Changing cultural iraaitions
The phenomenon that mark the change ofcultural Traditions in Europe is
From the fourteenth to the end of the seventeenth century towns were growing in many countries of Europe. Adistinct 'Urban Culture'also developed.
Florence, Venice and Rome became centers of art and learning. The invention of printing att h e same time made books and prints available to many people. A sense of history also developed in Europe.
Religion came to be se en as something which each individual should choose for himself. The church's belief was overturned by Scientists.
The revival of Italian cities
Western Europe was being reshaped by feudal bonds and unified under the Latin Church and eastern Europe under the Byzantine Empire, and Islam was Creating a common civilisation further west, Italy was weak and fragmented. The ports on the Italian coast revived.
Independent City States - Florence and Venice
- Rich merchants and bankers actively participated in governing the city.
Univercities and Humanism
The universities of Padua and Bologna had been centers of legal studies.
Increased demand for lawyers and notaries
By the early fifteenth century, the term 'humanist' was used for masters who taught grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history and moral philosophy. The Latin word humanitas, from which 'humanities' was derived, had been used many centuries ago by the Roman lawyer and essayist Cicero. The term' Renaissance Man' is often used to describe a person with many interests and skills.
Periodisation used by humanists
5th-14th Century - The Middle Ages
5th-9th Century - TheDarkAges
9th-11th Century - The Early Middle Ages
11th-14th Century - The Late Middle Ages
15th Century onwards - The Modern Age
Science and Philosophy:
The Arab's Contribution. In the fourteenth century, many scholars began to read translated works of greek writers Plato and Aristotle.
- These were works on Natural science, Mathematics, astronomy, medicine and chemistry. Muslim writers were regarded as men of wisdom in the Italian world, were Ibn Sin a and al-Razi. Humanist Subjects began to be introduced in Schools.
Artists and Realism
Knowledge of geometry helped them understand perspective and that by noting the changing quality of light, their pictures acquired a three - dimensional quality.
Anatomy, Geometry, physics, as well as a strong sense of what was beautiful, gave a newquality to Italian art, which was to be called realism'
Aspirations of women -
The first printed book-Anew concept of human beings the Copernican Revolution.
Cathedral of Florence, Ptolemy's Almagest, The Pieta ' by Michelangelo, The Prince by Machiavell; The Courtier by Bathasar Castiglione
The Latin word humanists from which 'humanities' was derived, had been used many centuries ago by the Roman lawyer and essayist Cicero. It is not drawn from or connected with religion.
The New Testament -
The New Testament is the section of the Bible dealing with the life and teachings of Christ and his earlyfollowers.
The Renaissance Man -
The term ' Renaissance Man' is often used to describe a person with many interests and skills. They were scholar-diplomat-theologian - artist combined in one.