Rural Development Programme (Part - 2), Economy Traditional UPSC Notes | EduRev

Economy Traditional for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims

UPSC : Rural Development Programme (Part - 2), Economy Traditional UPSC Notes | EduRev

The document Rural Development Programme (Part - 2), Economy Traditional UPSC Notes | EduRev is a part of the UPSC Course Economy Traditional for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims.
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Rural Group Life Insurance Scheme (RGLIS)

  1. It was launched on August, 15, 1995.
  2. The objective of the scheme is to promote social insurance in the rural areas with the active involvement of the Panchayats and to partly alleviate the distress caused by the death of the bread-earner among the rural poor.
  3. The scheme is being administrated by Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) of India and implemented by the Panchayats in the rural areas for the age group of 20-60 years.
  4. Under this new scheme a life cover of Rs. 5,000 is provided to the rural population for an annual premium of Rs. 60-70 depending upon the age of entry in the scheme.

Mid-Day Meal Programme

  1. It was launched by central government on August 15, 1995.
  2. It is to help in universalisation of primary education by increased enrolment, retention and attendance and will also improve the nutritional status of children.
  3. The programme is to cover the entire country in phased manner.
  4. All government, local bodies and government-aided primary schools numbering over 5,22,000 will be under its coverage in a 3-year period.
  5. The programme will cost Rs. 2,226 crore, when coverage is full. In the first year the budget is Rs. 612 crore and in the second year Rs. 1,474 crore.
  6. The programme is to be implemented through the panchyats and nagarpalikas.
  7. The local bodies have the flexibility to decide the type of food to be provided. While in Delhi and Chandigarh, processed food is distributed, other states (Orissa, Gujarat, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir and Pondicherry) distribute foodrains.


Council for Advancement of Peoples Action and Rural Technology (CAPART)

  • CAPART was registered on September 1, 1986 under the Societies Registration Act., 1960, with the merger of people's Action for Development India (PADI) and Council for Advancement of Rural Technology (CART). 
  • Its headquarters is in New Delhi. 
  • It aims at encouraging, promoting and assisting voluntary action for enhancement of rural prosperity. In pursuance of these objectives, CAPART makes available financial assistance to voluntary organisations under the following schemes :
  1. Promotion of voluntary action in rural development;
  2. Development of DWRCA;
  3. accelerated Rural Water supply Programmes (ARWSP)
  4. Central Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP);
  5. IRDP; 
  6. Organisation of Beneficiaries of Anti-Poverty Programme;
  7. JRY; and
  8. Advancement of Rural Technology Scheme (ARTS).
  • The funds of the CAPART comprise mainly grants by Ministry of Rural Development. 
  • The society can, however, obtain grants from various Central and State Government departments and also accept donations and contributions from other sources.


Mahila Samridhi Yojana (MSY)

  1. It was launched in October 1993.
  2. It is a scheme for encouraging saving habits among rural women leading to their economic independence.
  3. Encourages adult women to open account with a   minimum of Rs. 4, further deposits in the multiple of 4 are made, maximum deposit should not exceed Rs. 300 any time with one year lock-in period to which government participation is limited to Rs. 75 in a year. Account holder can withdraw money twice in a calendar year. Deposits are made in the post offices.
  4. A monitoring groups has been set up in NPC.
  5. Review committees are being set up and involvement of NGO's is being sought at the state, district and divisional levels.

Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK)

  1. A National Credit Fund for Women was started in 1993 as an initiative on the part of the Department of Women and Child Development.
  2. The kosh aims at reaching the poor and assetless women are in need of credit but cannot reach the formal banking or credit service.
  3. RMK provides credit to poor women both in rural and urban areas in the informal sector through the intermediation of non-governmental organisations and other women's organisations like special help groups in a simple and flexible manner at reasonable rates of interest.
  4. The kosh supports short term loans upto Rs. 2,500-and medium term loans upto Rs. 5,000/- per borrower.

Support Training and Employment Projects (STEP)

  1. It aims to upgrade the skills of poor and assetless women, mobilise them and provide employment on a sustainable basis in fields such as agriculture, dairying, fisheries, sericulture, handlooms, handicrafts etc. 
  2. In addition to training and employment support, the three special features included in this programme are 'Gender Sensitisation', 'Women in Development Inputs, and, provision of 'Support  Services'.

Training-cum-Employment-cum Production Centres

  1. The programme extends financial assistance to public sector undertakings, corporations/autonomous bodies/voluntary organisations to train women in non-traditional sectors and provide employment. 
  2. Priority is given for training in modern and upcoming trades like electronics, watch assembly, computer programming etc.

Socio-Economic programme (SEP)

  1. It aims at economic empowerment of poor and needy women such as destitute, widows, deserted, economically backward and the handicapped. 
  2. The programme, implemented through the Central Social Welfare Board, provides  'Work and Wage' for such women. 
  3. Through this programme, the Board endeavours to provide them facilities to engage themselves in full time or part-time work to earn wage to supplement the meager income of their families.

Indira Mahila Yojana (IMY)

  1. it was launched in August 1995, seeking to generate awareness, income generation and convergence of services for rural women.
  2. Initially it aimed to cover 200 blocks on pilot basis.
  3. It emphasises on the constitution of Indira Mahila Block Societies (IMBS) at block level and Indira Mahila kendras at Aganwadi level and Women's Self-Help Groups under every Aganwadi. 
  4. The group may involve in thrift activity by collecting funds from the members. 
  5. The fund collected over a period can be revolved amongst the member as a financial support for the expansion of their income generation activities or also for starting of a new activity. The group once stablished can also approach state and national level lending institutions for credit support.
  6. Government provides financial support of Rs. 5,000 to each Mahila kendra.
  7. Rashtriya Mahila Kosh, a national level lending institution has also decided to provide financial support to IMBS in terms of interest free loans for the formation and stablisation of women's self-help groups.

 

Deen Dayal Vpadhyaya Grameen Koushalya Yojana (DDUGKY)

♦ Is a placement linked skill development scheme for rural poor youth.

♦ This initiative is part of NRLM.

♦ The skilling program for rural youth has now been refocused and reprioritized to build the capacity of rural poor youth to address the needs of the domestic and global skill requirements.

♦ A total of 51,956 candidates have been skilled under DDU-GKY out of which 28,995 candidates have been placed till November 2014 during 2014-15.


Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana

  • The Cabinet on March 21, 2015 cleared a scheme to provide skill training to 1.4 million youth, with an overall outlay of Rs. 1,120 crore. 
  • The Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana, to be implemented by the new Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship through the National Skill Development Corporation, will focus on fresh entrants to the labour market, especially Class X and Class XII dropouts.
  • The target for skilling would be aligned to demands from other flagship programmes launched in recent times such as Make in India, Digital India, National Solar Mission and Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.
  • Training under this scheme will include soft skills, personal grooming, behavioural change for cleanliness, good work ethics, etc. Sector Skill Councils and the State Governments would closely monitor skill training that will happen under PMKVY.
  • Under the scheme, a monetary reward of about 8,000 will be given to trainees upon certification by third-party assessment bodies.
  • Skill training would be done on the basis of demand assessed by the NSDC for the period 2013-17. For assessment of demand of Central Ministries/Departments/State Go vernments, industry and business would be consulted.

 

ROSHNI: Skill Development Scheme for Tribals

♦ Ministry of Rural Development, launched on June 7, 2013 a new 'Skill Development Scheme' aimed at providing employment to Tribal youth in 24 Naxal affected districts.

♦ The scheme called 'Roshni' will provide training and employment to an estimated 50,000 youth in the  10-35 years age group, over a period of 3 years. 50% of the beneficiaries of the scheme will be women.

♦ The scheme will follow the 'Himayat' project model, which was launched in Jammu and Kashmir, and has been implemented in Sukma (Chhattisgarh) and West Singhbhum (Jharkhand) on a pilot basis over the last 18 months, Rs. 100 crore project will be jointly funded by the Union and State Governments, with the centre providing 75% of the funding.

♦ Further, the scheme will be implemented on a Public Private basis, with private agencies providing job training and employment.


Atal Pension Yojana

  • The Finance Minister has announced a new initiative called Atal Pension Yojana (APY) in his Budget Speech for 2015-16. This scheme will replace ‘Swavalamban Scheme’ introduced in 2010-11 
  • The APY will be focussed on all citizens in the unorganised sector, who join the National Pension System (NPS) administered by the Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA) and who are not members of any statutory social security scheme. 
  • Under the APY, the subscribers would receive the fixed pension of Rs. 1000 per month, Rs. 2000 per month, Rs. 3000 per month, Rs. 4000 per month, Rs. 5000 per month, at the age of 60 years, depending on their contributions, which itself would vary on the age of joining the APY. The minimum age of joining APY is 18 years and maximum age is 40 years.

Sukanya Samriddhi Accounts Yojana

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi has launched a small deposit scheme for girl child, as part of the 'Beti Bachao Beti Padhao' campaign, which would fetch an interest rate of 91 per cent and also provide income lax rebate.' Sukanya Samriddhi Account' can be opened at any time from the birth of a girl child till she attains the age of 10 years, with a minimum deposit of Rs. 1000.
  • A maximum of Rs. 1-5 lakh can be deposited during one financial year. The account can be opened in any post office or authorised branches of commercial banks.

The highlights of this scheme can be summed up as follows :

  1. Rate of interest 9-1 % Per Annum (2014-15), calculated on yearly basis, yearly compounded.
  2.  Minimum INR. 1000 and Maximum INR. 1,50,000 in a financial year. Subsequent deposit in multiple of INR 100 Deposits can be made in lumpsum.
  3. No limit on number of deposits either in a month or in a Financial year.
  4.  A legal Guardian/Natural Guardian can open account in the name of Girl Child.
  5. A guardian can open only one account in the name of one girl child and maximum two accounts in the name of two different Girl children.
  6. Account can be opened up to age of 10 years only from the date of birth. For initial operations of Scheme, one year grace has been given.
  7. If minimum Rs. 1000 is not deposited in a financial year, account will become discontinued and can be revived with a penalty of Rs. 50 per year with minimum amount required for deposit for that year.
  8. Partial withdrawal, maximum up to 50% of balance standing at the end of the preceding financial year can be taken after Account holder's attaining age of 18 years.
  9. Account can be closed after completion of 21 years.


Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay Shramev Jayate Scheme Launched

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched a new scheme named Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay Shramev Jayate scheme that seeks to improve employability, skill development and other conveniences for labour.
  • The scheme also seeks to provide portability to employees provident fund accounts through a Universal Account Number (UAN). 
  • The EPF accounts will be linked with bank accounts which will be further linked with UAN, Aadhaar and other KYC details to facilitate financial inclusion.
  • Under the programme, the labour ministry is setting up a 'Shram Suvidha', or labour facilitation, portal. The portal will be operated by four central organisations : Chief Labour Commissioner, Directorate General of Mines Safety, Employees ‘Provident Fund and Employees’ State Insurance Corporation.

Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi has launched government’s mega scheme ‘Jan Dhan Yojana’ with the aim of eradicating the financial untouchability by providing bank accounts to the poor.
  • Five Cimportant features of the PM Jan DhanYojana are :
  1. Under the scheme, account holders will be provided zero-balance bank account with RuPay debit card, in addition to accidental insurance cover of 1 lakh.
  2. Those who open accounts by January 26, 2015 over and above the Rs. 1 lakh accident, they will be given life insurance cover of Rs. 30,000.
  3. Six months of opening of the bank account, holders can avail Rs. 5,000 loan from the bank.
  4. With the introduction of new technology introduced by National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI), a person can transfer funds, check balance through a normal phone which was earlier limited only to smart phones so far.
  5. Mobile banking for the. poor would be available through National Unified USSD Platform (NUUP) for which all banks and mobile companies have come together.

Sansad Aadarsh Gram Yojana

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi has announced a new initiative under which each MP would develop a model village in his area.
  • Prime Minister Modi had announced to launch this scheme in his Independence Day speech on August 15 from the Red Fort in New Delhi.
  • The ‘Sansad Aadarsh Gram Yojana’ was launched on the Oct. 11 birth anniversary of Jayaprakash Narayan.
  • While announcing the scheme Prime Minister extended the view that nation can be built and strengthened only if we start from the villages. 
  • He added that each MP should select a village in his constituency and convert it into a 'model village' by 2016. 

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS)

  • After the notification of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act on September 7, 2005, a new scheme named "National Runral Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS)” (which later on the Act changed with the name Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act) has been launched on February 2, 2006.
  • The ongoing programmes of Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar  Yojana (SGRY) and National Food for Work Programme (NFFWP) were subsumed within the NREGS in the 200 districts identified in the initial stage. 
  • Implemented by the Ministry of Rural Development, National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) is a flagship programme of the government that directly touches lives of the poor and promotes inclusive growth.
  • The salient features of MGNREGA are as follows:
  • Right based Framework : For adult members of a rural household willing to do unskilled manual work.
  • Time bound Guarantee : 15 days for provision of employment, else unemployment allowance.
  • Guaranteed Employment: Upto 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year per household, depending on the actual demand.
  • Labour Intensive Works: 60:40 wage and material ratio for permissible works at the Gram Panchayat, no contractors/machinery.
  • Decentralized Planning
  1. Gram Sabhas to recommend works.
  2. At least 50% of works by Gram Panchayats for execution.
  3. Principal role of PRIs in planning, monitoring and implementation.
  • Work site facilities : Creche, drinking water, first aid and shade provided at worksites.
  • Women empowerment: Priority shall be given to women in such a way that at least one third of the beneficiaries shall be women who have registered and requested for work under this Act.
  • Transparency & Accountability : Proactive disclosure through Social Audit Grievance Redressal Mechanism.
  • Funding : 90% borne by Central Government and 10% by State Government.

Some Recent Initiatives

  • Inter-departmental convergence and collaboration activities like construction of individual household latrines under the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA), construction of anganwadi centres under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme, construction of village playfields under the Pan-chayat Yuva Krida aur Khel Abhiyan, and convergence with watershed management pro-grammes.
  • Steps to open individual bank/post office accounts for all women workers.
  • Identifying and providing job cards to widowed, deserted, and destitute women.
  • Initiatives for the disabled and other vulnerable persons by fixing schedule of rates (SoR) based on work and time motion study at state level.
  • Adding new works to the existing list of permissible works specifi-cally focused on rural livelihood and agricultural activities.
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