Short Answer Questions
Q. 1. What is a ‘Challenge’? [CBSE Delhi 2017]
Ans. A challenge is not just any problem, we usually call only those difficulties a ‘challenge’ which are significant and which can be overcome. It carries on opportunity for progress.
Q. 2. Explain the meaning of democracy. [CBSE (AI) 2017]
Ans. A form of government in which the rulers are elected by the people.
Q. 3. If a non-democratic country wants to change into a democratic set up, then which kind of challenge would it face? [CBSE (Comptt) 2017]
Ans. The challenge faced is : Foundational Challenge
Q. 4. A country holds election to elect people’s representatives to form the government but the elections are not fair. Identify the kind of challenge faced by the people in such a country. [CBSE Sample Question 2016]
Ans. People face the challenge of expansion of democracy.
Q. 5. “The challenge of deepening of democracy is being faced by every democracy in one form or another.” Support the statement with arguments. [CBSE (F) 2016]
Which kind of government is dominant in the contemporary world ? Mention the issues that are involved in the challenge of ‘deepening of democracy’. [CBSE (Comptt.) 2016]
Ans. Deepening of democracy
(i) Deepening of democracy involves strengthening of the institutions and practice of democracy.
(ii) The ordinary people have different expectations from democracy in different societies. Therefore, this challenge has different meanings in different parts of the world.
(iii) It wants more of people’s participation and control.
(iv) It controls and wants to bring down the control of rich and powerful people in making of the governmental decision.
Q.6. ‘Challenge is opportunity for progress' Justify the statement. [CBSE 2016-17]
Ans. (i) All over the world, democracies face different challenges.
(ii) A challenge is not just a problem. We usually call only those difficulties a ‘challenge’ which are significant and which can be overcome. For example, under the challenge of expansion a challenge involves applying the basic principle of democratic government across all regions and levels. For example, greater powers to local level government.
(iii) Now to grant greater powers to local government is a challenge but if it is done, then democracy will be set up there in practice. Thus it will be an opportunity for progress.
Q.7. “The challenge of deepening of democracy is faced by every democracy in one form or another.” Support the statement with suitable examples. [CBSE 2016]
Ans. (i) The challenge of deepening of democracy involves strengthening of the institutions and practices of democracy.
(ii) This challenge is being faced by every democracy in one form or the other.
(iii) This should happen in such a way that people can realise their expectations of democracy.
(iv) In general terms, it usually means strengthening those institutions that help people’s participation and control.
(v) This requires an attempt to bring down the control and influence of the rich and powerful people in making governmental decision. For example in Saudi Arabia, women should be allowed to take part in public activities. There should be freedom of religion for minorities.
Long Answer Questions
Q.1. “The consumer redressal process is becoming cumbersome, expensive and time consuming.” Explain any two ways to solve this problem. [CBSE 2018]
(i) Many a time, consumers are required to engage lawyers.
(ii) These cases require time for filing and attending the court proceedings etc.
(iii) In most purchases cash memos are not issued hence evidence is not easy to gather. (iv) Most purchases in the market are small retail sales.
(v) The existing laws also are not veiy clear on the issue of compensation to consumers injured by defective products.
(vi) After more than 25 years of enactment of COPRA, consumer awareness in India is spreading but slowly.
(vii) Rules and regulations for working of markets are often not followed.
(i) The consumers must realise their role and importance.
(ii) The consumers must take active part in the consumer movements.
(iii) The consumers must perform their duties such as taking receipts, be vigilant at the time of making purchases etc.
Q. 2. “It is very difficult to reform politics through legal ways.” Evaluate the statement. [CBSE (Al) 2017]
Ans. ‘It is very difficult to reform politics through legal ways':
(i) Carefully devised changes in law can help to discourage wrong political practices and encourage good ones.
(ii) Legal constitutional changes by themselves cannot overcome challenges to democracy. This is like the rules of cricket. A change in rules for LBW decisions helped to reduce negative batting tactics. But no one would ever think that the quality of cricket could be improved mainly through changes in the rules. This is to be done mainly by the players, coaches and administrators.
(iii) Any legal change must carefully look at what results it will have on politics. Sometimes the result may be counterproductive.
(iv) Democratic reforms are to carried out mainly by political activists, parties, movements and politically conscious citizens.
(v) Laws that give political actors incentives to do good things have more chances of working.
(vi) The best laws are those which empower people to carry out democratic reforms.
(vii) Democratic reforms are to be brought through political practices. Therefore the main focus should be on the ways to strengthen democratic practices.
Q. 3. “Most established democracies face a challenge of expansion.” Comment.
How does existing democracies face the challenge of expansion?
“Most of the established democracies are facing the challenge of expansion.” Support the statement with examples. [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Q. 4. “Democracies are not appearing to be very successful in reducing economic inequalities.’5 Analyse the statement. [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans. Democracy and the economic outcomes We can take example of India.
(i) The poor constitute a larger proportion of our voters and no party would like to lose their votes. They are their vote banks.
(ii) Yet democratically do not appear to be as keen to address the question of poverty as you would expect them to.
(iii) The situation is much worse in some other countries. In Bangladesh more than half of its population lives in poverty.
(iv) People in several poor countries are now dependent on the rich countries even for food supplies.
(v) Parallel to that a small number of ultra rich energy a highly dis-proportionate share of wealth and incomes. Not only that their share in the total income of the country is increasing.
(vi) Those at the bottom of the society have very little to depend upon. Their income have been declining.
(vii) Sometimes they find it difficult to meet their basic needs of life, such as food, clothing, house, education and health.