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JEE Revision Notes

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Drugs:

Analgesics

  • Description - Relieve or decreases the pain without causing unconsciousness. These are also known as “Pain Killers”.
  • Examples - Asprin, Analgin, seridon etc.

Tranquizers/ Antidepressants

  • Description - These are used for treatment of mental diseases.
  • Examples - Equanil, Calmpose, Tofranil, Barbituric Acid, Cocaine and Iproniazids etc.

Antiseptics

  • Description - They are applied on living tissues to kill or prevent the growth of micro-organisms.
  • Examples - Dettol, Savlon and Acriflavin etc.

Disinfectants

  • Description - These are applied on floor, instruments or wall etc. to kill microorganisms but are not safe for application on living tissues.
  • Examples - Phenol

Antimicrobial

  • Description - These are use to either kill (bactericidal) or stop the growth of diseases causing microorganisms. (bacteriostatic).
  • Examples - Salvarsan, Prontosil, Sulphanilamide, Bacteriostatic Drugs: Erythromycin, Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol Bactericidal Drugs: Ofloxacin, Aminoglycosides.

Antipyretics

  • Description - These drugs bring down the body temperature during fever.
  • Examples - Paracetamol, Analgin and  Novalgin.

Antifertility Drugs

  • Description - Prevent pregnancy in women by controlling menstrual cycle and ovulation.
  • Examples - Norethindrone & Mestranol

Antacids

  • Description - Used for the treatment of acidity. Metal hydroxides are generally used as antacids.
  • Examples - Eno, & Milk of magnesia [Mg(OH)2]

Antibiotics

  • Description - These are the chemical substances which are produced by micro –organisms like bacteria and fungi and are able to kill or stop the growth of pathogenic microorganisms.
  • Examples - Penicillin, Amoxicillin and Ampicillin.

Antihistamins

  • Description - These drugs compete with histamine for finding sites of receptors and thus interfere with the natural action of histamine.
  • Examples - Brompheniramine & Terfenadine

Artificial Sweetening Agents
 Notes | EduRev

Food preservatives:
These are the chemical substances which prevent undesirable changes in flavor, colour, texture of the food during processing and storage of food.
Examples: Table salt, sugar, vegetable oils, sodium benzoate (C6H5COONa) etc.

Cleansing Agents
Soaps:
Sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids.
 Notes | EduRev
Soaps do not work with hard water as it forms insoluble salts with calcium and magnesium ions present in hard water.

Detergents:
Sodium or potassium salts of sulphonic acids. These can work with hard water also.
Anionic Detergents: Sodium Slats of sulphonated long chain alcohols or hydrocarbons
 Notes | EduRev
Cationic Detergents: Quaternary ammonium salts of ammines with acetates, chlorates or bromates.
 Notes | EduRev
Non-Ionic Detergents: Do not contain any ion.
 Notes | EduRev

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