only
about one-third of the total area in the
country, have 60 per cent of the total surface
water resources. Much of the annual water
flow in south Indian rivers like the Godavari,
the Krishna, and the Kaveri has been
S. Name of Basin Total Replenishable Level of Groundwater
No. Ground Water Resources Utilisation (%)
1. Brahmani with Baitarni 4.05 8.45
2. Brahmaputra 26.55 3.37
3. Chambal Composite 7.19 40.09
4. Kaveri 12.3 55.33
5. Ganga 170.99 33.52
6. Godavari 40.65 19.53
7. Indus 26.49 77.71
8. Krishna 26.41 30.39
9. Kuchchh and Saurashtra including river Luni 11.23 51.14
10. Chennai and South Tamil Nadu 18.22 57.68
11. Mahanadi 16.46 6.95
12. Meghna (Barak & Others) 8.52 3.94
13. Narmada 10.83 21.74
14. Northeast Composite 18.84 17.2
15. Pennar 4.93 36.6
16. Subarnrekha 1.82 9.57
17. Tapi 8.27 33.05
18. Western Ghat 17.69 22.88
Total 431.42 31.97
Table 6.1 : Basinwise Ground water Potential and Utilisation in India (Cubic Km/Year)
Source: Ministry of Water Resources, Govt. of India, New Delhi;
http://wrmin.nic.in/resource/gwresource1.htm
Water Resources     61
2015-16
62 India : People and Economy
Fig. 6.1 : India – River Basins
2015-16
Water Resources     63
demands for water would need the supplies.
And such situation, will be detrimental to
development, and can cause social upheaval
and disruptions.
Exercise based on Table 6.1 :
1. Which river basin has the highest total
replenishable ground water resource?
2. In which river basin is the level of ground
water utilisation the highest?
3. Which river basin has the lowest total
replenishable ground water resource?
4. In which river basin is the level of ground
water utilisation the lowest?
5. Draw a bar diagram to show the total
replenishable ground water resources
in 10 major river basins.
6. Draw a bar diagram to show the levels
of ground water utilisation of the same
10 major river basins for which you have
made the first bar diagram.
Kerala, Odisha and West Bengal have vast
surface water resources in these lagoons and
lakes.  Although, water is generally brackish in
these water-bodies, it is used for fishing and
irrigating certain varieties of paddy crops,
coconut, etc.
Water Demand and Utilisation
India has traditionally been an agrarian
economy, and about two-third of its population
have been dependent on agriculture. Hence,
development of irrigation to increase agricultural
production has been assigned a very high
priority in the Five Year Plans, and multipurpose
river valleys projects like the Bhakra-Nangal,
Hirakud, Damodar Valley, Nagarjuna Sagar,
Indira Gandhi Canal Project, etc. have been taken
up. In fact, India’s water demand at present is
dominated by irrigational needs.
As shown in Fig. 6.2 and 6.3, agriculture
accounts for most of the surface and ground
water utilisation, it accounts for 89 per cent of
the surface water and 92 per cent of the
groundwater utilisation. While the share of
industrial sector is limited to 2 per cent of the
surface water utilisation and 5 per cent of the
ground-water, the share of domestic sector is
higher (9 per cent) in surface water utilisation
as compared to groundwater. The share of
Fig. 6.2 : Sectoral Usage of Surface Water
Source: Earth Trend 2001, World Resource Institute, as given in Govt. of India (2002) Report
Lagoons and Backwaters
India has a vast coastline and the coast is very
indented in some states. Due to this, a number
of lagoons and lakes have formed. The States like
Fig. 6.3 : Sectoral Usage of Groundwater
2015-16
Page 5


Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III Unit III
Chapter 6
WATER RESOURCES
Do you think that what exists today will
continue to be so, or the future is going to be
different in some respects? It can be said with
some certainty that the societies will witness
demographic transition, geographical shift of
population, technological advancement,
degradation of environment and water scarcity.
Water scarcity is possibly to pose the greatest
challenge on account of its increased demand
coupled with shrinking supplies due to over
utilisation and pollution. Water is a cyclic
resource with abundant supplies on the globe.
Approximately, 71 per cent of the earth’s
surface is covered with it but fresh water
constitutes only about 3 per cent of the total
water.  In fact, a very small proportion of fresh
water is effectively available for human use. The
availability of fresh water varies over space and
time. The tensions and disputes on sharing and
control of this scare resource are becoming
contested issues among communities, regions,
and states. The assessment, efficient use and
conservation of water, therefore, become
necessary to ensure development.  In this
chapter, we shall discuss water resources in
India, its geographical distribution, sectoral
utilisation, and methods of its conservation and
management.
Water Resources of India Water Resources of India Water Resources of India Water Resources of India Water Resources of India
India accounts for about 2.45 per cent of world’s
surface area, 4 per cent of the world’s water
resources and about 16 per cent of world’s
population. The total water available from
precipitation in the country in a year is about
4,000 cubic km. The availability from surface
water and replenishable groundwater is 1,869
cubic km. Out of this only 60 per cent can be
put to beneficial uses. Thus, the total utilisable
water resource in the country is only 1,122
cubic km.
Surface Water Resources
There are four major sources of surface water.
These are rivers, lakes, ponds, and tanks. In
the country, there are about 10,360 rivers
and their tributaries longer than 1.6 km each.
The mean annual flow in all the river basins
in India is estimated to be 1,869 cubic km.
2015-16
harnessed, but it is yet to be done in the
Brahmaputra and the Ganga basins.
Groundwater Resources
The total replenishable groundwater
resources in the country are about 432 cubic
km. Table 6.1 shows that the Ganga and the
Brahamaputra basins, have about 46 per
cent of the total replenishable groundwater
resources. The level of groundwater
utilisation is relatively high in the river basins
lying in north-western region and parts of
south India.
The groundwater utilisation is very high
in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan,
and Tamil Nadu. However, there are States like
Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Kerala, etc., which utilise
only a small proportion of their groundwater
potentials. States like Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh,
Bihar, Tripura and Maharashtra are utilising
their ground water resources at a moderate
rate. If the present trend continues, the
However, due to topographical, hydrological
and other constraints, only about 690 cubic
km (32 per cent) of the available surface water
can be utilised. Water flow in a river depends
on size of its catchment area or river basin
and rainfall within its catchment area. You
have studied in your Class XI textbook “India
: Physical Environment” that precipitation in
India has very high spatial variation, and it is
mainly concentrated in Monsoon season. You
also have studied in the textbook that some
of the rivers in the country like the Ganga,
the Brahmaputra, and the Indus have huge
catchment areas. Given that precipitation is
relatively high in the catchment areas of the
Ganga, the Brahmaputra and the Barak
rivers, these rivers, although account for only
about one-third of the total area in the
country, have 60 per cent of the total surface
water resources. Much of the annual water
flow in south Indian rivers like the Godavari,
the Krishna, and the Kaveri has been
S. Name of Basin Total Replenishable Level of Groundwater
No. Ground Water Resources Utilisation (%)
1. Brahmani with Baitarni 4.05 8.45
2. Brahmaputra 26.55 3.37
3. Chambal Composite 7.19 40.09
4. Kaveri 12.3 55.33
5. Ganga 170.99 33.52
6. Godavari 40.65 19.53
7. Indus 26.49 77.71
8. Krishna 26.41 30.39
9. Kuchchh and Saurashtra including river Luni 11.23 51.14
10. Chennai and South Tamil Nadu 18.22 57.68
11. Mahanadi 16.46 6.95
12. Meghna (Barak & Others) 8.52 3.94
13. Narmada 10.83 21.74
14. Northeast Composite 18.84 17.2
15. Pennar 4.93 36.6
16. Subarnrekha 1.82 9.57
17. Tapi 8.27 33.05
18. Western Ghat 17.69 22.88
Total 431.42 31.97
Table 6.1 : Basinwise Ground water Potential and Utilisation in India (Cubic Km/Year)
Source: Ministry of Water Resources, Govt. of India, New Delhi;
http://wrmin.nic.in/resource/gwresource1.htm
Water Resources     61
2015-16
62 India : People and Economy
Fig. 6.1 : India – River Basins
2015-16
Water Resources     63
demands for water would need the supplies.
And such situation, will be detrimental to
development, and can cause social upheaval
and disruptions.
Exercise based on Table 6.1 :
1. Which river basin has the highest total
replenishable ground water resource?
2. In which river basin is the level of ground
water utilisation the highest?
3. Which river basin has the lowest total
replenishable ground water resource?
4. In which river basin is the level of ground
water utilisation the lowest?
5. Draw a bar diagram to show the total
replenishable ground water resources
in 10 major river basins.
6. Draw a bar diagram to show the levels
of ground water utilisation of the same
10 major river basins for which you have
made the first bar diagram.
Kerala, Odisha and West Bengal have vast
surface water resources in these lagoons and
lakes.  Although, water is generally brackish in
these water-bodies, it is used for fishing and
irrigating certain varieties of paddy crops,
coconut, etc.
Water Demand and Utilisation
India has traditionally been an agrarian
economy, and about two-third of its population
have been dependent on agriculture. Hence,
development of irrigation to increase agricultural
production has been assigned a very high
priority in the Five Year Plans, and multipurpose
river valleys projects like the Bhakra-Nangal,
Hirakud, Damodar Valley, Nagarjuna Sagar,
Indira Gandhi Canal Project, etc. have been taken
up. In fact, India’s water demand at present is
dominated by irrigational needs.
As shown in Fig. 6.2 and 6.3, agriculture
accounts for most of the surface and ground
water utilisation, it accounts for 89 per cent of
the surface water and 92 per cent of the
groundwater utilisation. While the share of
industrial sector is limited to 2 per cent of the
surface water utilisation and 5 per cent of the
ground-water, the share of domestic sector is
higher (9 per cent) in surface water utilisation
as compared to groundwater. The share of
Fig. 6.2 : Sectoral Usage of Surface Water
Source: Earth Trend 2001, World Resource Institute, as given in Govt. of India (2002) Report
Lagoons and Backwaters
India has a vast coastline and the coast is very
indented in some states. Due to this, a number
of lagoons and lakes have formed. The States like
Fig. 6.3 : Sectoral Usage of Groundwater
2015-16
64 India : People and Economy
agricultural sector in total water utilisation is
much higher than other sectors. However, in
future, with development, the shares of
industrial and domestic sectors in the country
are likely to increase.
Demand of Water for Irrigation
In agriculture, water is mainly used for
irrigation. Irrigation is needed because of
spatio-temporal variability in rainfall in the
country. The large tracts of the country are
deficient in rainfall and are drought prone.
North-western India and Deccan plateau
constitute such areas. Winter and summer
seasons are more or less dry in most part of
the country. Hence, it is difficult to practise
agriculture without assured irrigation during
dry seasons. Even in the areas of ample
rainfall like West Bengal and Bihar, breaks
in monsoon or its failure creates dry spells
detrimental for agriculture. Water need of
certain crops also makes irrigation necessary.
For instance, water requirement of rice,
sugarcane, jute, etc. is very high which can
be met only through irrigation.
Provision of irrigation makes multiple
cropping possible. It has also been found that
irrigated lands have higher agricultural
productivity than unirrigated land. Further, the
high yielding varieties of crops need regular
moisture supply, which is made possible only
by a developed irrigation systems. In fact, this
is why that green revolution strategy of
agriculture development in the country has
largely been successful in Punjab, Haryana and
western Uttar Pradesh.
Fig. 6.4 : The Ganga and its Tributaries and Towns Located on them
2015-16
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Complete Syllabus of Humanities/Arts

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NCERT Textbook - Water Resources Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

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