Previous Year Questions - Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Social Studies (SST) Class 10

Class 10 : Previous Year Questions - Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes | EduRev

The document Previous Year Questions - Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes | EduRev is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Q.1. Why was Congress reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organisation ? How did women participate in Civil Disobedience Movement ? Explain.    [CBSE 2018]
Ans: (a) (i) For a long time the Congress was reluctant to allow women because Gandhiji was convinced that it was the duty of women to look after home and hearth, be good mothers and good wives.
(ii) It was keen only on their symbolic presence.
(b) (i) During salt march, thousands of women came out of their homes to listen him (Gandhiji).
(ii) Women participated in protest marches, manufactured salt and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops.

Q.2. What is the meaning of ‘Begar’?    [CBSE (AT) 2017]
Ans:
Labour that villager was forced to contribute without any payment.

Q.3. Name the writer of the novel ‘Anandamath’    [CBSE Delhi 2017]
Ans:
Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay

Q.4. What is meant by Satyagraha?    [CBSE (AI) 2017]
Ans: 
The idea of Satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for the truth.

Q.5. Name the famous book written by Mahatma Gandhi.    [CBSE (AI) 2017]
Ans:
'Hind Swaraj'.

Q.6. Under which agreement the Indian ‘Depressed Classes’ got reserved seats in the Provincial and Central Legislative Councils in 1932?    [CBSE Delhi 2017]
Ans
: Poona pact

Q.7. Who wrote the song ‘Vande Mataram?    [CBSE (F) 2017]
Ans
: Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay.

Q.8. By what means does hand spun khadi provide large scale employment to weavers?    [CBSE Sample Question 2017]
Ans: It provides large scale employment to weavers as it is a cottage industry, can be set up at home.

Q.9. How did the First World War create a new economic situation in India? Explain with examples.    [CBSE (F) 2017]
Ans:
First World war created a new economic situation:
(i) It led to a huge increase in defense expenditure.
(ii) Increase in taxes.
(iii) Custom duties were raised.
(iv) Introduction of income tax.
(v) Villages were called upon to supply soldiers and forced recruitment in rural area.

Q.10. Why was Non-Cooperation Movement launched by Gandhiji ? Explain any three reasons.    [CBSE (Comp.) 2017]
Ans:
Reasons for the launching of Non Cooperation Movement:
(i) To support Khilafat agitation.
(ii) To protest against Rowlatt Act.
(iii) To redress the wrong done in Punjab.
(iv) The dissatisfaction from the government of India act of 1919.
(v) Demand for Swaraj

Q.11. “Gandhiji’s idea of Satyagraha emphasized the Power of truth and the need to search for truth.” In the light of this statement assess the contribution of Gandhiji towards Satyagraha.    [CBSE (Comp.) 2017]
Ans:
Contribution of Gandhiji towards Satyagraha:
The idea of satyagraha emphasized the power of truth and the need to search for truth . It suggested that if the cause was true , if the struggle was against injustice , then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
Without seeking vengeance or being aggressive , a satyagrahi could win the battle through non violence. This could be done by appealing to the consciousness of the oppressor. People including the oppressors had to be persuaded to see the truth , instead of being forced to accept truth through the use of violence . By this struggle truth was bound to ultimately triumph. Mahatma Gandhi believed that this dharma of non violence could unite all Indians. Based on the above principle Gandhiji started non-cooperation movement and later civil disobedience movement.

Q.12. How was the sense of collective belonging developed during the freedom movement? Explain.    [CBSE (AI) 2017]
Ans: Sense of collective belonging was developed during the freedom movement:
(i) It came partly through the experience of united struggles.
(ii) Variety of cultural process through which nationalism captured people’s imagination.
(iii) History and fiction, folk lore and songs, popular prints and symbols all played a part in the making of nationalism.
(iv) The identity of the nation was symbolized in a figure image ‘Bharat Mata’.
(v) Vande Matram was widely sung during the Swadesh movement in Bengal.
(vi) Icons and symbols helped in unifying people and inspiring in them a feeling of nationalism.
(vii) Ideas of nationalism also developed through a movement to revive Indian folk lore. (viii) Folk tales were sung by bards in the villages to give a true picture of traditional culture.
(ix) Re interpretation of history created a feeling of nationalism.
(x) The nationalist histories urged the readers to take pride in Indian great achievement in the past and struggle to change the miserable conditions of life under British rule.

Q.13. Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act 1919 ? Explain any three reasons.    [CBSE (Delhi) 2017, 2016]
Ans: Nationwide Satyagraha was decided to be launched against the proposed Rowlatt Act 1919 because:
(i) This act had been hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the united opposition of the Indian members.
(ii) It gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities.
(iii) Allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.

Q.14. How had the First World War created economic problems in India ? Explain.    [CBSE (Comp.) 2017]
Ans: 
The First World War created a new political and economic situation.
(i) It led to huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes.
(ii) Through the war years prices increased-doubling between 1913 and 1918-leading to extreme hardship for common people.
(iii) Villages were called upon to supply soldiers and the forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger.
(iv) In 1918-1920 and 1920-21, crops failed in many parts of India resulting in acute shortages of food. This was accompanied by influenza epidemic.

Q.15. Why did Gandhiji relaunch the Civil Disobedience Movement after the Second Round Table Conference ? Explain any three reasons.    [CBSE (F) 2017]
Ans:
Reasons for Gandhiji relaunching of Civil Disobedience Movement
(i) The negotiations with regard to India’s freedom broke down in the Second Round Table Conference held at London.
(ii) Back in India, he discovered that the government had begun a new cycle of repression. (iii) Ghaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru were put to jail.
(iv) The Congress had been declared illegal.
(v) A series of measures had been imposed to prevent meetings, demonstrations and boycotts. In such a situation he decided to relaunch the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Q.16. Evaluate the ‘Satyagraha Movement’ of Gandhiji against the proposed Rowlatt Act, 1919.    [CBSE (F) 2017}
Ans: Satyagraha Movement Against The Rowlatt Act
(i) Gandhiji in 1919 decided to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act (1919).
(ii) Mahatma Gandhi wanted non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws, which would start with a hartal on 6 April.
(iii) Rallies were organised in various cities.
(iv) Workers went on strike in railway workshops, and shops closed down.
(v) lines of communication such as the railways and telegraph would be disrupted.
(vi) The British administration decided to clamp down on nadonalists.
(vii) Local leaders were put to jail.
(viii) On 13 April the Jallianwalla Bagh incident took place.
(ix) Crowd took to streets in many towns.
(x) Government started brutal repression.
(xi) At the Calcutta session of the Congress in September 1920, he felt the need to start a Non- Cooperation Movement in support of Khilafat as well as for swaraj.

Q.17. Evaluate the contribution of folklore, songs, popular prints etc., in shaping the nationalism during freedom struggle.    [CBSE Delhi 2017]
Ans: 
Role of folklore:
(i) History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a part in the making of Nationalism.
(ii) Identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata.
(iii) In the 187Os, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay wrote’Vande Malarum’ as a hymn to the motherland.
(iv) Idea of Nationalism also developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore.

Q.18. How did the salt Satyagraha become an effective tool of resistance against British colonialism in India during 1930? Explain.    [CBSE Sample Question 2017]
Ans:
(i) Salt was something consumed by the rich and poor alike, and it was one of the most essential items of food.
(ii) So Mahatama Gandhi started his farmers Salt March accompanied by his 78 trusted volunteers.
(iii) On 6th April, he reached Dandi and ceremonially violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water.
(iv) Thousands in different parts of country broke the salt law, manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of government salt factories.
(v) As the movement spread, foreign cloth as boycotted, and liquor shops were picketed.
(vi) Worried by developments, the colonial government began arresting the congress leaders one by one.
(vii) In May 1930, even Mahatama Gandhi was arrested.
(viii) A frightened government responded with a policy of brutal repression.
(ix) This shows the success of Salt Satyagraha as an effective tool of resistance against British Colonialism.

Q.19. Evaluate the role of business classes in the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’.    [ CBSE (AI) 2017]
Ans:
Role of business classes in the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’ :
(i) The business classes reacted against colonial policies that restricted business activities.
(ii) They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods and a rupee sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.
(iii) In order to organise business interest, they formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927.
(iv) They gave financial assistance for the movement.
(v) They refused to buy and sell imported goods.

Q.20. Who had designed the ‘Swaraj Flag’ by 1921? Explain the main features of this ‘swaraj flag’ ?    [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans: Mahatma Gandhiji designed the “Swaraj Flag” by 1921.
Features:
(i) It had tricolours-Red, Green and White
(ii) It had a spinning wheel in the center.
(iii) It represents the Gandhian idea of self-help.
(iv) It had become a symbol of defiance.

Q.21. “The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement.” Support the statement with examples.    [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans:
The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement:
Non-Cooperation Movement:
(i) The people were asked not to cooperate with the government.
(ii) Foreign goods were boycotted.
(iii) Liquor shops were picketed.
(iv) Foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires.
(v) In many places merchants and traders refused to trade on foreign goods or finance foreign traders.
(vi) Students left the government owned schools and colleges.
(vii) Lawyers gave up legal practices.
Civil Disobedience Movement:
(i) People were asked to break colonial laws.
(ii) The countrymen broke the salt law.
(iii) Peasants refused to pay revenue and chaukidari tax.
(iv ) Village officials resigned from their jobs.
(v) Forest people violated forest rules and laws.

Q.22. What type of flag was designed during the ‘Swadeshi Movement’ in Bengal? Explain its main features.    [CBSE (AI) 2016]
Ans: 
During the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal the flag designed was Tricolour flag.
The three features of the flag were:
(i) The colour of the flag was — Red, Green and Yellow.
(ii) It represented eight provinces in British India.
(iii) It had crescent moon representing Hindus and Muslim.

Q.23. Describe the participation of industrial working class in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Or “The Congress was reluctant to include the demands of industrial workers in its programme of struggle.” Analayse.    [CBSE 2016]
Ans
: (A) (i) They did not participate in the movement in large numbers except in the Nagpur region.
(ii) As the industrialists came closer to Congress, the workers stayed aloof.
(iii) Some workers did participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement in the following activities :
(а) Boycott of foreign goods as part of their own movements against low wages and poor working conditions.
(b) Railway strikes in 1930.
(c) Dock workers strikes in 1932.

Q.24. “The plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of Swaraj”. Support the statement with arguments.    [CBSE (AI) 2016]
Ans:
The plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and notion of Swaraj.
(i) For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed.
(ii) Swaraj meant relating a link with the village from which they had come.
(iii) Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859 plantation workers were not permitted to leave the Tea Gardens without permission.
(iv) When they heard of the Non-Cooperation movement thousands of workers defined the authorities, left planations and headed home.
(v) They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming and everyone would be given land in their own village.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Q.1. Describe the participation of the rich and poor peasant communities in the Civil Disobedience Movement,    [CBSE (Delhi) 2019]
Ans: (i) Rich peasants were hit hard by the trade depression and falling prices, whereas the poor peasants' cash income dwindled and they could not pay their rents.
(ii) Refusal of the government to reduce the revenue demand led to widespread resentment among the rich peasants, whereas the poor peasants wanted the unpaid rent to the landlords to be remitted.
(iii) For the rich peasants, fight for swaraj was a struggle against high revenues and for the poor peasants, their ‘no rent’ campaign.
(iv) Rich peasants were disappointed since revenue was not reduced and the poor peasants were disappointed with the Congress as it was unwilling to support them.

Q.2. Who had organised the dalits into depressed classes association in 1930? Describe his achievements.    [CBSE Delhi 2019]
Ans:
It was B.R Ambedkar who played an important role in raising the spirits of the depi'essed class. He belonged to the Mahar caste, one of the untouchable/Dalit castes in India. Amedkar became a staunch anti-oppression advocate for Dalits through his politics and writing. One of his critical works is ‘The Annihilation of Caste, which was an undelivered speech he wrote in 1936.Gandhi was a caste Hindu, a Vaishya. Ambedkar was a Mahar Dalit and knew discrimination firsthand. Gandhi never repudiated the varna theory of four major groups, although he fought against the idea of a group below the varnas and he held all varnas to be equal. Ambedkar repudiated the entire caste hierarchy, dismissing what was a current effort among untouchables to “sanskritize,” that is, adopt upper-class customs in order to raise their status. Gandhi did not believe in political battles for untouchables’ rights or approve their attempts to enter temples unless the temple authorities agreed. Ambedkar felt political power was part of the solution to untouchability. Basically, Gandhi’s faith was in change of heart; Ambedkar’s trust was in law, political power, and education. Dr. BR Ambedkar after joining politics in 1930 organised an association namely the Depressed Classes Association for uplifting the dalits. The role of Ambedker in uplifting dalits was as follows:
(i) Dr. BR Ambedkar joined active polities in 1930 and organised the Depressed Classes Association to uplift the dalits.
(ii) He demanded separate electorates for dalits and reservation of seats in educational institutions for them.
(iii) He signed the Poona Pact that gave reserved seats to the depressed classes in provincial and central legislative councils to ensure that the upliftment occurs at a faster rate.

Q.3. How had a variety of cultural processes developed a sense of collective belongingness in India during the 19th century? Explain with example.    [CBSE 2019]
OR
“Nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation.” Support the statement.

Ans: It means that people began to believe that they were all a part of the same nation and discovered some unity, which bound them together.
(i) Main cultural processes:
1. Figures or images helped create an image with which people could identify the nation.
Devotion to this mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism.
(a) It was with the growth of nationalism that the identity of India was associated with the image of Bharat Mata.
(b) This image was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, who wrote the song lVande Mataram’ in his novel Anandamath.
(c) Then Abanindranath Tagore painted the famous image of Bharat Mata. He was moved by the Swadeshi movement.
(d) In this painting, Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure; she is calm, composed divine and spiritual.
(e) In subsequent years, the image of Bharat Mata acquired many different forms as it circulated in popular prints and was painted by different artists.
(f) Devotion to this mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism.
(ii) Indian folklore:
(a) Ideas of nationalism also developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore.
(b) Folk tales were sung by bards in the villages to give a true picture of the traditional culture, which was corrupted and damaged by outside forces.
(c) In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore himself began collecting ballads, nursery rhymes and myths to revive the folk culture.
(d) In Madras, Natesa Sastri published a four-volume collection of Tamil folk tales, The Folklore of Southern India.
(iii) Icons and symbols (flag):
(a) During the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal, a tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed.
(b) It had eight lotuses, representing eight provinces of British India and a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims.
(c) By 1921, Mahatma Gandhi designed the swaraj flag.
(d) It was also again a tricolour (red, green, white) flag and had a spinning wheel in the centre, representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help.
(e) Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.
Previous Year Questions - Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes | EduRev
(iv) Reinterpretation of history:
(a) The British saw Indians as backward, primitive and incapable of governing themselves.
(b) In response, Indians began looking into the past to discover India’s great achievement.
(c) They (Indians) wrote about glorious developments in ancient India in arts and architecture, science and maths, religion and culture, law and philosophy, etc.
(d) This glorious time was followed by a history of decline, when India was colonised.

Q.4. How did the Non-Cooperation Movement spread to the countryside and drew into its fold the struggles of peasants and tribal communities ? Elaborate.    [CBSE 2018]
Ans: (a) Peasants of Awadh:
(i) They participated under the leadership of Baba Ramchandra - a Sanyasi.
(ii) Their demands were reduction of revenue, abolition of begar.
(iii) Activities: Nai-dhobi bandhs were organised. Oudh Kisan Sabha was formed.
(iv) Results: As the struggle became violent, the Congress was unhappy
(b) Tribals in Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh :
(i) The causes were closure of forest areas, restrictions on livelihoods, begar.
(ii) Activities : They attacked police stations and killed British officials. They carried guerrilla warfare.
(iii) Their leader was Alluri Sitaram Raju. He was captured and executed in 1924.
(iv) Importance : Tribal people could not achieve their objectives as their violent activities were disapproved by Congress.

Q.5. How did Non-Cooperation Movement start with participation of middle class people in the cities ? Explain its impact on the economic front.    [CBSE 2018]
Ans: (a) In the towns, middle classes participated in the movement in the following ways :
(i) Students left the schools and colleges. Headmasters and teachers resigned. Lawyers gave up their practice.
(ii) Elections were boycotted except in Madras.
(iii) Foreign goods were boycotted.
(iv) Liquor shops were picketed.
(v) Foreign clothes were burnt in huge bonfires.
(vi) Many traders refused to import foreign cloth or trade in foreign goods.
(b) Economic effects of Non-Cooperation Movement are given below :
(i) The import of foreign cloth decreased from Rs. 102 crore to Rs. 57 crore between 1921 and 1922.

(ii) Merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods. (Hi) People started wearing only Indian clothes. This led to increased production by the Indian textile mills and handlooms.

Q.6. What action did the British government take after the famous Dandi March?
OR

How did the Colonial Government repress the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’ ? Explain.    [CBSE (AI) 2017]
Ans: (i) Worried by the developments, the colonial government began arresting the Congress leaders one by one.
(ii) This led to violent dashes in many places.
(iii) Amonth later when Mahatma Gandhi himself was arrested, industrial workers in Sholapur attacked police posts, municipal buildings, law courts and railway stations—all structures that symbolised British rule.
(iv) A frightened government responded with a policy of brutal suppression.
(v) Peaceful satyagrahis were attacked, women and children were beaten, and about 1,00,000 people were arrested.
(vi) Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a devout disciple of Mahatma Gandhi was arrested (April 1930).
(vii) Angry crowds demonstrated in the streets of Peshawar facing armored cars and police firing, many were killed.

Q.7. Explain the importance of the ‘Salt March’ of Gandhiji as a symbol to unite the nation.    [CBSE (F) 2017]
Ans: Gandhiji’s salt march was undoubtedly a symbol to unite the nation because:
(i) All classes of Indian society came together as a united campaign.
(ii) Mahatma Gandhi broke the salt law with the march from Sabarmati to Dandi.
(iii) Thousands others in different parts of the country broke the salt law, manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of government salt factories.
(iv) As the movement spread, foreign clothes were boycotted, and liquor shops were picketed.
(v) Peasants refused to pay revenue and chaukidari taxes.
(vi) Village officials resigned.
(vii) In many places, forest people violated forest laws - going into Reserved Forests to collect wood and graze cattle.
(viii) The different social groups participated.
(ix) In the countryside, rich peasants and poor peasants were active in the movement.
(x) The business class workers of Nagpur and women also joined the Movement.

Q.8. Why did Gandhiji launch the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain any three reasons.    [CBSE (Comp) 2017]
Ans: Reasons to launching Civil Disobedience Movement:
(i) Economic depression of 1930.
(ii) Arrival of Simon Commission without any Indian representative
(iii) Vague offer of Dominion status by the British , failed to satisfy Indians.
(iv) Decisions taken in Lahore session of the Congress in 1929.
(v) Tax on salt by Britishers.

Q.9. What were the effects of Non-cooperation Movement on the economic front?    [CBSE Delhi 2017]
Ans:
(i) Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfire.
(ii) The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from ? 102 crore to ? 57 crore.
(iii) In many places, merchants and traders refused to trade.
(iv) As the boycott movement spread and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.

Q.10. How did people belonging to different communities, regions or language groups develop a sense of collective belonging?    [CBSE Sample Question 2016]
Ans:
(i) This sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles and growing anger among people against the colonial government.
(ii) But there were also a variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people’s imagination:
(a) The identity of the nation symbolised in a figure or image of Bharat Mata created through literature, songs, paintings, etc.
(b) Movement to revive Indian folklore to enhance nationalist sentiments.
(c) Role of icons and symbols in unifying people and inspiring in them a feeling of nationalism.
(d) Creating a feeling of nationalism was through reinterpretation of history.

Q.11. Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act 1919? How was it organised? Explain.    [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans: 
Satyagrah against the proposed Rowlatt Act 1919:
(i) The Rowlatt Act was hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council.
(ii) Indian members unitedly opposed it.
(iii) It gave government enormous powers to repress political activities.
(iv) It allowed detention of political prisoners without trials for two years.
Organization of Satyagrah:
(i) Mahatma Gandhi wanted non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws.
(ii) It was started with a ‘Hartal’ on 6th April.
(iii) Rallies were organized in various cities.
(iv) Workers went on strike in railway workshops.
(v) Shops closed down.

Q.12. Why did Mahatma Gandhi find in ’salt’ a powerful symbol that could unite the nation? Explain.    [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans:
Mahatma Gandhi found ‘salt’ a powerful symbol; Gandhiji sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands on 31st January 1930. The most stirring of all was to abolish the salt tax. Salt was one of the most essential items of food. Irwin was unwilling to negotiate. So, Gandhiji started famous salt march. The march was over 240 miles, from Sabarmati to Dandi. Thousands came to hear Gandhiji wherever he stopped. He urged them to peacefully defy the British. On 6th April, he reached Dandi and ceremonially, violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water.

Q.13. How did a variety of cultural processes play an important role in making of nationalism in India? Explain with examples.    [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans:
Role of cultural processes in making of nationalism in India;
(i) The sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles.
(ii) There were also a variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured peoples5 imagination.
(iii) History, fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols played a part in the making of nationalism.
(iv) The identity of the nation is most often symbolised in a figure or an image.
(v) This helped to create an image with which people can identify the nation.

Q.14. Why did Mahatma Gandhi decide to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.    [CBSE (Al) 2016]
Ans:
Mahatma Gandhi decided to call off civil Disobedience Movement because:
(i) Worried by the development of civil Disobedience movement the colonial government began arresting the congress leaders one by one.
(ii) This led to violent clashes in many places.
(iii) When Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a devoted disciple of Mahatma Gandhi was arrested (April 1930) angry crowds demonstrated in the street of Peshawar, facing armoured cars and police firing. Many were killed.
(iv) A month later, when Mahatma Gandhi was arrested, industrial workers in Sholapur attacked police force municipal building, law courts, railway stations and all other structures that symbolised British rule.
(v) A frightened government responded with the policy of brutal repression.
(vi) The peaceful satyagrahi were attacked, women and children were beaten and about 1 lakh people were arrested.
Under these circumstances, Mahatma Gandhi called off the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Q.15. Why did Mahatma Gandhi relaunch the Civil Disobedience Movement with great apprehension? Explain.    [CBSE (Al) 2016]
Ans:
Mahatma Gandhi relaunched the Civil Disobedience Movement with great apprehension:
(i) In December 1931, Gandhiji went to London for the Round table conference, but the negotiations broke down and he returned disappointed.
(ii) In India, he discovered that the government had begun a new cycle of repression.
(iii) Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Jawahar Lai Nehru were both in jail.
(iv) The Congress had been declared illegal.
(v) A series of measures had been imposed to prevent meetings, demonstrations and boycotts.

Q.16. How had Non-cooperation Movement spread in cities? Explain.    [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans: Non-cooperation movement in cities:
(i) The movement started with middle-class participation in the cities.
(ii) Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices.
(iii) The council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras.
(iv) Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires. The import of foreign cloth halved.
(v) In many places, merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade.
(vi) As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.

Q.17. How did the ‘First World War’ create a new economic and political situations in India? Explain with examples.    [CBSE (F) 2016]
OR
How had the ‘First World War’ created economic problems in India? Explain with examples.

Ans: First world war created new economic and political situation in India
(i) It led to huge increases in defense expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes.
(ii) Custom duties were raised
(iii) Income tax introduced.
(iv) Through the war years prices increased-doubling between 1913 and 1918 - leading to extreme hardship for the common people.
(v) Villagers were called upon to supply soldiers.
(vi) Forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger.
(vii) Crops failed in many parts of India resulting in acute shortage of food. This was accompanied by influenced evidences.

Q.18. “The plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the nation of Swaraj.” Support the statement with arguments.    [CBSE 2016]
Or
How did the plantation workers of Assam interpret Mahatma Gandhi’s notion of Swaraj ?

Or
Why did plantation workers join the Non-Cooperation Movement ? What were its results ?

Ans: (a) Reasons:
(i) Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers in Assam were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission. So they wanted freedom to move freely.
(ii) To retain a link with their village.
(iii) To own land in their own village.
(b) Events:
(i) During the Non co-operation movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities. They left the plantations and headed home.
(ii) They, however, never reached their destination. Stranded on the way by a railway and steamer strike, they were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.
(c) (i) The workers of Assam interpreted Swaraj in their own manner for them it was to break the ties of British bondage.
(ii) For them it also meant, freedom of movement from plantation areas of their own villages.

Q.19. Simon Commission was greeted with slogan “Go Back Simon” at arrival in India. Support this reaction of Indians with arguments.    [CBSE 2016]
Ans:
(a) In 1928, Simon Commission under Sir John Simon was constituted by the Tory government in Britain in response to the nationalist movement.
(b) The main aim of the Commission was to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes.
(c) Arguments in favour of Indian reaction :
(i) The commission did not have a single Indian member.
(ii) All members were British.
(iii) Not to include an Indian was against the spirit of nationalists in India. Hence demonstration against the commission was justified.

Q.20. Describe the various activities that took place during the first phase o f the Civil Disobedience Movement. Why was it withdrawn in March 1931 ?     [CBSE 2016]
Ans: (a) The various activities that took place during the first phase of the movement were as mentioned below:
(i) Violation of salt laws by manufacturing salt.
(ii) Boycott of foreign cloth.
(iii) Picketing of liquor shops.
(iv) Refusal of peasants to pay revenue and chaukidari taxes.
(v) Resignation of village officials.
(vi) Violation of forest laws and going to Reserved forests to collect wood and grazing cattle.
(b) Policy of the government:
(i) The government adopted a repressive policy.
(ii) It arrested the Congress leaders.
(iii) Abdul Gaffar Khan, a devout disciple of Gandhiji, was arrested in April 1930.
(iv) In police firing many people were killed.
(v) In Sholapur, people attacked lawcourts, railway stations and the structures that symbolised the British rule.
(vi) About 100,000 people were arrested.
(c) As a result of government’s repressive policy, Gandhiji once again decided to call off the movement. Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed on 5th March 1931.

Q.21. Why did the different social groups join the Civil Disobedience Movement ?    [CBSE2016]
Ans: (A) Rich peasants:
(i) The rich communities like the Fatidars of Gujarat and the Jats of Uttar Pradesh were producers of commercial crops. They were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices.
(ii) They were not in a position to pay revenue to the government. They joint the movement in order to get the revenue reduced,
(B) Poor peasantry: Poor peasantry joint the movement in the hope that their unpaid rent to the landlord would be remitted because due to Depression they were not in a position to pay the rent.
(c) Business classes:
(i) They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods and a rupee-sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.
(ii) They formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927.
(iii) They refused to sell or buy imported goods.
(D) Workers:
(i) The participation by the workers in Civil Disobedience was limited. They participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement against low wages and deplorable working conditions.
(ii) There were strikes by railway workers, dock workers and mine workers of Chota Nagpur regions.
(iii) Women: They participated in Protest Marches, manufactured salt and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops.

Q.22. “Nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation.” Support the statement.    [CBSE 2015]
Or
How did people belonging to different communities, regions or languages groups in India develop a sense of collective belonging ? Elucidate.
Ans:
It is true to say that nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation, when they discover some unity that binds them together. In India sense of collective belonging came through the experience of united struggles. Cultural processes history, fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols all played a part in the making of nationalism as mentioned below:
(i) Symbol of a figure or image:
(a) The identity of India was visualised with the image of Bharat Mata.
(b) The image was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay.
(c) Abinindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata.
(ii) Revival of Indian folklore: In the late nineteenth century, revival of folklore helped in the development of nationalism. Folk songs and legends, gave a true picture of traditional culture. It helped in discovering national identity and restoring a sense of pride. Rabindra Nath Tagore collected ballads, nursery rhymes and Myths. Similarly Natesha Shastri wrote folklore of Southern India.
(iii) Icons and symbols : The designing of a tricolour flag during swadeshi, swaraj flag by Gandhiji in 1921 helped in unifying people and inspiring a feeling of nationalism. During demonstrations the carrying of a swaraj flag became a symbol of defiance.
(iv) Interpretation of history: The interpretation of history also helped in raising the sense of nationalism among the Indians. Nationalist history drew the attention of the Indians to the great achievements of the past as was done by the extremists like Lok Manya Tilak.

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