Resolution of Complex
- Identification with same sex parent.
- Giving up sexual feeling for sex parent.
Failure of a child to pass successfully through a stage leads to fixation to that stage. The child’s development gets arrested at an earlier stage.
Regression occurs when a person’s resolution of problems at any stage of development is less than adequate. People display behaviours typing of a less mature stage of development.
- Post-Freudian Approach Neo-analytic or Post-Freudian View
(i) Less prominent role to sexual and aggressive tendencies of the Id.
(ii) Expansion of the concept ego.
(iii) Emphasis on human qualities of creativity, competence, and problem-solving.
1. Carl Jung: Aims and Aspirations are the source of energy
(i) Saw human being as guided by aims and aspirations.
(ii) Analytical Psychology; personality consists of competing forces and structures within the individual (that must be balanced) rather than between the individual and the demand of society, or between the individual and reality.
(iii) Collective unconscious consisting of archetypes or primordial images; not individually acquired, but are inherited—found in myths, dreams and arts of all mankind.
(iv) The self-strive for unity and oneness; for achieving which, a person must become increasingly aware of the wisdom available in one’s personal and collective unconscious, and must learn to live harmony with it.
2. Karen Horney: Optimism
(i) Optimistic view of human life with emphasis on human growth and self actualisation
(ii) Challenge to Freud’s treatment of women as inferior—each sex has attributes to be admire by the other, and neither sex can be viewed as superior or inferior; countered that women were more likely to be affected by social and cultural factors than by biological factors.
(iii) Psychological disorders were caused by disturbed interpersonal relationship during childhood.
(iv) When parent’s behaviour toward a child is indifferent, discouraging and erratic, the child feels insecure and a feeling called basic anxiety results—deep resentment toward parents or basic hostility occur due to this anxiety.
3. Alfred Adler: Lifestyle and Social Interest source of energy-attainment of personal goals.
(i) Individual Psychology: human behaviour is purposeful and goal directed.
(ii) Each one of us has the capacity to choose and create.
(iii) Personal goals, goals that provide us with security and help us in overcoming the feelings of inadequacy, are the sources of our motivation.
(iv) Every individual suffers from the feeling of inadequacy and guilt, i.e., inferiority complex, which arise from childhood.
4. Erich Fromm: The Human Concerns
(i) Social orientation viewed human beings as social beings who could be understood in terms of their relationship with others.
(ii) Character traits (personality) develop from our experiences with their individuals.
(iii) Psychological qualities such as growth from our experiences of potentials resulted from A desire for freedom. And striving for justice and truth.
(iv) People’s dominant character traits in a given work as forces in shaping the social processes and the culture itself
5. Erik Erikson: Search for Identity
(i) Rational, conscious ego processes in personality development.
(ii) Development is viewed as a lifelong process, and ego identity is granted a central place in this process.
(iii) Identity crisis at the adolescent age—young people must generate for themselves a central perspective and a direction that can give them a meaningful sense of unity and purpose.
• Criticism to Psychodynamic Theories
- The theories are largely based on case studies; they lack a rigorous scientific basis.
- They use small and a typical individual as samples for advancing generalisations.
- The concepts are not properly defined, and it is difficult to submit them to scientific testing.
- Freud has used males as the prototype of all human personality development and overlooked female experiences and perspectives.
• Behavioural Approach
- Focus on learning of stimulus—response connection and their reinforcement.
- Personality is the response of an individual as sample for advancing generalization.
- The concepts are not properly defined, and it is difficult to submit them to scientific testing.
- Freud has used males as the prototype of all human personality development and overlooked females experiences and perspective.
• Cultural Approach
- Considers personality as an adaptation of individuals or group to the demand of their ecology and culture.
- A group’s economic maintenance system plays a vital role in the origin of cultural and behavioural variations.
- The climatic conditions, the nature of terrain of the habitat and the availability of food determine people’s settlement patterns, social structures, division of labour, and other features such as child-rearing practices. Economic maintenance system.
- These elements constitute a child’s overall learning environment—skills, abilities, behavioural styles, and value priorities are viewed as strongly linked to these features.
• Humanistic Approach Carl Rogers
- Fully functioning individual—fulfilment is the motivating force for personality development (people try to express their capabilities, potentials and talents to the fullest extent possible).
- Assumptions about human behaviour:(i) It is goal-oriented and worthwhile.(ii) People (who are innately good) will almost always choose adaptive, self-actualising behaviour.
- People are constantly engaged in the process of actualising their true self.
- Ideal self is the self that a person would like to be—correspondence between ideal and real self = happiness, discrepancy = dissatisfaction.
- People have tendency to maximize self-concept through self-actualisation.
- Personality development is a continuous process.
- Role of social influences in the development of self-concept—positive social conditions lead to a high self-concept and self-esteem, generally flexible and open to new experiences.
- An atmosphere of unconditional positive regard must be created in order to ensure enhancement of people’s self-concept.
- Client-centered therapy that Rogers developed basically attempts to create this condition.
• Abraham Maslow
- Attainment of self-actualisation, a state in which people have reached their own fullest potential.
- Optimistic and positive view of man who has the potentialities for love, joy and to do creative work.
- Human beings are considered free to shape their lives and to self-actualisation.
- Self-actualisation becomes possible by analysing the motivations that govern our life.
• Characteristics of Healthy Person
- Healthy become aware of themselves, their feelings, and their limits; accept themselves, and what they make of their own responsibility; have ‘the courage to be’.
- They experience the ‘here-and-now’; are not trapped.
- They do not live in the past or dwell in the future through anxious expectation and distorted defences.
• Assessment of Personality
A formal effort aimed at understanding personality of an individual is termed as personality assessment.
Assessment refers to the procedures used to evaluate or differentiate people on the basis of certain characteristics.
The goal of assessment is to understand and predict behaviour with minimum error and maximum accuracy.
Besides promoting our understanding, assessment is also useful for diagnosis, training, placement, counselling, and other purposes.
- It was Allport who suggested that the best method to assess a person is by asking her/him about herself himself.
- Fairly structured measures, based on theory that require subjects to give verbal responses using some kind of rating scale.
- The method requires the subject to objectively report her/his own feeling with respect to various items. Responses are accepted at face value, scored in quantative terms and interpreted on basis of norms for the test.
- eg. MMPI, EPQ, 16 PF —> Direct technique
- Direct methods of personality assessment cannot uncover the unconscious part of our behaviour.
- Techniques based on assumption that a less structured or unstructured stimulus or situation will allow the individual to project her/his feelings, desires and needs on to that situation. These projections are interpreted by experts.
- E.G. RORSCHACH Inkblot test, thematic apperception test, sentence completion test, Draw-a-person test.
—> Indirect technique
Besides promoting our understanding assessment is also useful for diagnosis, training, placement, counselling and other purposes.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
—> Developed by HATHAWAY and McKINLEY
—> Effective in identifying varieties of psychopathology
—> Revised version is MMPI-2
—> Consists of 567 statements. The subject has to judge each statement as ‘true’ or ‘false’.
—> The test is divided into 10 sub scales which seek to diagnose hypochondriasis, depression, hysteria, psychopathic deviant, masculinity-feminity, paranoia, psychasthenia, schizophrenia, mania and social introversion.
—>In India, Mallick and Joshi have developed Jodhpur Muitiphasic Personality Inventory. (JMPI)
Eysenck Personality Questionnaire
—> Developed by Eysenck
—> Initially assessed 2 dimensions of personality: hitroversion-Extraversion and emotionally stable-emotionally unstable. Emotional stability instability.
—>These dimensions are characterised by 32 personality traits.
—> Later on, Eysenck added a third dimension, called psychoticism. It is linked to psychopathology-sociability.
—> It represents a lack of feeling for others, a tough manner of interacting with people, and a tendency to defy social conventions. A person scoring high on this dimension tends to be hostile, egocentric and antisocial.
Words That Matter
- Alienation: The feeling of not being part of society or a group.
- Anal stage: The second of Freud’s psycho-sexual stages, which occurs during the child’s second year. Pleasure is focused on the anus and on retention and expulsion of faeces.
- Antisocial Personality: A behavioural disorder characteristics by truancy, delinquency, promiscuity, theft, vandalism, fighting, violation of common social rules, poor work record, impulsiveness, irrationality, aggressiveness, reckless behaviour, and inability to plan ahead. The particular pattern of behaviour varies from individual to individual.
- Archetypes: Jung’s term for the contents of the collective unconscious; images or symbols expressing the inherited patterns for the organization of experience. ”
- Cardinal Trait: According to All port, a single trait that dominates an individual’s entire personality.
- Central Traits: The major trait considered in forming an impression of others.
- Client centred therapy: The theraphentic approach developed by Carl Rogers in which therapist helps clients to clarify their true feelings and come to value who they are.
- Collective Unconscious: Inherited portion of the unconscious, as postulated by Carl Jung. The unconscious shared by all human beings.
- Defence Mechanisms: According to Freud, ways in which the ego unconsciously tries to cope with unacceptable id impulses, as in repression, projection, reaction formation, sublimation, rationalisation, etc.
- Deinstitutionalisation: The transfer of former mental patients from institution into the community.
- Ego: The part of the personality that provides a buffer between the id and the outside.
- Evolution apprehension: The fear of being evaluated negatively by others who are present (an audience).
- Extraversion: One of the dimensions of personality in which interests are directed outward to nature and other people rather than inwards to the thoughts and feelings of self (introvert).
- Humanistic Approach: The theory that people are basically good and tend to grow to higher levels of functioning.
- Id: According to Freud, the impulsive and unconscious part of the psyche that operates through the pleasure principle toward the gratification of instinctual drives. The Id is conceived as the true unconscious, or the deepest part of the psyche.
- Ideal Self: The kind of person we would like to be. Also called ego-ideal/idealized self-image.
- Identity: The distinguishing character of the individual—who each of us is, what our roles are, and what we are capable of.
- Inferiority Complex: According to Adler, a complex developed by adults who have not been able to overcome the feelings of inferiority they developed as children, when they were small and limited in their knowledge about the world.
- Interview: Verbal interaction between a respondent and a researcher to gather information about the respondent.
- Introversion: One of the dimensions of personality in which interests are directed inwards
- rather than outwards (extrovert).
- Latency Period: In Freud’s theory of psycho-sexual stages, the period between the phallic stage and the mature genital stage (period from age 4 to 5 to about 12) during which interest in sex is sublimated.
- Libido: Freud introduced this term. In Freud’s treatment, libido was quite simply a direct or indirect sexual expression.
- Meta needs: In the hierarchy of needs, those at the top, such as self-actualisation, self-esteem, aesthetic needs, and the like, which can only be satisfied when lower order needs are satisfied.
- Observational Method: A method in which researcher observes phenomenon that occurs naturally without being able to manipulate.
- Oedipus Complex: The Freudian concept in which the young child develops an intense desire to replace the parent of the same sex and enjoy that affection of the opposite sex parent.
- Personal Identity: Awareness of oneself as a separate, distinct being.
- Phallic Stage: Third of Freud’s psycho-sexual stages (at about age five) when pleasure is focused on the genitals and both males and females experience the ‘Oedipus complex’.
- Projection: A defence mechanism; the process of unwittingly attributing one’s own traits, attitudes, or subjective processes to others.
- Projective Techniques: The utilization of vague, ambiguous, unstructured stimulus objects or situation in order to elicit the individual’s characteristic modes of perceiving his/ her world or of behaving in it.
- Psycho-dynamic Approach: Approach that strives for explanation in terms of motives, or drives.
- Psycho-dynamic Therapy: First suggested by Freud; therapy based on the premise that the primary sources of abnormal behaviour are resolved past conflicts and the possibility that unacceptable unconscious impulses will enter consciousness.
- Rationalisation: A defence mechanism that occurs when one attempts to explain failure or shortcoming by attributing them to more acceptable causes.
- Reaction Formation: A defence mechanism in which a person denies a disapproved motive through giving strong expression to its opposite.
- Regression: A defence mechanism that involves a return to behaviours characterized of an earlier stage in life. The term is also used in statistics, in which with the help of correlation prediction is made.
- Repression: A defence mechanism by which people push unacceptable, anxiety provoking thoughts and impulses into the unconscious to avoid confronting them directly. In short it is unconscious forgetting.
- Repression: A defence mechanism by which people push unacceptable, anxiety-provoking thoughts and impulses into the unconscious to avoid confronting them directly. [Unconscious forgetting]
- Self-actualization: A state of self-fulfillment in which people realise their highest potential in their own unique way.
- Self-efficacy: Bandura’s term for the individual’s beliefs about his or her own effectiveness; the exception that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes.
- Self-esteem: The individual’s personal judgment of his or her own worth; one’s attitude toward oneself along a positive-negative dimension.
- Self-regulation: It refers to our ability to organise and monitor our own behaviour.
- Social Identity: A person’s definition of who he or she is; includes personal attributes (self¬concept) along with membership in various groups.
- Super Ego: According to Freud, superego is the final personality structure to develop; it represents society’s standards of right and wrong as handed down by person’s parents, teachers, and other important figures.
- Surface Traits: R.B. Cattell’s term for clusters of observable trait elements (response) that seems to go together. Factor analysis of the correlations reveals source traits.
- Trait: A relatively persistent and consistent behaviour pattern manifested in a wide range of circumstances.
- Trait Approach: An approach to personality that seeks to identify the basic traits necessary to describe personality.
- Type Approach: Explanation of personality based on broad categories which are mostly determined by body constitution and temperament.
- Typology: Ways of categorising individuals into discrete categories or types e.g., Type-A personality.
- Unconscious: In psychoanalytic theory, characterising any activity or mental structure which a person is not aware of.
- Values: Enduring beliefs about ideal modes of behaviour or end-state of existence; attitudes that have a strong evaluative and ‘ought’ aspect.