Easy Level
These questions are targeted to improve your knowledge of basic concepts, though easy questions are rare in CAT. These are extremely important for conceptual understanding at the foundation level.
Directions for Example 1 to 4 and Question 1: (Question Category: Matching Puzzle) Study the following information and answer the questions that follow:
(i) Six picture cards P, Q, R, S, T and U are framed in six different colours – blue, red green, grey yellow and brown and are arranged from left to right (not necessarily in the same order).
(ii) The pictures are of the king, princess, queen, palace, joker and prince.
(iii) The picture of the palace is in the blue colour frame but is not on card S and card P which is of the queen is in the brown frame and is placed at the extreme right.
(iv) The picture of the princess is neither on card S nor on card T and is not in either the green or the yellow frame. Card R has a picture of the king in a grey frame and it is fifth from the right and next to card Q having the picture of the prince.
Question for Practice Questions: Seating Arrangements
Try yourself:If the princess’s card is immediately between the cards of the palace and the prince, then at what number is the joker’s card placed from left?
Explanation
- For this question start by using direct clues first. We know that there are six cards P, Q, R, S, T, U; six colours—blue, red, green, grey, yellow and brown and, six pictures— King, Princess, Queen, Palace, Joker and Prince.
- The following set of deductions gives us the entire solution to the problem.
- The second part of the third statement is the most directly usable → P-Brown-Queen-Extreme right.
- We also know that R-King-Grey-Fifth from Right (ivth statement).
- Also, Q being next to R, the following arrangements are possible.
- From this point, we start using indirect clues.
From statement (iii), Palace-Blue-Not S → Hence T or U Further, from statement (iv), Princess — Not S and not T, → Not Green or Yellow → Hence, Red and U. This further gives us Palace —T-Blue. - Hence, S must be the joker (the only pair left). Also, green and yellow must be shared between Q and S.
Thus, the following pairings emerge:
► P — Brown — Queen
► Q — Green/Yellow — Prince
► R — Grey — King
► S — Yellow/Green —Joker
► T — Blue —Palace
► U — Red — Princess - For the Princess card (U) to be immediately between the Palace (T) and the Prince (Q), Possibility Table 2 must emerge to be the correct one.
- In such a case, the arrangement of cards becomes S R Q U T P.
- Hence the Joker’s cards must be at the extreme left. Option (c) is correct.
Question for Practice Questions: Seating Arrangements
Try yourself:Which is the correct combination of card and frame colours?
Explanation
- For this question, start by using direct clues first. We know that there are six cards P, Q, R, S, T, U; six colours—blue, red, green, grey, yellow and brown and, six pictures— King, Princess, Queen, Palace, Joker and Prince. The following set of deductions gives us the entire solution to the problem.
- The second part of the third statement is the most directly usable → P-Brown-Queen-Extreme right.
- We also know that R-King-Grey-Fifth from Right (ivth statement). Also, Q being next to R, the following arrangements are possible:
- From this point, we start using indirect clues.
- From statement (iii), Palace-Blue-Not S → Hence T or U Further, from statement (iv), Princess — Not S and not T, → Not Green or Yellow → Hence, Red and U. This further gives us Palace —T-Blue.
- Hence, S must be the joker (the only pair left). Also, green and yellow must be shared between Q and S.
Thus, the following pairings emerge:
► P — Brown — Queen
► Q — Green/Yellow — Prince
► R — Grey — King
► S — Yellow/Green —Joker
► T — Blue —Palace
► U — Red — Princess
► U-Red is correct. Option (b) is correct.
Question for Practice Questions: Seating Arrangements
Try yourself:The picture of the palace is printed on which card?
Explanation
- For this question, start by using direct clues first. We know that there are six cards P, Q, R, S, T, U; six colours—blue, red, green, grey, yellow and brown and, six pictures— King, Princess, Queen, Palace, Joker and Prince. The following set of deductions gives us the entire solution to the problem.
- The second part of the third statement is the most directly usable → P-Brown-Queen-Extreme right.
- We also know that R-King-Grey-Fifth from Right (ivth statement). Also, Q being next to R, the following arrangements are possible:
- From this point, we start using the indirect clues.
- From statement (iii), Palace-Blue-Not S → Hence T or U Further, from statement (iv), Princess — Not S and not T, → Not Green or Yellow → Hence, Red and U. This further gives us Palace —T-Blue.
- Hence, S must be the joker (the only pair left). Also, green and yellow must be shared between Q and S.
Thus, the following pairings emerge:
► P — Brown — Queen
► Q — Green/Yellow — Prince
► R — Grey — King
► S — Yellow/Green —Joker
► T — Blue —Palace
► U — Red — Princess
The Palace is on Card T. Option (b) is correct.
Question for Practice Questions: Seating Arrangements
Try yourself:If the photo frame of the prince and joker is interchanged, then the colour of the frame of the prince is:
Explanation
- For this question, start by using direct clues first. We know that there are six cards P, Q, R, S, T, U; six colours—blue, red, green, grey, yellow and brown and, six pictures— King, Princess, Queen, Palace, Joker and Prince. The following set of deductions gives us the entire solution to the problem.
- The second part of the third statement is the most directly usable → P-Brown-Queen-Extreme right. We also know that R-King-Grey-Fifth from Right (ivth statement).
- Also, Q being next to R, the following arrangements are possible:
- From this point, we start using indirect clues.
- From statement (iii), Palace-Blue-Not S → Hence T or U Further, from statement (iv), Princess — Not S and not T, → Not Green or Yellow → Hence, Red and U. This further gives us Palace —T-Blue.
- Hence, S must be the joker (the only pair left). Also, green and yellow must be shared between Q and S. Thus, the following pairings emerge:
► P — Brown — Queen
► Q — Green/Yellow — Prince
► R — Grey — King
► S — Yellow/Green —Joker
► T — Blue —Palace
► U — Red — Princess
Data remains inadequate since we do not know which colour is for which card. Option (d) is correct
Question for Practice Questions: Seating Arrangements
Try yourself:The picture of the joker is in which colour frame?
Explanation
For this question, start by using the direct clues first. We know that there are six cards P, Q, R, S, T, U; six colours—blue, red, green, grey, yellow and brown and, six pictures— King, Princess, Queen, Palace, Joker and Prince. The following set of deductions gives us the entire solution of the problem.
The second part of the third statement is the most directly usable → P-Brown-Queen-Extreme right. We also know that R-King-Grey-Fifth from Right (ivth statement). Also Q being next to R, the following arrangements are possible
From this point we start using the indirect clues.
From statement (iii), Palace-Blue-Not S → Hence T or U Further, from statement (iv), Princess — Not S and not T, → Not Green or Yellow → Hence, Red and U. This further gives us Palace —T-Blue.
Hence, S must be the joker (only pair left). Also, green and yellow must be shared between Q and S. Thus, the following pairings emerge:
P — Brown — Queen
Q — Green/Yellow — Prince
R — Grey — King
S — Yellow/Green —Joker
T — Blue —Palace
U — Red — Princess
Data inadequate since we don’t know whether the Joker is yellow or green. Option (d) is correct.
Directions for Q. 5, 6 and Question 2: Study the following information and answer the questions that follow:
A company is planning to organise 8 lectures—A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H for 3 subjects—Quants, D.I. and English. The lectures are spread over three days. Quants is to be covered first in 3 lectures followed by English and then D.I. in 2 lectures. Lectures A, C and D have to be different days. (Lectures B and F have to be on the same day), but lecture B cannot be clubbed with A or G or D. Lecture G and H should come on the same day. Lecture A is a lecture on Quants and Lecture C cannot be on the last day. It is also known that there are at least 3 lectures on day 1.
Question for Practice Questions: Seating Arrangements
Try yourself:Which combination of lectures was arranged on the second day of the series?
Explanation
Given that A, C and D have to be separate and that A is Quants, and C cannot be on the last day. Also that there are 3 lectures (at least) on day 1, the order of A, C and D must be
- Further B cannot be clubbed with A or D, hence must be on the second day.
- Thus F must also be on the same day. This gives us the following table.
- This leaves us with G, H and E. Since, Day 1 has to have at least 3 lectures, G and H must be on day 1.
- This leaves us with E, which can be placed on either day 1 or 2 or 3.
Thus, the final table is:
- The data is inadequate since we do not know whether E was on Day 2 or not. Option (d) is correct.
Question for Practice Questions: Seating Arrangements
Try yourself:Which of the following lectures were for D.I.?
Explanation
Given that A, C and D have to be separate and that A is Quants, and C cannot be on the last day. Also that there are 3 lectures (at least) on day 1, the order of A, C and D must be
- Further B cannot be clubbed with A or D, hence must be on the second day.
- Thus F must also be on the same day. This gives us the following table.
- This leaves us with G, H and E. Since, Day 1 has to have at least 3 lectures, G and H must be on day 1.
- This leaves us with E, which can be placed on either day 1 or 2 or 3.
Thus, the final table is:
- Again, the data is inadequate since we do not know for sure which the last 2 lectures were. Option (d) is correct.
Question for Practice Questions: Seating Arrangements
Try yourself:Which of the following pairs of lectures can go along with lecture ‘A’ on Quants?
Explanation
Given that A, C and D have to be separate and that A is Quants, and C cannot be on the last day. Also that there are 3 lectures (at least) on day 1, the order of A, C and D must be
Further B cannot be clubbed with A or D, hence must be on the second day. Thus F must also be on the same day. This gives us the following table.
This leaves us with G, H and E. Since, Day 1 has to have at least 3 lectures, G and H must be on day 1. This leaves us with E, which can be placed on either day 1 or 2 or 3. Thus, the final table is:
G, H. Option (b) is correct
Directions for Q. 7, 8 & Question 3: Five courses — A, B, C, D and E, each of one-month duration are to be taught from January to May one after the other though not necessarily in the same order by lecturers P, Q, R, S and T. P teaches course ‘B’ but not in the month of April or May. Q teaches course ‘A’ in the month of March. R teaches in the month of January but does not teach course ‘C’ or ‘D’.
Question for Practice Questions: Seating Arrangements
Try yourself:Which lecturer’s course immediately follows course B?
Explanation
Using the three clues, we get the following pairings:
► P — B — Not April or May
► Q — A — March
► R—Not C or D — January
Put them together to get the following table:
This leaves S and T to be teaching either C or D and either in April or May.
Course B occurs in February. Hence, we need to look for who is teaching in March. The answer to the question is Lecturer Q. Option (a) is correct
Question for Practice Questions: Seating Arrangements
Try yourself:Which course is taught in the month of January?
Explanation
Using the three clues, we get the following pairings:
► P — B — Not April or May
► Q — A — March
► R—Not C or D — January
Put them together to get the following table:
This leaves S and T to be teaching either C or D and either in April or May.
In January, Course E is taught. Option (c) is correct
Question for Practice Questions: Seating Arrangements
Try yourself:Which course is taught by S?
Explanation
Using the three clues we get the following pairings:
P — B — Not April or May
Q — A — March
R—Not C or D — January
Put them together to get the following table
This leaves S and T to be teaching either C or D and either in April or May.
We do not know who teaches C or D (between S & T). Hence Option (c) is correct.
Medium Level
Directions for Q.9 to 11 and Question 4: The annual gathering of a college was organised on a day. Six different programmes—drama, singing, mimicry, speech, story-telling and dance are to be performed by six students A, B, C, D, E and F, not necessarily in the same order. The programme begins with a song not sung by B and ends with a dance. C performs mimicry immediately after the speech. E performs drama just before the dance. D or F are not available for the last performance. The speech is not given by A. An interval of 30 minutes is given immediately after mimicry with three more items remaining to be performed. D performs immediately after the interval.
Question for Practice Questions: Seating Arrangements
Try yourself:Who performed the dance?
Explanation
- The first two statements are just introductions to the situation. Going ahead from third statement onwards, the following chain of thoughts should arise.
- At this stage, use Statement 4 to get the following figure.
- Since speech comes before mimicry, storytelling comes after mimicry.
- Song Speech Mimicry Storytelling Drama Dance C D E
- The unused clues at this stage are (B not song): (F not last), (A not speech). Using them does not give a definite placement for any of A, B or F.
- Hence, Either A or B. Option (c) is correct.
Question for Practice Questions: Seating Arrangements
Try yourself:Who was the first performer?
Explanation
- The first two statements are just introductions to the situation. Going ahead from third statement onwards, the following chain of thoughts should arise.
- At this stage, use Statement 4 to get the following figure.
- Since speech comes before mimicry, storytelling comes after mimicry.
- Song Speech Mimicry Storytelling Drama Dance C D E
- The unused clues at this stage are (B not song): (F not last), (A not speech). Using them does not give a definite placement for any of A, B or F.
- Hence, Can be either A or F. Hence, data inadequate. Option (d) is correct
Question for Practice Questions: Seating Arrangements
Try yourself:Who was the last performer?
Explanation
- The first two statements are just introductions to the situation. Going ahead from third statement onwards, the following chain of thoughts should arise.
- At this stage, use Statement 4 to get the following figure.
- Since speech comes before mimicry, storytelling comes after mimicry.
- Song Speech Mimicry Storytelling Drama Dance C D E
- The unused clues at this stage are (B not song): (F not last), (A not speech). Using them does not give a definite placement for any of A, B or F.
- Hence, Again could be A or B. Hence, data inadequate. Option (d) is correct
Question for Practice Questions: Seating Arrangements
Try yourself:Which item is performed by F?
Explanation
The first two statements are just introductions to the situation. Going ahead from third statement onwards, the following chain of thoughts should arise.
At this stage, use Statement 4 to get the following figure. Since speech comes before mimicry, storytelling comes after mimicry. Song Speech Mimicry Storytelling Drama Dance C D E The unused clues at this stage are (B not song): (F not last), (A not speech). Using them does not give a definite placement for any of A, B or F. Hence, Data inadequate, since F can be either song or speech. Option (d) is correct.
Directions for Q. 12, 13 & Question 5: Six persons—Akshay, Bobby, Celina, Dimple, Esha and Faisal took up a job with XYZ Consultants in a week from Monday to Saturday. Each of them joined for different posts on different days. The posts were of Clerk, Officer, Technician, Manager, Supervisor and Sales Executive, though not in the same order. Faisal joined as a Manager on the first day. Bobby joined as a Supervisor but neither on Wednesday nor Friday. Dimple joined as a Technician on Thursday. The officer joined the firm on Wednesday. Esha joined as a clerk on Tuesday. Akshay joined as a Sales Executive.
Question for Practice Questions: Seating Arrangements
Try yourself:Who was the last to join the firm?
Explanation
Basic information: Six persons A, B, C, D, E & F on six days, Monday to Saturday; six posts — Clerk (C), Officer (O), Technician (T), Manager (M), Supervisor (S) and Sales Executive (SE).
The second paragraph gives the clues directly to fit in the following table:
We also know that the officer joined on Wednesday. It can only be Celina (C).
Thus, the table will look like:
⇒ Bobby (c)
Question for Practice Questions: Seating Arrangements
Try yourself:On which of the following days did the Sales Executive join?
Explanation
Basic information: Six persons A, B, C, D, E & F on six days, Monday to Saturday; six posts — Clerk (C), Officer (O), Technician (T), Manager (M), Supervisor (S) and Sales Executive (SE).
The second paragraph gives the clues directly to fit in the following table:
We also know that the officer joined on Wednesday. It can only be Celina (C).
Thus, the table will look like:
⇒ Friday (b)
Question for Practice Questions: Seating Arrangements
Try yourself:Who joined the firm on Wednesday?
Explanation
Basic information: Six persons A, B, C, D, E & F on six days, Monday to Saturday; six posts — Clerk (C), Officer (O), Technician (T), Manager (M), Supervisor (S) and Sales Executive (SE). The second paragraph gives the clues directly to fit in the following table:
We also know that the officer joined on Wednesday. It can only be Celina (C). Thus, the table will look like:
Celina (b)
Directions for Q. 14, 15 and Question 6:
(i) Six friends A, B, C, D, E and F are sitting along the sides of a hexagonal table for playing a game, though not necessarily in the same order.
(ii) F, who is sitting exactly opposite A, is to the immediate right of B.
(iii) D is between A and B and is exactly opposite to C.
Question for Practice Questions: Seating Arrangements
Try yourself:Who is sitting opposite B?
Explanation
The arrangement is:
Question for Practice Questions: Seating Arrangements
Try yourself:Three of the following are alike in a certain way on the basis of sitting positions and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to the group?
Explanation
The arrangement is:
Question for Practice Questions: Seating Arrangements
Try yourself:Who are the people sitting next to A?
Explanation
The arrangement is:
Hard Level
Directions for Q. 16, 17 and Question 7, 8: A group of five boys—Abdul, Bony, Chandan, Devdas and Eram, and a group of five girls—Paro, Queen, Reena, Saifali and Tulika are standing in rows facing each other (not in the same order). The group of girls is facing north. Eram is not at any of the ends. Chandan is to the immediate right of Bony and Devdas is to the immediate left of Abdul, who is facing Paro. There are as many girls between Paro and Queen as between Reena and Saifali. Abdul is second to the left of Bony. Saifali and Reena are not facing either Bony or Devdas.
Question for Practice Questions: Seating Arrangements
Try yourself:Which of the following is definitely true?
Explanation
Since Chandan-Bony (C-B) and Abdul-Devdas (A-D) are definitely next to each other in that order (note: C is to the right of B will be represented by C-B when they are facing South), Eram (E) will definitely be in the centre place (as he is not at the end).
This gives us two possible arrangements for the men:
(i) C B E A D or
(ii) A D E C is not possible since Abdul has to be second to Bony’s left. Thus the arrangement is:
(Where Paro, Queen, Reena, Saifali and Tulika are represented by P, Q, R, S, T respectively) The answer is: (d)
Question for Practice Questions: Seating Arrangements
Try yourself:Who is standing to the immediate right of Abdul?
Explanation
Since Chandan-Bony (C-B) and Abdul-Devdas (A-D) are definitely next to each other in that order (note: C is to the right of B will be represented by C-B when they are facing South), Eram (E) will definitely be in the centre place (as he is not at the end).
This gives us two possible arrangements for the men:
(i) C B E A D or
(ii) A D E C B is not possible since Abdul has to be second to Bony’s left.
Thus the arrangement is:
(Where Paro, Queen, Reena, Saifali and Tulika are represented by P, Q, R, S, T respectively) The answer is: (a) Eram
Question for Practice Questions: Seating Arrangements
Try yourself:Which pair of boys is standing at the ends of the row?
Explanation
Since Chandan-Bony (C-B) and Abdul-Devdas (A-D) are definitely next to each other in that order (note: C is to the right of B will be represented by C-B when they are facing South), Eram (E) will definitely be in the centre place (as he is not at the end).
This gives us two possible arrangements for the men:
(1) C B E A D or (2) A D E C B
(2) is not possible since Abdul has to be second to Bony’s left. Thus the arrangement is:
(Where Paro, Queen, Reena, Saifali and Tulika are represented by P, Q, R, S, T respectively) The answer is: Chandan and Devdas (a)
Question for Practice Questions: Seating Arrangements
Try yourself:Who is facing Bony?
Explanation
Since Chandan-Bony (C-B) and Abdul-Devdas (A-D) are definitely next to each other in that order (note: C is to the right of B will be represented by C-B when they are facing South), Eram (E) will definitely be in the centre place (as he is not at the end).
This gives us two possible arrangements for the men:
(1) C B E A D or (2) A D E C B
(2) is not possible since Abdul has to be second to Bony’s left. Thus the arrangement is:
(Where Paro, Queen, Reena, Saifali and Tulika are represented by P, Q, R, S, T respectively) The answer is: (c) Queen