Q1. Explain Romanticism as a cultural movement in Europe. 
Ans. Romanticism, became a cultural movement which helped to develop a particular kind of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists generally focused on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings. They criticised reasoning and the scientific temper.
Q2. Explain Frederic Sarrieu's dream in the context of democratic and social republics in France during 1848. 
Ans. Frederic Sorrieu was a French artists. In the year 1848 he prepared a series of four prints, in these four print, he visualised his dream of a world made up of democratic and social republics, as he called them.
Q3. Examine the significance of the Statue of Liberty in Frederic Sorrieu's paintings, ‘The Dream of Worldwide Democratic and Social Republics'. 
Ans. Statue of liberty is personified as women bearing the Torch of Enlightenment in one hand and the Charter of the Rights in the other.
Q4. Who was proclaimed as King of United Italy in 1861? 
Ans. Victor Emmanuel II
Q5. Name the ruler of Prussia who rejected the German Constitution and joined other monarchs to oppose elected assembly in 1848. 
Ans. Friedrich Wilhelm IV rejected the German constitution and joined other monarch to oppose elected assembly in 1848.
Q6. Why was Otto Von Bismarck considered as the architect of the unified Germany? 
Ans. Bismarck was a fearless leader and believed in the urgent need for unification in Germany. He started with the modernization of the army, defying the parliament in collecting taxes. His policy came to be known as ‘Blood and Iron’ policy and earned him the nickname of the lron Chancellor. It can be said that unification of Germany happened because of the German Army.
Q7. Which nation was identifiable in the revolutionary tricolour in Sorrieu's utopian vision? [Al 2019]
Q8. Interpret the concept of 'liberalisation' in the field of economic sphere during the nineteenth century in Europe. [Delhi 2019]
Ans. In the economic sphere, liberalism stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital in the nineteenth century.
Q9. Who founded the secret society, 'Young Italy' during the 1830s? [Delhi 2017]
Ans. During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini had sought to put together a coherent program for a unitary Italian Republic. He formed the secret society called Young Italy.
Q10. What was the main aim of revolutionaries of Europe during the years following 1815? 
Ans. The main aim of the revolutionaries of Europe in the years following 1815, was to oppose monarchial form of government It emphasized the notion of united community which would have equal rights under a constitution.
Q11. What was the main aim of Treaty of Vienna 1815? 
Ans. The main aim of the Treaty of Vienna (1815) was to undo, most of the changes that had come about in Europe duringthe Napoleonic wars.
Q12. What was the strong demand of the emerging middle classes in Europe during nineteenth century? 
Ans. Freedom of the markets and abolition of state imposed restriction on movement of goods.
Q13. Who was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles in January 1871? 
Ans. Kaiser William-I of Prussia.
Ans. Otto von Bismarck played a crucial role in the making of Germany in the following ways:
- After Napoleon's defeat in 1815, many Germans desired an independent Germany. Kaiser William I, the King of Prussia, chose Chief Minister Bismarck to unify Germany under the rule of Prussia.
- Bismarck modernized the army and defied the parliament in collecting taxes, following his policy known as the 'Blood and Iron' policy, earning him the nickname of the 'Iron Chancellor'.
- Bismarck improved the army and encouraged the German population of Schleswig and Holstein to revolt against their ruler Denmark. He joined hands with Austria against Denmark and later defeated Austria, forming the North German Confederation.
- Bismarck successfully kept Italy, Russia, and Napoleon III of France out of war through diplomacy and negotiations.
- The unification of Germany was completed under Kaiser William I in 1871. Germany emerged as the leading power in Europe, building a colonial empire to further German economic interests and increase German influence in the world.
- It resulted in the transfer of power from King Louis XVI to the National Assembly.
- A collective identity of the people developed.
- The Estate General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
- Jacobin clubs were set up for the propagation of liberal thoughts.
- A new French Flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard.
- Regional dialects were discouraged and French became the common language of the nation.
Ans. Culture played a significant role in creating the idea of the nation through European Romanticism of the nineteenth century in the following ways:
- Romanticism was a cultural movement that aimed to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment.
- Romantic artists and poets generally criticized the glorification of reason and science and focused instead on emotions, intuitions, and mystical feelings.
- Their effort was to create a sense of a shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.
Ans. For the new middle classes in France, liberalism meant:
- Freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law.
- Politically, it emphasized the concept of government by consent.
- In the economic sphere, liberalism stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
Q5. How had Napoleonic code exported to the regions under French control? Explain with examples. [CBSE Delhi 2019]
- The Napoleonic Code was drafted by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force in 1804.
- The Code was a major step in replacing the previous patchwork of feudal laws. It has a special place as it is one of the few documents that have influenced the whole world.
- The Napoleonic Code was not the first legal code to be established in a European country with a civil legal system; it was preceded by many but it was, however, the first modern legal code to be adopted with a pan-European scope, and it strongly influenced the law of many of the countries formed during and after the Napoleonic Wars.
- The Napoleonic Code influenced developing countries outside Europe, especially in the Middle East, attempting to modernize their countries through legal reforms.
Q6. What do you understand by Liberalism? Describe their ideas in the political, social and economic spheres. Or Ideas of national unity in early-nineteenth-century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. What did it mean for the middle class in France? Explain. [CBSE Sample Question Paper 2018]
(1) The term ‘liberalism’ is derived from the Latin word liber, meaning free. Thus, for the new middle classes, liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law.
(a) Political ideas
(i) It emphasized the concept of government by consent.
(ii) Since the French Revolution, liberalism stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through Parliament.
(iii) It did not necessarily stand for universal suffrage. Thus in the 19th and 20th centuries, there were movements demanding equal political rights.
(b) Social ideas: The liberals supported the abolition of discrimination based on birth.
(c) Economic ideas: It supported the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital. During the 19th Century this was a strong demand for the emerging middle classes.
Q7. Why did big European powers meet in Berlin in 1885? [CBSE 2018]
Ans. The big European powers met in Berlin in 1885 to divide Africa among themselves. They wanted to divide Africa to gain control over the continent's natural resources for the development of their industries.
Q8. Which power dominated the nation-building process in Germany? [CBSE 2018, Sample Paper]
Ans. Prussian State.
Q9. Describe any three conditions that led to the formation of the British Nation-State. [CBSE Foreign-2017]
In Britain, the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution. Validate the statement with relevant arguments. [CBSE Foreign-2017]
Ans. The conditions that led to the formation of the British Nation State were:
(a) The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones - such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish. All of these ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions. But as the English nation steadily grew in wealth, importance and power, it was able to extend its influence over the other nations of the islands.
(b) The English Parliament, which had seized power from the monarchy in 1688 at the end of a protracted conflict, was the instrument through which a nation-state, with England at its centre, came to be forged.
(c) The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland that resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’ meant, in effect, that England was able to impose its influence on Scotland. The British parliament was henceforth dominated by its English members.
Q10. ‘Ideas of national unity in the early nineteenth century Europe was closely allied to the ideology of liberalism’. Support the statement with arguments. [CBSE Sample Paper-2017, CBSE (Comp) 2017]
Liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law. Politically, it emphasized the concept of government by consent.
(a) Derived from’ liber’ means free.
(b) Stood for freedom for all and equality for all before the law.
(c) Politically -Government by consent.
(d) Universal suffrage, right to vote for all.
(e) French revolution stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament.
(f) Struggles for equal political rights.
(g) It stressed on inviolability of private property.
(h) Freedom of markets and abolition of state restrictions.
Q11. Describe any three Economic Hardship faced by Europe in the 1930s.
Describe the great economic hardship that prevailed in Europe during the 1830s.
The 1830s were years of great economic hardship in Europe. Explain how?
“The decade of 1830 had brought great economic hardship in Europe”. Support the statement with arguments. [CBSE (A1) 2017]
Ans. Economic hardships faced by Europe in the 1830s :
(a) There was enormous increase in population all over Europe. In most countries, there were more seekers of jobs than employment.
(b) Population from rural areas migrated to the cities to live in overcrowded slums.
(c) Small producers in towns were often faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machine-made goods from England.
(d) In those regions of Europe where the aristocracy still enjoyed power, peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations.
(e) The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in town and country.
Q12. ‘The idealistic liberal-democratic sentiment of nationalism became a narrow creed with limited ends.’ Support the statement in the context of Balkan nationalism in the early 19th century. [CBSE Sample Paper-2017]
Ans. The Balkans comprised modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro.
(a) The disintegration of the ruling Ottoman Empire and the spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism made this area explosive.
(b) The European subject nationalities started breaking from its control to declare independence.
(c) The Balkan revolutionaries’ acts were directed to gain back the long-lost independence.
(d) The Balkan States wore fiercely jealous of each other and wanted to gain more territory at the expense of the other.
(e) There was intense rivalry among the European powers over trade, colonies, naval might and military might. European powers such as Russia, Germany, England and Austro-Hungary were keen on opposing the hold of other powers over the Balkans for extending their own area of control.
(f) All these events ultimately triggered the First World War (1914).
Q13. To which country did the artist Frederic Sorrieu belong? [CBSE (Comptt.) 2017]
Q14. Why did French artist, Frederic Sorrieu prepare a series of print based on democratic and socialist republics in 1848? [CBSE Sample Paper-2017]
Ans. To depict his Utopian vision where the people of the world are grouped as distinct nations, identified through the flag and national costumes offering homage to the Statue of Liberty.
Q15. What was the strong demand for the emerging middle-classes in Europe during the nineteenth century? [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans. The strong demand for emerging middle classes in Europe was the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
Q16. What was the objective of the Treaty of Vienna? OR What was the main aim of the Treaty of Vienna 1815? [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans. The aim was to reverse most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic war. The Bourbon dynasty, which had been deposed during the French Revolution, was restored to power.
Q17. What was the meaning of liberalism in the early 19th century in Europe? [CBSE F 2016]
Ans. The term liberalism is derived from the Latin word liber meaning free. Thus for the new middle classes, liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law. Politically, it emphasized the concept of government by consent.
Q18. What Metternich remarked about events in France? [CBSE 2016]
Ans. Metternich remarked, “When France sneezes, the rest of the Europe catches a cold”.
Q19. What was the main aim of revolutionaries of Europe during the years following 1815? [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans. To oppose monarchical forms of government.
Q20. Name the Treaty of 1832 that recognized Greece as an independent nation. [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans. Treaty of 1832: Constantinople Treaty.
Q21. Name the event that mobilized nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe in 1830-1848? [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans. Event that mobilized nationalist feelings: The Greek War of Independence.
Q22. Who was proclaimed the King of United Italy in 1861? [CBSE (AI) 2016]
Ans. Victor Emmanuel-II was proclaimed King of United Italy in 1861.
Q23. What is an Allegory? State any one example to clarify the same. [ CBSE Sample Paper-2016]
Ans. Allegory: When an abstract idea for instance; greed, envy, freedom, liberty is expressed through a person or a thing. It is symbolic.
Examples. Statue of Liberty, Marianne, Germania, etc.
Q24. Who remarked, “When France sneezes the rest of Europe catches a cold”. [CBSE (AI) 2016]
Q25. Who was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles in January 1871? [CBSE (AI) 2016]
Ans. Kaiser William I of Prussia was proclaimed German Emperor.
Q26. Explain the role of romanticism in the national feeling.
“The development of nationalism did not come about only through wars and territorial expansion. Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation.” Elaborate upon the statement. [ CBSE Sample Paper-2016]
Ans. Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation; art and poetry, stories and music. They all helped express and shape nationalist feelings.
(a) Romantic artists and poets created a sense of shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.
(b) It was through folk songs, folk poetry, and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularised.
(c) Emphasis was given on the vernacular language and the collection of folklore to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences.
Q27. How had the female figures become an allegory of the nation during the nineteenth century in Europe? Analyze. [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans. The female figures as an allegory of the nation:
(a) Artists found a way out to represent a country in the form of a person.
(b) Then nations were portrayed as female figures.
(c) The female figure was chosen to personify the nation. It did not stand for any particular woman in real life.
(d) It gave the abstract idea of the nation a concrete form.
(e) Thus, the female figure became an allegory of the nation.
(f) During the French Revolution, artists used the female allegory to portray ideas such as Liberty, Justice and the Republic.
Q28. “Culture had played an important role in the development of nationalism in Europe during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.” Support the statement with examples. [CBSE (F) 2016]
(a) Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation, art and poetry, stories and music helped to express and shape nationalist feelings.
(b) Emotions, intuition and mystical feelings were not focused.
(c) Their effort was to share collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.
(d) They criticized the glorification of reason and science.
(e) German philosopher Johann Gottfried popularized true spirit of the nation through folksongs, folk poetry and folk dance.
Ans: The Greek war of independence mobilized nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe through various factors:
Greece was seen as a part of Europe that had been annexed by the Ottomans and needed to be liberated. This idea resonated with the educated elite who believed in the principles of freedom and self-determination.
Greece was considered the foundation and cradle of civilization in Europe by poets and artists. This romanticized view of Greek culture and history led to a sense of nationalist consciousness among the educated elite.
Greek nationalists received support from other Greeks living in exile across Europe. These exiles played a crucial role in spreading the message of Greek independence and garnering support from the educated elite.
Many Europeans had a natural sympathy for the ancient Greek civilization and its contributions to art, philosophy, and democracy. This admiration for Greek culture further fueled nationalist sentiments among the educated elite.
The conflict between Greece and the Ottoman Empire was viewed as a clash between Christian Europe and Muslim powers. This religious aspect of the war appealed to the religious sentiments of the educated elite, further mobilizing their nationalist feelings.
Overall, the Greek war of independence served as a catalyst for nationalist sentiments among the educated elite across Europe, who saw Greece as a symbol of freedom, cultural heritage, and the struggle against foreign oppression.
Q2. Describe the explosive conditions prevailing in the Balkans after 1871 in Europe. (2018)
Ans: After 1871, the Balkans became a region of explosive conditions in Europe due to several factors:
- One of the main reasons was the spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans. The subject nationalities of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans, such as the Serbs, Bulgarians, and Greeks, started to assert their national identities and demand independence or political rights based on their nationality. They used historical arguments to prove that they had once been independent but had been subjugated by foreign powers.
- This led to a series of rebellions and uprisings in the Balkans as these nationalities sought to regain their long-lost independence. The disintegration of the Ottoman Empire further fueled these aspirations for independence.
- The intense conflicts in the Balkans were also driven by the rivalries among the European powers. Russia, Germany, England, and Austro-Hungary all had their own imperialistic aims in the region. They competed for trade, colonies, and naval and military dominance, leading to a complex web of alliances and rivalries.
- The Balkan states themselves were fiercely jealous of each other and sought to expand their territories at the expense of their neighbors. This territorial competition added another layer of tension and conflict in the region.
- These explosive conditions ultimately culminated in the outbreak of the First World War, as the rivalries and conflicts in the Balkans became intertwined with the larger power struggles among the European nations.
- Overall, the Balkans after 1871 were marked by intense nationalism, territorial disputes, and the rivalries of the European powers, making the region highly volatile and prone to conflict.
Q3. Analyse the measures and practices introduced by the French Revolution to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.
Describe any five steps were taken by the French Revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity among the French people. [CBSE 2017]
Ans. The following steps were taken by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity among the French people :
(a) The ideas of the fatherland (la Patrie) and the citizen (le citoyen) were introduced.
(b) A new French flag, the tri - color, was chosen to replace the earlier royal standard.
(c) The Estates-General was renamed as National Assembly.
(d) New hymns were composed, oaths were taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation.
(e) A centralized administrative system was established.
(f) Uniform laws for all citizens were formulated.
(g) Internal custom duties and dues were abolished.
(h) A uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
(i) French, as it was written and spoken in Paris, became the common language of the nation. Regional dialects were discouraged.
(j) It was decided that the French nation would liberate the peoples of Europe from despotism, and help other peoples to become nations.
Q4. Who hosted ‘Vienna Congress’ in 1815? Analyze the main changes brought by the ‘Vienna Treaty.’
Describe the main clauses of the Treaty of Vienna of 1815. [CBSE Delhi 2017]
Ans. The main clauses of the Treaty of Vienna signed in 1815 were: Vienna Congress: The Congress was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor “Duke Metternich”.
(a) The Bourbon dynasty which had been deposed during the French Revolution was restored to power.
(b) France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon.
(c) A series of states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent French extension in future.
(d) Kingdom of the Netherlands included Belgium was setup.
(e) Prussia was given important new territories on its western frontiers.
Q5. Explain the nation-building process of Germany. [CBSE Sample Paper 2017]
Examine the Nation-State Building process in Germany after 1848. [CBSE (F) 2017, CBSE (Comptt.) 2017]
Ans. German Unification
(a) After 1848, nationalism in Europe moved away from its association with democracy and revolution.
(b) Nationalist sentiments were often mobilized by conservatives for promoting state power and achieving political domination over Europe.
(c) Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle-class Germans in 19th Century.
(d) In 1848 they tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament.
(e) This liberal initiative to nation-building was repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military, supported by the large landowners (called Junkers) of Prussia.
(f) Prussia took on the leadership of Otto von Bismarck, who became the architect of this process.
(g) Three wars over seven years - with Austria, Denmark and France - ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification.
(h) In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor.
Q6. “The decade of 1830 had brought great economic hardship in Europe.” Support that statement with arguments.
Why was the decade of the 1830s known as the great economic hardship in Europe? Explain any three reasons.
Describe any three economic hardships faced by Europe in the 1830s. [CBSE 2016]
Ans. The 1830s were the years of great economic hardship in Europe due to the following reasons;
(a) There was an enormous increase in population all over Europe.
(b) There were more seekers of jobs than employment.
(c) People migrated from rural areas to the cities to live in overcrowded slums.
(d) There was a stiff competition between the products of small producers and machine-made products imported from England.
(e) Peasants’ condition was bad due to the burden of feudal dues and obligations.
(f) The prices of food had risen due to a bad harvest. This had resulted in widespread pauperism in town and country.
Q7. Analyze the measures and practices introduced by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans. Measures and practices introduced by the French revolutionaries for collective identity:
(a) The ideas of la Patrie and le citoyen emphasized.
(b) A new French flag, the tri - color was chosen.
(c) The Estate General was elected by the active citizens.
(d) The elected body of active citizens renamed as National Assembly.
(e) New hymns were composed.
(f) Oaths were taken.
(g) Martyrs commemorated.
(h) A centralized administrative system was implemented.
(i) Formulated uniform laws.
(j) A uniform system of weights and measures were adopted.
(k) French became the common language of the nation.
Q8. “Napoleon had destroyed democracy in France but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.” Analyze the statement with arguments. [CBSE (AI) 2016]
Ans. Napoleon had destroyed democracy in France but in the administrative field, he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.
(a) All privileges based on birth were removed.
(b) He had established equality before the law.
(c) Right to property was given.
(d) Simplified administrative divisions were made.
(e) The feudal system was abolished and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
(f) Guild restrictions were removed.
(g) Transport and communication systems were improved.
Q9. “Nationalism no longer retained its idealistic liberal democratic sentiment by the last quarter of the nineteenth century in Europe.” Analyze the statement with examples. [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans. Nationalism in Europe- The Balkans:
(a) During this period, nationalist groups become increasingly intolerant of each other.
(b) Manipulations of the nationalist aspirations were there.
(c) The Balkan was under the control of the Ottoman Empire.
(d) Ideas of romantic nationalism spread in the Balkan.
(e) They claimed for independence or political rights on nationality and used history to prove that they had once been independent but had subsequently been subjugated by foreign domination.
(f) Russia, Germany, England, Austria-hungry were keen on countering the hold of other powers over the Balkans.
(g) This led to a series of wars in the region and finally the First World War.
|1. What factors contributed to the rise of nationalism in Europe?|
|2. How did the idea of nationalism spread in Europe?|
|3. How did nationalism impact the political landscape of Europe?|
|4. What were the challenges faced by nationalist movements in Europe?|
|5. How did nationalism contribute to both positive and negative outcomes in Europe?|