SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. How had Napoleonic code exported to the regions under French control? Explain with examples. [CBSE Delhi 2019]
Ans. The Napoleonic Code was drafted by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force in 1804. The Code was a major step in replacing the previous patchwork of feudal laws. It has a special place as it is one of the few documents that have influenced the whole world. The Napoleonic Code was not the first legal code to be established in a European country with a civil legal system; it was preceded by many but it was, however, the first modern legal code to be adopted with a pan-European scope, and it strongly influenced the law of many of the countries formed during and after the Napoleonic Wars. The Napoleonic Code influenced developing countries outside Europe, especially in the Middle East, attempting to modernize their countries through legal reforms.
Q.2. What do you understand by Liberalism? Describe their ideas in the political, social and economic spheres. OrIdeas of national unity in early-nineteenth-century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. What did it mean for the middle class in France? Explain. [CBSE Sample Question Paper 2018]
(1) The term ‘liberalism’ is derived from the Latin word liber, meaning free. Thus, for the new middle classes, liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law.
(a) Political ideas
(i) It emphasized the concept of government by consent.
(ii) Since the French Revolution, liberalism stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through Parliament.
(iii) It did not necessarily stand for universal suffrage. Thus in the 19th and 20th centuries, there were movements demanding equal political rights.
(b) Social ideas: The liberals supported the abolition of discrimination based on birth.
(c) Economic ideas: It supported the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital. During the 19th Century this was a strong demand for the emerging middle classes.
Q.3. Why did big European powers meet in Berlin in 1885? [CBSE 2018]
Ans. The big European powers met in Berlin in 1885 to divide Africa among themselves. They wanted to divide Africa to gain control over the continent's natural resources for the development of their industries.
Q.4. Which power dominated the nation-building process in Germany? [CBSE 2018, Sample Paper]
Ans. Prussian State.
Q.5. Describe any three conditions that led to the formation of the British Nation-State. [CBSE Foreign-2017]
In Britain, the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution. Validate the statement with relevant arguments. [CBSE Foreign-2017]
Ans. The conditions that led to the formation of the British Nation State were:
(a) The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones - such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish. All of these ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions. But as the English nation steadily grew in wealth, importance and power, it was able to extend its influence over the other nations of the islands.
(b) The English Parliament, which had seized power from the monarchy in 1688 at the end of a protracted conflict, was the instrument through which a nation-state, with England at its centre, came to be forged.
(c) The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland that resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’ meant, in effect, that England was able to impose its influence on Scotland. The British parliament was henceforth dominated by its English members.
Q.6. ‘Ideas of national unity in the early nineteenth century Europe was closely allied to the ideology of liberalism’. Support the statement with arguments. [CBSE Sample Paper-2017, CBSE (Comp) 2017]
Liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law. Politically, it emphasized the concept of government by consent.
(a) Derived from’ liber’ means free.
(b) Stood for freedom for all and equality for all before the law.
(c) Politically -Government by consent.
(d) Universal suffrage, right to vote for all.
(e) French revolution stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament.
(f) Struggles for equal political rights.
(g) It stressed on inviolability of private property.
(h) Freedom of markets and abolition of state restrictions.
Q.7. Describe any three Economic Hardship faced by Europe in the 1930s.
Describe the great economic hardship that prevailed in Europe during the 1830s.
The 1830s were years of great economic hardship in Europe. Explain how?
“The decade of 1830 had brought great economic hardship in Europe”. Support the statement with arguments. [CBSE (A1) 2017]
Economic hardships faced by Europe in the 1830s :
(a) There was enormous increase in population all over Europe. In most countries, there were more seekers of jobs than employment.
(b) Population from rural areas migrated to the cities to live in overcrowded slums.
(c) Small producers in towns were often faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machine-made goods from England.
(d) In those regions of Europe where the aristocracy still enjoyed power, peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations.
(e) The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in town and country.
Q.8. ‘The idealistic liberal-democratic sentiment of nationalism became a narrow creed with limited ends.’ Support the statement in the context of Balkan nationalism in the early 19th century. [CBSE Sample Paper-2017]
Ans. The Balkans comprised modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro.
(a) The disintegration of the ruling Ottoman Empire and the spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism made this area explosive.
(b) The European subject nationalities started breaking from its control to declare independence.
(c) The Balkan revolutionaries’ acts were directed to gain back the long-lost independence.
(d) The Balkan States wore fiercely jealous of each other and wanted to gain more territory at the expense of the other.
(e) There was intense rivalry among the European powers over trade, colonies, naval might and military might. European powers such as Russia, Germany, England and Austro-Hungary were keen on opposing the hold of other powers over the Balkans for extending their own area of control.
(f) All these events ultimately triggered the First World War (1914).
Q.9. To which country did the artist Frederic Sorrieu belong? [CBSE (Comptt.) 2017]
Q.10. Why did French artist, Frederic Sorrieu prepare a series of print based on democratic and socialist republics in 1848? [CBSE Sample Paper-2017]
Ans. To depict his Utopian vision where the people of the world are grouped as distinct nations, identified through the flag and national costumes offering homage to the Statue of Liberty.
Q.11. What was the strong demand for the emerging middle-classes in Europe during the nineteenth century? [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans. The strong demand for emerging middle classes in Europe was the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
Q.12. What was the objective of the Treaty of Vienna? OR What was the main aim of the Treaty of Vienna 1815? [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans. The aim was to reverse most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic war. The Bourbon dynasty, which had been deposed during the French Revolution, was restored to power.
Q.13. What was the meaning of liberalism in the early 19th century in Europe? [CBSE F 2016]
Ans. The term liberalism is derived from the Latin word liber meaning free. Thus for the new middle classes, liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law. Politically, it emphasized the concept of government by consent.
Q.14. What Metternich remarked about events in France? [CBSE 2016]
Ans. Metternich remarked, “When France sneezes, the rest of the Europe catches a cold”.
Q.15. What was the main aim of revolutionaries of Europe during the years following 1815? [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans. To oppose monarchical forms of government.
Q.16. Name the Treaty of 1832 that recognized Greece as an independent nation. [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans. Treaty of 1832: Constantinople Treaty.
Q.17. Name the event that mobilized nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe in 1830-1848? [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans. Event that mobilized nationalist feelings: The Greek War of Independence.
Q.18. Who was proclaimed the King of United Italy in 1861? [CBSE (AI) 2016]
Ans. Victor Emmanuel-II was proclaimed King of United Italy in 1861.
Q.19. What is an Allegory? State any one example to clarify the same. [ CBSE Sample Paper-2016]
Ans. Allegory: When an abstract idea for instance; greed, envy, freedom, liberty is expressed through a person or a thing. It is symbolic.
Examples. Statue of Liberty, Marianne, Germania, etc.
Q.20. Who remarked, “When France sneezes the rest of Europe catches a cold”. [CBSE (AI) 2016]
Q.21. Who was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles in January 1871? [CBSE (AI) 2016]
Ans. Kaiser William I of Prussia was proclaimed German Emperor.
Q.22. Explain the role of romanticism in the national feeling.
“The development of nationalism did not come about only through wars and territorial expansion. Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation.” Elaborate upon the statement. [ CBSE Sample Paper-2016]
Ans. Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation; art and poetry, stories and music. They all helped express and shape nationalist feelings.
(a) Romantic artists and poets created a sense of shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.
(b) It was through folk songs, folk poetry, and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularised.
(c) Emphasis was given on the vernacular language and the collection of folklore to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences.
Q.23. How had the female figures become an allegory of the nation during the nineteenth century in Europe? Analyze. [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans. The female figures as an allegory of the nation:
(a) Artists found a way out to represent a country in the form of a person.
(b) Then nations were portrayed as female figures.
(c) The female figure was chosen to personify the nation. It did not stand for any particular woman in real life.
(d) It gave the abstract idea of the nation a concrete form.
(e) Thus, the female figure became an allegory of the nation.
(f) During the French Revolution, artists used the female allegory to portray ideas such as Liberty, Justice and the Republic.
Q.24. “Culture had played an important role in the development of nationalism in Europe during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.” Support the statement with examples. [CBSE (F) 2016]
(a) Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation, art and poetry, stories and music helped to express and shape nationalist feelings.
(b) Emotions, intuition and mystical feelings were not focused.
(c) Their effort was to share collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.
(d) They criticized the glorification of reason and science.
(e) German philosopher Johann Gottfried popularized true spirit of the nation through folksongs, folk poetry and folk dance.
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Analyse the measures and practices introduced by the French Revolution to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.
Describe any five steps were taken by the French Revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity among the French people. [CBSE 2017]
Ans. The following steps were taken by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity among the French people :
(a) The ideas of the fatherland (la Patrie) and the citizen (le citoyen) were introduced.
(b) A new French flag, the tri - color, was chosen to replace the earlier royal standard.
(c) The Estates-General was renamed as National Assembly.
(d) New hymns were composed, oaths were taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation.
(e) A centralized administrative system was established.
(f) Uniform laws for all citizens were formulated.
(g) Internal custom duties and dues were abolished.
(h) A uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
(i) French, as it was written and spoken in Paris, became the common language of the nation. Regional dialects were discouraged.
(j) It was decided that the French nation would liberate the peoples of Europe from despotism, and help other peoples to become nations.
Q.2. Who hosted ‘Vienna Congress’ in 1815? Analyze the main changes brought by the ‘Vienna Treaty.’
Describe the main clauses of the Treaty of Vienna of 1815. [CBSE Delhi 2017]
Ans. The main clauses of the Treaty of Vienna signed in 1815 were: Vienna Congress: The Congress was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor “Duke Metternich”.
(a) The Bourbon dynasty which had been deposed during the French Revolution was restored to power.
(b) France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon.
(c) A series of states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent French extension in future.
(d) Kingdom of the Netherlands included Belgium was setup.
(e) Prussia was given important new territories on its western frontiers.
Q.3. Explain the nation-building process of Germany. [CBSE Sample Paper 2017]
Examine the Nation-State Building process in Germany after 1848. [CBSE (F) 2017, CBSE (Comptt.) 2017]
Ans. German Unification
(a) After 1848, nationalism in Europe moved away from its association with democracy and revolution.
(b) Nationalist sentiments were often mobilized by conservatives for promoting state power and achieving political domination over Europe.
(c) Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle-class Germans in 19th Century.
(d) In 1848 they tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament.
(e) This liberal initiative to nation-building was repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military, supported by the large landowners (called Junkers) of Prussia.
(f) Prussia took on the leadership of Otto von Bismarck, who became the architect of this process.
(g) Three wars over seven years - with Austria, Denmark and France - ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification.
(h) In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor.
Q.4. “The decade of 1830 had brought great economic hardship in Europe.” Support that statement with arguments.
Why was the decade of the 1830s known as the great economic hardship in Europe? Explain any three reasons.
Describe any three economic hardships faced by Europe in the 1830s. [CBSE 2016]
Ans. The 1830s were the years of great economic hardship in Europe due to the following reasons;
(a) There was an enormous increase in population all over Europe.
(b) There were more seekers of jobs than employment.
(c) People migrated from rural areas to the cities to live in overcrowded slums.
(d) There was a stiff competition between the products of small producers and machine-made products imported from England.
(e) Peasants’ condition was bad due to the burden of feudal dues and obligations.
(f) The prices of food had risen due to a bad harvest. This had resulted in widespread pauperism in town and country.
Q.5. Analyze the measures and practices introduced by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans. Measures and practices introduced by the French revolutionaries for collective identity:
(a) The ideas of la Patrie and le citoyen emphasized.
(b) A new French flag, the tri - color was chosen.
(c) The Estate General was elected by the active citizens.
(d) The elected body of active citizens renamed as National Assembly.
(e) New hymns were composed.
(f) Oaths were taken.
(g) Martyrs commemorated.
(h) A centralized administrative system was implemented.
(i) Formulated uniform laws.
(j) A uniform system of weights and measures were adopted.
(k) French became the common language of the nation.
Q.6. “Napoleon had destroyed democracy in France but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.” Analyze the statement with arguments. [CBSE (AI) 2016]
Ans. Napoleon had destroyed democracy in France but in the administrative field, he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.
(a) All privileges based on birth were removed.
(b) He had established equality before the law.
(c) Right to property was given.
(d) Simplified administrative divisions were made.
(e) The feudal system was abolished and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
(f) Guild restrictions were removed.
(g) Transport and communication systems were improved.
Q.7. “Nationalism no longer retained its idealistic liberal democratic sentiment by the last quarter of the nineteenth century in Europe.” Analyze the statement with examples. [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans. Nationalism in Europe- The Balkans:
(a) During this period, nationalist groups become increasingly intolerant of each other.
(b) Manipulations of the nationalist aspirations were there.
(c) The Balkan was under the control of the Ottoman Empire.
(d) Ideas of romantic nationalism spread in the Balkan.
(e) They claimed for independence or political rights on nationality and used history to prove that they had once been independent but had subsequently been subjugated by foreign domination.
(f) Russia, Germany, England, Austria-hungry were keen on countering the hold of other powers over the Balkans.
(g) This led to a series of wars in the region and finally the First World War.