Q.1. State two consequences of poverty. [CBSE 2016]
Ans: Growth of slums and high level of indebtedness are the two consequences of poverty.
Q.2. When is a person considered poor? [CBSE 2016]
Ans: A person is considered poor if his or her income or consumption level falls below the given minimum level necessary to fulfil the basic needs.
Q.3. Which social groups are vulnerable to poverty? [CBSE 2016]
Ans: The two social groups, most vulnerable to poverty, are scheduled castes and scheduled tribes households.
Graph of most vulnerable groups in India.Q.4. What led to a substantial decline in poverty in China? [CBSE 2016]
Ans: The substantial decline in poverty in Chia has been a result of rapid economic growth and massive investment in human resource development.
Q.5. Explain any three social indicators through which poverty is looked upon. [CBSE 2016]
Ans: Poverty today is looked upon through social indicators like illiteracy level, lack of access to healthcare, lack of job opportunities etc.
(a) People are poor because they are illiterate and they are illiterate because they are poor.
(b) Poverty is a situation where sick people cannot afford treatment, i.e., they lack access to healthcare.
(c) Poverty also implies the lack of a regular job: at a minimum decent level.
Q.1. Mention any four causes of poverty in India. [CBSE 2016, 15, 13, 12, 11]
Discuss the major reasons for poverty in India. [CBSE 2016,15,11,10]
Ans: There are a number of causes responsible for the widespread poverty in India. Some of them are:
(a) Low level of economic development under British rule in India.
(b) The decline of the Indian handicrafts industry, which led to unemployment, poverty and misery which were responsible for the low rate of income growth.
(c) Social factors like caste system, religious faiths and beliefs also kept a certain section of people in society in poverty.
(d) The high growth rate of population led to a very low per capita income in the country.
(e) Huge income inequalities due to unequal distribution of land and other resources.
Q.2. What are the main features of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005? [CBSE 2016, 13, 12, 11]
Ans: The main features of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 are:
• The Act assures 100 days of employment every year to every rural household.
• One-third of the jobs are reserved for women.
• It also aimed at sustainable development to address the cause of drought, deforestation and soil erosion.
• The share of SCs, STs and women are 23 per cent, 17 per cent and 53 per cent respectively.
• Under this, the average wage has increased from Rs 65 in 2006-07 to Rs 132 in 2013-14.
• The scheme provided employment to 220 crores person-days of employment to 4.78 crore households.
• In March 2018, the wage rate for unskilled manual workers has been revised again statewide.
• The range of wage rates for different states and union territories lies in between Rs 281 per day (for the workers in Haryana) to Rs 168 per day (for the workers in Bihar and Jharkhand).
Q.3. Describe how the poverty line is estimated in India. [CBSE 2016]
Ans: In India, the poverty line is estimated periodically, usually every five years, by conducting sample surveys. These surveys are carried out by the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO).
In India, for determining the poverty line, the accepted average calorie requirement is 2,400 calories per person per day in rural areas and 2,100 calories per person per day in urban areas. In the year 2011-12, the poverty line for a person was fixed at Rs 816 per month for the rural areas and Rs 1,000 for the urban areas.
But for making comparisons between developing countries, many international organisations like the World Bank use a uniform standard for the poverty line, i.e., minimum availability of the equivalent of $ 1.90 per person per day.
Q.4. Give an account of the inter-state disparities in poverty in India. [CBSE2014]
Ans: Below is the account of inter-state disparities in poverty in India.
Q.5. “There is a strong link between economic growth and poverty reduction.” Explain.