Q1: Why does the textile industry occupy a unique position in the Indian economy? Explain. (2023)
Ans: The textile industry occupies a unique position in the Indian economy because it is the only industry in the country that is self-reliant and complete in the value chain. It encompasses the entire process from raw material to the highest value-added products. Additionally, the textile industry creates demand for other industries such as chemicals, dyes, packaging materials, and engineering works.
Q2: Why is the iron and steel industry called the 'basic industry'? Explain. (Term-ll, 2021-22 C)
Ans: The iron and steel industry is called the 'basic industry' because it is necessary for the production of a variety of engineering goods, construction materials, defense equipment, medical devices, telephonic equipment, scientific instruments, and various consumer goods. It serves as the foundation or backbone for the development of many other industries.
Q3: Explain the importance of the 'cement' industry. (Term-ll, 2021-22 C)
Ans: The cement industry holds significant importance due to the following reasons:
1. It is essential for construction activities such as building houses, factories, bridges, etc.
2. With the increasing capital expenditure of the government, the cement industry plays a vital role in infrastructure development.
3. The industry produces a variety of cement types to cater to different construction needs.
Q4: Fill in the blank:
___________ industry is used for manufacturing aircraft, utensils, and wires. (Delhi 2020)
Ans: Aluminium industry.
Q5: Limestone, silica, alumina, and gypsum are the raw materials of ___________ industry. (2020)
Ans: Cement industry.
Q6: Suggest any one measure to promote handspun khadi in India. (Delhi 2020)
Ans: One measure to promote handspun khadi in India could be for the government to reduce the cost of khadi, making it more affordable and accessible to the masses.
Q7: Why has the 'National Manufacturing i Competitiveness Council' been set-up? (2015)
Ans: The 'National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council' was set up to improve the productivity of the industrial sector. However, this council was wound up in March 2016.
Q8: Why is the 'least cost' known as a decision-making factor for the ideal location of an industry? (2014)
Ans: The 'least cost' is known as a decision-making factor for the ideal location of an industry because it considers factors such as the availability of raw materials, labor, capital, power, and market at a lower cost. By choosing a location that minimizes these costs, the industry can ensure that its production costs are low and maximize its profitability.
Q1: Read the case given below carefully and answer the questions that follow: (2023)
NTPC shows the way
NTPC is a major power providing corporation in India. It has ISO certification for EMS (Environment Management System) 14001. The corporation has a proactive approach to preserving the natural environment and resources like water, oil, gas, and fuels in places where it is setting up power plants. This has been possible through:
(a) Optimum utilization of equipment adopting the latest techniques and upgrading existing equipment
(b) Minimizing waste generation by maximizing ash utilization.
(c) Providing green belts for nurturing ecological balance and addressing the question of special purpose vehicles for afforestation.
(i) Which is the major power providing corporation in India?
Ans: NTPC (National Thermal Power Corporation)
(ii) Name the institution that issues ISO certification for Environment Management System.
Ans: ISO (International Organization for Standardization)
(iii) Explain the proactive approach of NTPC for preserving the natural environment.
Ans: NTPC adopts various measures such as optimum utilization of equipment, upgrading existing equipment, minimizing waste generation, maximizing ash utilization, providing green belts, and addressing afforestation to preserve the natural environment and resources. These measures help in maintaining an ecological balance and sustainability in the areas where NTPC sets up power plants.
Q2: Explain any three ways through which industrial pollution can be reduced. (2023)
Ans: Three ways through which industrial pollution can be reduced are:
(i) Machinery and equipment can be used, and generators should be fitted with silencers to reduce noise pollution.
(ii) Waste and effluents should be recycled or treated through biological processes and mechanical means to reduce water and air pollution.
(iii) By fitting suitable smoke screens in factories with electrostatic precipitators, scrubbers, etc., air pollution can be minimized.
Q3: Describe the role of industries in the development of agriculture. (2019)
(i) Industries provide agricultural implements, machinery, and other products to the agricultural sector such as PVC pipes, irrigation pumps, fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, etc.
(ii) Due to these products provided by the industries to the agricultural sector, agricultural production increases. These inputs also improve the efficiency of production.
(iii) The Green Revolution in Punjab and Uttar Pradesh was achieved only because industries provided products like fertilizers, tractors, and irrigation pumps to the farmers.
(iv) Thus, agricultural development is possible only due to the support from the manufacturing industries.
(v) Because of the inputs from the industry, employment opportunities in the agricultural sector also increase.
Q4: "Manufacturing sector is considered as the backbone of economic development of a country.” Support the statement with examples. (2021 C, Foreign 2017)
(i) The manufacturing sector provides the basic inputs to the agricultural sector. For example, industries providing tractors, harvesting machines, fertilizers, etc., that make the basic inputs for the sector. It helps in the modernization of the agricultural activity.
(ii) An example is the establishment of industries in tribal and backward areas. The industrial sector provides employment to a large number of people and improves their economic status.
(iii) The manufacturing sector improves employment because manufacturing sector adds value to goods. The country can export products instead of raw materials. For example, the USA.
Q5: Explain with examples the interdependence of agriculture and industries. (Delhi 2017)
Ans: The interdependence of agriculture and industries is based on many factors, such as adequate rainfall and good crops. Some examples are:
(i) When the rain fails and the crops fail, the industries suffer, and there are losses in businesses as the purchasing power falls.
(ii) If the cotton crops fail, the clothing industries suffer, and other industries also suffer.
(iii) If poultry farms do not produce enough eggs, the bakery industries that use eggs as their important ingredient also suffer.
(iv) Thus, the success and growth of agriculture are closely linked to the success and growth of industries.
Q6: Classify industries on the basis of the source of raw materials. How are they different from each other? (2016)
Ans: On the basis of the sources of raw materials, industries are classified as:
(i) Agro-based Industries: These industries draw their raw materials from agricultural products. For example, textiles, sugar, coffee, tea, and edible oil.
(ii) Mineral-based Industries: These industries draw their raw materials from minerals. For example, iron and steel industries, cement, petrochemicals, etc.
While in agro-based industries, value addition is done at every stage; in the case of mineral-based industries, refining is a more important activity.
Q7: "The textile industry is the only industry in the country which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain.” Justify the statement. (Delhi 2016)
Ans: The textile industry is considered self-reliant because products produced at each stage are used as raw materials for the next stage of production. The value chain refers to a number of activities that the industry performs right from the production of raw materials to the delivery of finished products. The textile industry completes this value chain within the country itself, without relying on imports or outsourcing. This self-reliance helps the industry maintain control over quality, costs, and timelines.
Q8: Classify industries on the basis of their main role. How are they different from each other? (Foreign 2016)
Ans: Industries can be classified according to the role they play in the economy of the country. They are:
(i) Basic or Key Industries: These industries supply their products or raw materials to manufacture other goods. For example, iron and steel and copper smelting, aluminum smelting. These industries help in the establishment of other industries.
(ii) Consumer Industries: These industries produce goods for direct use by consumers. Examples include sugar, toothpaste, paper, sewing machines, electric fans, etc.
The main difference between these two types of industries lies in their target market and the purpose of their production.
Q9: Classify industries on the basis of capital investment. How are they different from one another? Explain with examples. (2016)
(i) Small Scale Industry: These industries employ fewer people and less capital. Most of the work is done by small machines and manpower. They use fewer raw materials and produce less. Examples include radio, TV making, agricultural implements, etc.
(ii) Large Scale Industry: These industries employ a large number of people and more capital. Work is done by large machines and manpower. They use a large amount of raw materials and produce more products. Examples include the textile industry, steel industry, etc.
The main difference between these two types of industries lies in their scale of operations, investment, and production capacity.
Q10: Suggest any three steps to minimize the environmental degradation caused by industrial development in India. (A/2016)
Ans: Three steps to minimize environmental degradation caused by industrial development in India are:
(i) Minimizing the use of water for processing by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stages.
(ii) Harvesting rainwater to meet water requirements and reduce the strain on natural resources.
(iii) Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them into rivers and ponds to prevent water pollution.
(iv) Implementing measures to reduce air pollution, such as fitting smokestacks with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers, and inertial separators.
(v) Encouraging the use of cleaner fuels, such as oil or gas instead of coal, in industries.
(vi) Redesigning machinery to increase energy efficiency and reduce noise pollution.
Q1: Explain the ways through which the industrial pollution of fresh water can be reduced. (2020)
Ans: Industrial pollution of fresh water can be reduced through various ways:
1. Adoption of Cleaner Production Techniques: Industries can adopt cleaner production techniques that aim to minimize waste generation, reduce the use of hazardous substances, and optimize resource utilization. This can be achieved through process modifications, improved equipment, and technology upgrades.
2. Effluent Treatment and Recycling: Industries should establish effluent treatment plants to treat wastewater before discharging it into water bodies. The treated water can be recycled for non-potable purposes within the industry, reducing the overall freshwater consumption.
3. Strict Compliance with Environmental Regulations: Governments should enforce stringent environmental regulations and standards for industries, including limits on pollutant discharge and effluent quality. Regular monitoring and inspections can ensure compliance and deter industrial pollution.
4. Implementation of Waste Management Practices: Effective waste management practices, such as segregation, recycling, and proper disposal of industrial waste, can help prevent pollution of freshwater sources. Industries should develop waste management systems and promote recycling initiatives.
5. Promotion of Sustainable Practices: Encouraging industries to adopt sustainable practices, such as resource conservation, energy efficiency, and the use of eco-friendly technologies, can significantly reduce industrial pollution. This includes promoting the use of renewable energy sources and minimizing the carbon footprint of industrial operations.
Q2: Describe any five factors responsible for the concentration of iron and steel industry in and around Chota Nagpur Plateau region. (2019,2014)
Ans: The concentration of iron and steel industry in and around the Chota Nagpur Plateau region is influenced by the following factors:
1. Availability of Raw Materials: The region is rich in iron ore, coal, limestone, and manganese deposits, which are essential raw materials for the iron and steel industry. The proximity of these resources reduces transportation costs.
2. Transportation Network: The region has a well-developed network of roads and railways, facilitating the easy movement of raw materials and finished goods to and from iron and steel plants.
3. Access to Waterways: The presence of rivers like the Damodar and Subarnarekha provides a cheap means of inland water transport for iron and steel goods.
4. Market Proximity: The Chota Nagpur region is close to the city of Kolkata, which provides a large market for iron and steel products. Additionally, the region has access to banking, insurance, and financial services necessary for the functioning of iron and steel plants.
5. Availability of Cheap Labor: The region has a significant population that provides a pool of cheap labor from Bihar, West Bengal, Jharkhand, and Chhattisgarh. This availability of labor contributes to the concentration of iron and steel industries in the area.
Q3: How are industries responsible for environmental degradation in India? Explain with examples. (Delhi 2019)
Ans: Industries contribute to environmental degradation in India through various ways:
1. Air Pollution: Industries emit harmful pollutants such as particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds, which contribute to air pollution. For example, thermal power plants and factories release smoke and pollutants into the air.
2. Water Pollution: Industrial waste and effluents containing toxic chemicals, heavy metals, and organic pollutants are often discharged into water bodies without proper treatment. This pollutes rivers, lakes, and groundwater, affecting aquatic ecosystems and water quality. For instance, textile dyeing and chemical industries release untreated wastewater into water bodies.
3. Soil Contamination: Improper disposal of industrial waste and the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides can contaminate the soil, affecting agricultural productivity and soil health. For example, heavy metals from industrial activities can accumulate in the soil, rendering it unsuitable for cultivation.
4. Deforestation and Habitat Loss: Industries often require large areas of land, leading to deforestation and loss of natural habitats. Forests are cleared to make way for industries such as mining, manufacturing, and construction. This results in the loss of biodiversity and disruption of ecosystems.
5. Climate Change: Industries contribute to greenhouse gas emissions through the burning of fossil fuels, industrial processes, and deforestation. These activities contribute to global climate change, leading to adverse impacts such as rising temperatures, changing rainfall patterns, and sea-level rise.
Q4: Why is economic strength of a country measured by the development of manufacturing industries? (2018, Delhi 2016)
Ans: The economic strength of a country is measured by the development of manufacturing industries because manufacturing plays a crucial role in the overall growth and development of an economy. Manufacturing industries contribute to several key aspects:
1. Utilization of Natural Resources: The development of manufacturing industries allows for the efficient utilization of a country's natural resources, leading to increased production and economic growth.
2. Balanced Sectoral Development: Manufacturing industries help achieve a balanced sectoral development by reducing the over-dependence on the agricultural sector. This diversification strengthens the economy and reduces vulnerability.
3. Enhanced Capital Formation: The growth of manufacturing industries leads to an increase in investment and capital formation. This, in turn, boosts economic growth and development.
4. Increase in National Income and Foreign Exchange: Manufacturing industries contribute significantly to the national income of a country. Additionally, export-oriented manufacturing sectors generate foreign exchange, which strengthens the overall economy.
5. Job Creation: The development of manufacturing industries creates job opportunities for a large section of the population, thereby reducing unemployment and poverty.
Q5: Analyze the role of chemical industries in the Indian economy. (AI 2017)
Ans: The chemical industry plays a vital role in the Indian economy due to the following reasons:
1. Contribution to GDP: The chemical industry is one of the fastest-growing sectors in India and contributes significantly to the country's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). It provides employment opportunities and generates income, contributing to economic growth.
2. Export and Import: India ranks 9th in exports and 6th in imports of chemicals globally. The chemical industry contributes to foreign exchange earnings through exports of various chemical products.
3. Diversification: The chemical industry in India is diversifying rapidly, with growth observed in both organic and inorganic sectors. It includes the production of petrochemicals, fertilizers, synthetic fibers, plastics, adhesives, and paints. This diversification strengthens the industrial base and promotes economic development.
4. Value Addition: The chemical industry is a significant consumer of its own products. Value addition through various chemical processes adds to the overall economic output of the country.
5. Employment Generation: The chemical industry provides direct and indirect employment opportunities to a large number of people. It supports various ancillary industries and contributes to job creation, reducing unemployment rates.
Q6: Explain the contribution of textile industry in the Indian economy. (Foreign 2017)
Ans: The textile industry has a significant contribution to the Indian economy in the following ways:
1. Industrial Production: The textile industry is one of the largest contributors to industrial production in India. It encompasses various stages of the textile value chain, including spinning, weaving, dyeing, printing, and garment manufacturing.
2. Employment Generation: The textile industry is a labor-intensive sector and provides employment to a large number of people, particularly in rural areas. It contributes to income generation and poverty reduction.
3. Export Earnings: The textile industry is a major earner of foreign exchange through exports. India is one of the largest exporters of textiles globally. The industry's export earnings help improve the country's balance of trade.
4. Market Demand: In a developing country like India, the textile industry plays a crucial role in meeting the domestic demand for clothing and textiles. It caters to the diverse needs of the population, providing affordable and fashionable clothing options.
5. Ancillary Industries: The textile industry supports various ancillary industries such as cotton farming, dyeing, printing, packaging, and garment accessories. These industries contribute to the overall growth and development of the economy.
|1. What are the different types of manufacturing industries?|
|2. How is the manufacturing industry important for economic growth?|
|3. What are the challenges faced by manufacturing industries?|
|4. How can manufacturing industries improve their productivity?|
|5. What are the steps involved in the manufacturing process?|