Q.1. Explain any two features of Intensive Subsistence farming. 
Ans. Two features of Intensive Subsistence farming are:
(i) It is practised in densely populated area.
(ii) It involves high degree of use of bio-chemical inputs and irrigation.
Q.2. Give one example of the main commercial crop cultivable in laterite soil. [Delhi 2020]
Ans. Commercial crops- Cashewnuts / Oilseeds / Tea / Coffee / Rubber / Coconut
Q.3. Write the temperature requirement of Maize crop. 
Ans. It requires the temperature range between 21°C - 27°C.
Q.4. Complete the following table with correct information for A and B: 
Annual rainfall required
Temperature required for its growth (in degrees)
A - ?
Hot and Humid
B - ?
Ans. A-75cm to 100 cm
B-21° to 27°C
Q.5. By which name is specialised cultivation of fruits and vegetables known? 
Q.6. Describe 'Jhumming cultivation' in one sentence. 
Ans. Jhumming cultivation, also known as the slash and burn agriculture, is the process of growing crops by first clearing the land of trees and vegetation and burning them thereafter.
Q.7. Which factors has helped Punjab and Haryana to grow more and more of rice? 
Ans. Development of dense canal network and inputs like fertilisers and pesticides.
Q.8. Which is the leading coffee producing state in India? 
Q.9. What is the importance of millets? 
Ans. In addition to their good nutritional value, an important feature of these crops is that they require much less water to grow than rice and wheat. They can be successfully cultivated in semi-arid tropics and on poor soils
Q.1. Explain any three institutional reforms taken for the development of Indian agriculture. 
Ans. The institutional reforms introduced by the Government, to help the farmers are given below.
(i) Crop insurance was provided for disease, fire, cyclone, flood, and drought.
(ii) To provide loans to farmers at low interest rates, banks, cooperative societies, grameen banks were established.
(iii) For the benefit of farmers, some of the schemes introduced were the Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS), Kissan Credit Card (KCC).
(iv) To help the farmers, special agricultural programmes and special weather bulletins were introduced on television and radio.
(v) To check exploitation of farmers by middlemen and speculators, procurement and remunerative prices, minimum support price was introduced by the Government for many important crops
Q.2. Describe any three main features of ‘Rabi crop season.’ [Delhi 2020, 2019]
Ans. (a) Rabi crops are also known as winter crops. They are sown from October to December and harvested from April to June.
(b) Wheat, barley, pea, gram and mustard are the important rabi crops. Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh are the important producers of rabi crops.
(c) Availability of precipitation during winter months due to the western disturbances helps in the success i of these crops. However, the success of the green revolution in Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh ; and parts of Rajasthan has also been an important factor in the growth of the above mentioned rabi crops.
Q.3. Describe any three main features of 'Kharif crop season.’ [Delhi 2019]
Ans. (i) Kharif crops are also known as summer crops. They are sown at the beginning of monsoon and harvested in September-October.
(ii) Paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur, moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and soybean are important kharif crops. Assam, West Bengal, coastal regions of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar are important rice growing states.
(iii) In Assam, West Bengal and Odisha; three crops of paddy are grown in a year. These are called Aus, Aman and Boro.
Q.4. Describe the geographical conditions required for rubber cultivation. [2019 C]
Ans. Rubber is a crop that is primarily grown in equatorial regions, but it can also be cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions. The geographical conditions required for rubber cultivation are as follows:
Q.5. Categorise the following as 'Rabi crops' and 'Zaid crops': [Al 2019]
(i) Wheat - Rabi crop
(ii) Watermelon - Zaid crop
(iii) Fodder crops - Rabi crop
(iv) Mustard - Rabi crop
(v) Cucumber - Zaid crop
(vi) Peas - Rabi crop
Q.6. Describe the geographical conditions required for tea cultivation. [2019 C]
Ans. The geographical conditions required for tea cultivation are as follows:
(a) Temperature: Tea bushes require a hot and wet climate. The ideal temperature range for their growth is between 20°C to 30°C. Extreme temperatures below 10°C and above 35°C can be harmful to the plants.
(b) Rainfall: Tea plants need a good amount of rainfall ranging between 150-300 cm. The annual rainfall should be well-distributed throughout the year, as long dry spells can be detrimental to tea cultivation
(c) Soil: Tea bushes thrive in well-drained, deep, and loamy soil. The presence of humus and iron content in the soil is beneficial for tea cultivation. Shady areas with trees are preferred for tea plantations.
Q.7. Describe the geographical conditions required for the growth of 'wheat' in India. [2019 C, 2014]
Ans. The geographical conditions required for the growth of wheat in India are as follows:
Q.8. Explain any three steps for agriculture reforms taken by the Government of India, after the independence. [Delhi 2018]
Ans. Three steps taken for agriculture reforms by the Government of India after independence are as follows: (i) From the earliest days, agriculture was given great importance in the "five year plans". Other important steps included: (ii) Abolishment of zamindari system. The right to own the land was given to the actual cultivators which then led to an increase in the production. (iii) Cooperative societies were formed which provided quality seeds and fertilizers to farmers at a low price. (iv) Another act called 'land ceiling act' was passed, according to which the land could not be held by a person beyond a defined limit.
Q.9. What is the importance of pulses in our country? Why are pulses grown as a rotation crop? 
Ans. Pulses hold great importance in our country due to the following reasons:
Q.10. What are the growing conditions required for the main staple food crop of India? Mention the main growing regions. 
Ans. The main staple food crop of India is rice. The growing conditions required for rice cultivation are as follows:
(a) High temperature: Rice is a Kharif crop and requires high temperatures above 25°C for its growth.
(b) High humidity and rainfall: Rice cultivation requires high humidity and an annual rainfall of over 100 cm. It thrives in areas with a high water table or near river valleys.
Main growing regions: Rice is grown in various regions of India, including the northern plains, northeastern India, coastal areas, deltaic plains, and river valleys.
Q.11. How many cropping seasons are found in India? Name them and write a short note on each. [2015, 2014]
Ans. India has three cropping seasons, namely:
(i) Rabi: The rabi season begins with the onset of winter in October-November and lasts until March-April. It is characterized by low-temperature conditions, which are suitable for the cultivation of temperate and subtropical crops. Major rabi crops include wheat, gram, and mustard.
(ii) Kharif: The kharif season largely coincides with the southwest monsoon, which provides the necessary water for cultivation. It is suitable for the cultivation of tropical crops such as rice, cotton, jute, jowar, bajra, and tur.
(iii) Zaid: The zaid season is a short-duration summer cropping season that begins after the harvesting of rabi crops. It includes crops such as watermelon, cucumber, and other vegetables that can be grown during the summer months.
Q.1. Analyse any five features of Commercial Farming. 
(i) In commercial farming, most of the produce is sold in the market to earn money (as opposed to subsistence farming).
(ii) In this system, farmers use inputs like irrigation, chemical fertilisers, insecticides, pesticides, and high yielding varieties of seeds, etc.
(iii) Some of the major commercial crops grown in different parts of India are cotton, jute, sugarcane, groundnut, etc.
(iv) Rice farming in Haryana is mainly for commercial purpose as people of this area are predominantly wheat eaters.
(v) However, in East and North-Eastern states of India, rice cultivation would be largely of subsistence type.
Q.2. Why is agriculture called the backbone of the Indian economy? Explain. [Delhi 2020]
Ans. Agriculture is called the backbone of the Indian economy due to the following reasons:
Q.3. Name the two major beverage crops grown in India. Describe their growing areas. 
Ans. The two major beverage crops grown in India are tea and coffee.
Tea cultivation is mainly done in Assam, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala. Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Meghalaya, Andhra Pradesh, and Tripura are also tea-producing states in the country. India is the second-largest producer of tea after China.
Coffee cultivation is confined to the Nilgiri in Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu. Karnataka accounts for 70% of the coffee produced in India.
Q.4. Name the two major fibre crops grown in India. Describe the conditions required for the growth of these two crops with their growing areas. 
Ans. The two major fibre crops grown in India are cotton and jute.
Conditions required for cotton:
Conditions required for jute:
Q.5. The government of India has introduced various institutional and technological reforms to improve agriculture in the 1980s and 1990s. Support this statement with examples. [Delhi 2018]
Ans. The government of India introduced various institutional and technological reforms to improve agriculture in the 1980s and 1990s. Some examples of these reforms are:
Q.6. Name any four oilseeds produced in India. Explain the importance of oilseeds in our day to day life. 
Ans. Four oilseeds produced in India are groundnut, mustard, coconut, and sesamum.
Importance of oilseeds:
Q.7. What are millets? Give a brief description of the climatic conditions and producing states of the millets grown in India. 
Ans. Millets are coarse grains that have high nutritional value, such as ragi, which is rich in iron and calcium.
Q.8. Explain any five initiatives taken by the government to ensure an increase in agricultural production. 
Ans. Five initiatives taken by the government to ensure an increase in agricultural production are:
Q.9. Which crop is known as the 'golden fibre'? Explain any two geographical conditions essential for the cultivation of this crop. Mention its any four uses. 
(i) Jute is known as the 'golden fibre'.
(ii) Geographical conditions required for the cultivation of jute:
Uses of jute:
Q.10. Mention any two geographical conditions required for the growth of the maize crop in India. Describe any three factors that have contributed to an increase in maize production. 
Ans. Geographical conditions required for the growth of the maize crop in India:
Factors contributing to the increase in maize production:
Q.11. Explain any three geographical conditions required for the growth of rice in India. How is it possible to grow rice in areas of less rainfall? Explain with examples. 
Ans. Three geographical conditions required for the growth of rice in India:
Rice can be grown in areas of less rainfall with the help of irrigation. For example, in Punjab and Haryana, rice cultivation is possible despite receiving less rainfall because these states have a well-developed canal irrigation system. Water is supplied to the fields through canals, ensuring sufficient moisture for rice cultivation.
|1. What are the major crops grown in agriculture?|
|2. What are the different methods of irrigation used in agriculture?|
|3. How does organic farming differ from conventional farming?|
|4. What are the benefits of crop rotation in agriculture?|
|5. How does climate change affect agriculture?|