Facts That Matter
- There are several classes in an ity. Elite, upper class, upper-middle-class, middle class, lower-middle-class, lower class and below the poverty line.
- Although we do share common infrastructure (walk facilities, monuments).
- But there are differences, as people are recognized on the basis of acclaimed status e.g., Bollywood actors, actresses, directors etc. Only the actors reap the benefits and stunt artists, dancer, etc are not noticed.
- Marketing, advertisements, trailers have really helped Bollywood.
- Different classes of people who eat at all different places, some eat at 5-star restaurants while some eat on the roadside.
- Major changes occurring in a city in urban areas can be attributed to science and technology.
- The professions that the women would choose were quite limited (teachers, nurses) but
- now there are many options but some fields are male-dominated as fighter pilots.
- Because of science and technology, a lot of disparities have been bridged.
- A lower class can become an upper-caste by working hard.
- Even today society depends upon the people inhabiting the place, the area.
Social features associated with industrialization
Thinkers like Karl Marx, Max Weber and Emile Durkheim associated a number of social features with industry such as:
- The loss of face-to-face relationships that were found in rural areas where people worked on their own farms or for a landlord they knew, and their substitution by anonymous professional relationships in modern factories and workplaces. industrialization involves a detailed division of labour.
- People often do not see the end result of their work because they are producing only one small part of a product.
- The work is repetitive and exhausting. But even this is better than having no work at all, i.e., being unemployed. Marx called this situation alienation, when people do not enjoy working, and see it as something they have to do only in order to survive, and even that survival depends on whether the technology has room for any human labour.
- industrialization leads to greater equality, at least in some spheres. For example, caste distinctions do not matter any more on trains, buses or in cyber cafes.
- On the other hand, older forms of discrimination may persist even in new factory or workplace settings. And even as social inequalities are reducing, economic or income inequality is growing in the world.
- Often social inequality and income inequality overlap, for example, in the domination of upper caste men in well-paying professions like medicine, law or journalism. Women often get paid less than men for similar work.
industrialization and Modernisation
- While the early sociologists saw industrialization as both positive and negative, by the mid 20th century, under the influence of modernisation theory, industrialization came to be seen as inevitable and positive.
- Modernisation theory argues that societies are at different stages on the road to modernisation, but they are all heading in the same direction. Modern society, for these theorists, is represented by the West.
Industrialisation in the society (India)
- In many ways similar to the western model and in many ways different. Comparative analysis of different countries suggests that there is no standard model of industrial capitalism.
One point of difference is relating to what kind of work people are doing.
- In developed countries, the majority of people are in the services sector, followed by industry and less than 10% are in agriculture (ILO figures). In India, in 1999-2000, nearly 60% were employed in the primary sector (agriculture and mining), 17% in the secondary sector (manufacturing, construction and utilities), and 23% in the tertiary sector (trade, transport, financial services etc.)
- The contribution of these sectors to economic growth, the share of agriculture has declined sharply, and services contribute approximately more than half. This is a very serious situation because it means that the sector where the maximum people are employed is not able to generate much income for them.
- Second point of difference is the number of people in regular salaried employment. In developed countries, the majority are formally employed. In India, over 50% of the population is self-employed, only about 14% are in regular salaried employment, while approximately 30% are in casual labour (Anant 2005: 239).
Features of organised sector
1. 10 people are employed.
2. Rules and regulations are already set.
3. Allowances, bonuses, provident funds are a social implication of unorganised sector.
4. Do not have any savings
When they retire they get money from their kids.
No security for old age-dependent on children.
5. There are laws for security of unorganised sector by the government not implemented.
Minimum wage has been set but not given properly.
No records, on paper they show it differently.
They are on the mercy of the employer.
6. In unorganised sector, the people cannot fight on ethereal grounds.
Social Implication of Organised Sector
1. Fixed rules and regulations.
2. Mode of payment has to be transparent on both sides-employee and employer.
3. There is a proper procedure to be followed by employer or vice versa.
4. Employee cannot be removed from the job without prior notice.
5. An employee cannot be removed until their retirement age in the government.
6. There are a lot of perks gratuities, bonuses, provident fund, travel allowance.
Industrialisation in Early Years in Independent India
1. Jute, iron, cotton, railways, coal prospered during the British rule and continued to prosper even after Independence.
- The government was in control of the public sector.
- The government decided that some industries should be privatised like coal, jute.
- Now, India started having a mixed sector combination of public and private.
- But some sectors were not privatised-railways, defence, coal mines, telecom services.
- During the colonial rule, the port cities were Calcutta, Bombay, Madras.
- How many other cities have become very important Coimbatore, Faridabad, Pune, Bangaluru slowly became industrial cities.
- Government realised that many people were employed and have started small scale industries/cottage industries and the government began to support them (jute bags, pots, carpets, unorganised sector 70%.
- Around 30% is organised large scale industries.
Changes in Indian Industries: Globalisation and Liberalisation
- It is in the 1900's when globalisation came to India.
- Lot of changes and rules were introduced in the industries by WTO.
- Globalisation is the interrelationship between the local economy and global economy.
- It involves all aspects of life social, economic, cultural, political, ecological.
- Liberalisation is the economic aspect of globalisation.
- Removal of trade barriers, tariffs, taxes, international boundaries easy to cross borders, people, commodities, capital, technology.
- With the coming of globalisation large and small MNC's grew tremendously.
- The foreign companies started investing in India and began setting up branches.
- There is a lot of unemployment in large scale industries.
- Wages are low as the small scale industries want to attach themselves to the large scale industries.
- Outsourcing is mainly done by private sectors but some government sectors also outsource.
How are Jobs found?
- In older days it was from word of mouth personal relationships "near and dear friends".
- Later it moved to newspapers, magazines, ads.
- Nowadays, there are websites and HR requirements of major companies like MNC's.
- Employment exchanges register your name and qualification and they call you whenever there is a job available.
- Very influential people also known as ministries in small factories, towns and even cities.
- They are workers in the factories.
- Many companies have also started outsourcing (outsource security, gardening. catering or outsource various parts of the product and may not be manufactured by the company).
- Cost of production goes down can concentrate on final product.
- No additional hurdles for trade unions.
- Do not want union to be formed in different sectors.
- If the supplier does not supply products on time it is upto the company to make up lost time and make the workers work overtime.
- This is not done only for money but goodwill or reputation of company.
- The quality may not be upto the mark.
- One has to be constantly vigilant to involve that the quality is maintained.
Times Slavery-Slaves to time
- The concept of Taylorism has been applied to the IT sector in which each person does his/her work at a given time span.
- Night out The professionals work the whole night but this is not the same as overtime but this is voluntary.
- Fixed time There is no fixed time, but have to work for 8 hours.
- Can select their time slot, working hours.
- There are three cities which are the hub of IT
1. Bengaluru-Silicon city
2. Hyderabad-Hitech city
3. Gurgaon-Cyber city
- To cater to the needs of the people eating joints, shops, hotels, etc are open overnight creating employment and cater to these people.
- Three reasons for staying overnight
1. To finish work.
2. If you are unable to finish your work, the other persons will not be able to do their work.
3. They do it to please the boss.
- Joint families are going up as both parents are working and they need to keep grandparents and children secure.
- The value system cannot be taught by the paid help.
- In same places, it wasn't good (small factories) not hygienic insecurity.
- Working conditions in Mines.
- In 1952 an Act called the Mines Act was passed. The government said that owners of the mines have to follow certain acts/rules.
- One regulation is that workers have to be paid proper wages and each person should know the number of hours he is working in the mines (hours should be fixed).
- All safety rules have to be followed as lives are otherwise in danger.
- Applicable to every factory.
- Unfortunately, many small factories do not follow the rules that are laid down.
- Large factories have to follow rules as a lot is at stake as they are in the public eye.
- All people in the mines are not registered. Since they are not registered properly in case something happens to them their families cannot get compensation.
- If any worker is injured no compensation is paid.
- There are 2 types of workers in mines.
- Underground (inside the ground)
- Fumes, which if inhaled can cause a serious problem.
- Lung infections, tuberculosis.
- Collapsing of walls and roofs.
- Lack of ventilation, aging fast, poor eyesight
- One the ground Problems:
- Dig up the mines and do not fill up the pits before moving to another site so other workers can fall and injure themselves.
- They are exposed to weather conditions (sun and rain) and result in skin diseases.
- Sometimes they used to blast the ground and if precautions are not taken people can get seriously injured or die.
- Unhygienic conditions.
- Long working hours overburdening, fear of insecurity
- Fear of insecurity (ready to work for low wages)
- Living conditions are poor.
- Women who work are paid less, no respect for them due to inefficiency and ignorance they are so overworked and exhausted that they have no time for social interactions (they get drunk and sleep in their free time they have).
- No time for their family.
- Life is very tough so women are becoming independent and self-aware, getting educated taking their own decisions and are quite self-sufficient.
- House Based Industries
- Many house based Industries are there in India.
- It is not as rosy as it looks.
- Most of them are in unorganised sectors.
- Carpets, borders, Zari, matchboxes, bags, bidi are some of the examples.
- Mainly done by women and children.
- Paid by single piece, dozen, box etc depending on the product.
- Tendu leaves (leaves in which the bidi is made): Tendu leaves are collected and are soaked and the women and children make the bidi's and sell it back to the contractors. The leaves are collected by the workers of private owners and government officials and are handed to the forest officials who auction the leaves to private owners.
- These private owners employ contractors who go to the village and hand over the tendu leaves to women and children.
- Contractors collect the bidis and the women and children are paid meagerly. These bundles go back to factories. In factories a signature label and scent is added. It is given to distributors who give it in wholesale market to shopkeepers who sell it to us.
Strikes and Unions
- Strike is a situation where workers restrain from work because they want better wages.
- It is a very risky proposition for the workers as the employer may not take them back after the strike.
- Lockout is when the management closes down these factory or industry for some time.
- This may be due to:
2. Case pending on the factory
3. Selling it off
4. Exchange of hands
- In a lockout unlike strike the management has to pay a compensation or take back the employees.
- Union is an association formed to protect the interest of the factory workers.
- TAI (Textile Association of India) by Gandhi was the first trade association.
Bombay Textile Mill Strike-1982
- It was led by the trade union leader Dr. Datta Samant.
- Affected quarter-million workers and their families.
- Trade Union Association formed to ensure the welfare of the people.
- They wanted higher wages.
- Rashtriya Mill Mazdoor Sangh-Trade union supported by Congress in 1982.
- The union need to be approved by the government.
- This act was given by BIRA- Bombay Industrial Relations Act.
- Strike consisted of 1000 workers.
- They may not get their jobs back.
- Unfortunately, the mill got Badli workers so the work in the factory did not stop.
- After 2- years the strike was a failure.
- Many workers did not get their jobs back.
- Very few got jobs back.
- Workers went back to their villages to look for other jobs.
- Went to other villages for work in factories.
- Some took up casual laborer jobs and the some led to migrate which affected their family life.
- Mill owners stopped buying new machineries and didn't upgrade them.
- They sold it to property dealers.
- This was the time when mills disappeared and buildings came up.
- The whole scenario in Bombay changed