Q. 1. Which type of climate is found in India ?
Ans. Tropical monsoon climate.
Q. 2. Which parallel of latitudes passes through the middle of the country ?
Ans. Tropic of cancer.
Q. 3. Name the two climatic zones formed by Tropic of Cancer.
Ans. Tropical and Temperate zone.
Q. 4. Name the hottest place in India.
Ans. Barmer (50°C) in Rajasthan.
Q. 5. Name the coldest place in India.
Ans. Dras (Kargil) – 50°C.
Q. 6. Name the rainiest place in India.
Ans. Mawsynram near Cherrapunji–1187 cm of annual rainfall.
Q. 7. What is the cause of winter rainfall in N.W. India?
Ans. Western disturbances (cyclones).
Q. 8. What is the cause of winter rainfall on S.E. Coast of India?
Ans. N.E. Monsoons.
Q. 9. From which word 'Monsoon' has been derived?
Ans. From Arabic word-Mausam.
Q. 10. What type of winds are monsoons?
Ans. Seasonal winds.
Q. 11. What is the direction of summer monsoons?
Ans. South–West to North-East.
Q. 12. What is the direction of winter monsoons?
Ans. North–East to South–West.
Q. 13. Name an upper air movement which brings monsoons to India.
Ans. Jet stream.
Q. 14. Name a state which is the first to receive the S.W. monsoons.
Q. 15. Name a state which is the first to withdraw monsoon.
Q. 16. Name the four rainy months in India.
Ans. June to September.
Q. 17. Name two areas getting more than 200 cm of rainfall.
Ans. Western coast and N.E. hilly area.
Q. 18. Which states experience Nor'westers or Kal Baisakhi?
Ans. West Bengal and Assam.
Q. 19. Name a type of Pre-monsoon rainfall.
Ans. Mango showers.
Q. 20. What is ‘loo’?
Ans. A hot dusty wind blowing in summer.
Q. 21. Name an area getting rainfall in both the seasons.
Ans. Tamil Nadu.
Q. 22. What is climate?
Ans. An average of atmospheric conditions for a long period.
Q. 23. What do you mean by ‘break of monsoons’?
Ans. The sudden approach of S.W. Monsoons.
Q. 24. What is October heat?
Ans. The oppressive weather due to high temperature are high humidity in the month of October.
Q. 25. Name the coastal states struck by tropical cyclones.
Ans. Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and Odisha.
Q. 26. In which part of the country ‘loo’ blows?
Ans. Northern plain.
Q. 27. Name the two branches into which the S.W. monsoon winds are divided.
Ans. (i) Bay of Bengal branch (ii) Ara-bian Sea branch.
Q. 28. What is meant by ‘Rain shadow’?
Ans. The leeward dry slope of a mountain.
Q. 29. June is the hottest month and not the July in India. Why?
Ans. Due to heavy rains there is a drop of 10°C in temperature in the month of July.
Q. 30. What are pre-monsoons?
Ans. Before the advance of monsoons, some local winds give pre-monsoon rainfall.
Q. 31. What does the word ‘Monsoon’ imply?
Ans. The word 'Monsoon' is said to be derived from the Arabic word 'Mausam' meaning season. This word was first applied to the winds blowing over the Arabian Sea. Monsoon implies seasonal reversal of the wind pattern over the year. Monsoon winds are those seasonal or periodic winds which change their direction with the season. These winds blow from sea to land for six months during summer and from land to sea for months during winter. Thus with the change of season the pattern of winds, temperature and rainfall changes.
Q. 32. Explain what is meant by ‘Jet Stream’.
Ans. Jet Streams are high velocity winds at high altitudes. A jet stream is a narrow tubular shaped flow of wind along the troposphere. These have a velocity of 500 kms. per hour and are located at altitude of 5 to 12 kms. with an average location between 20°S to 40°N latitudes. The Himalayas divide the jet stream into two parts—Northern and Southern. Monsoons are controlled to some extent by Easterly jet stream in winter.
Q. 33. State three dominant characteristics of the Indian monsoons.
Ans. The Indian monsoons have the following dominant characteristics :
(i) Change in direction of winds ; Monsoons imply the seasonal reversal of the wind pattern during winter and summer.
(ii) Uncertain and variable rainfall leading to droughts and floods.
(iii) Monsoons, despite regional diversities, provide the basic climatic unity of the sub-continent.
Q. 34. How many seasons can be recognised in India ?
Ans. The meteorologists divide the calendar year into four main seasons as recognised in Indian weather.
(i) The Cold Weather season — December to February
(ii) The Hot Weather season — March to Mid June
(iii) The Rainy Season — Mid June to Mid September.
(iv) The Season of — Mid September to Retreating Monsoons November.
Q. 35. What are western disturbances ? In what parts do they cause precipitation during winter in India ?
Ans. The general circulation of winds system is disturbed by some atmospheric disturbances. Western disturbances are low pressure systems which originate in west Asia and the regions near Mediterranean Sea.
These travel eastwards across Iran and Pakistan and reach India during the winter season. The westerly Jet stream steers these disturbances towards India. These are active in winter in northern India. On an average, four or five such depressions visit India each month.
These give rainfall in areas of J & K, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan. These give snowfall in N.W. Himalayas. The amount of rainfall decreases towards the east. The rainfall is of great importance to the Rabi crops especially wheat. The average rainfall varies from 20 mm. to 50 mm.
Q. 36. What do you understand by the term ‘Loo’?
Ans. ‘Loo’ is a local wind. It is a very hot and dry wind which blows during the day time in Northern India. Loo increases the dry temperatures ranging between 40°C and 50°C. The hot and dry winds are unbearable. These result in 'heat wave' causing many deaths.
Q. 37. What is meant by the phrase ‘Monsoon Burst’?
Ans. The monsoon winds blow in south-west direction on the West coast. These are highly charged with water vapour. It advances rapidly over West coast.
The rains begin rather suddenly in the first week of June. This sudden onset of rain is often termed as ‘Monsoon Burst’. The rainfall is heavily accompanied by thunder and lightning. The rain is so sudden and heavy that it appears as if a balloon of water has been burst.
Q. 38. Give three main characteristics of summer monsoon rainfall.
Ans. Main Characteristics :
(i) It is a seasonal rainfall. Most of the rain comes in summer.
(ii) The rainfall is uncertain and variable.
(iii) The amount of rain decreases away from the coast. In northern plain, it decreases westward up the Ganges valley, for example—Kolkata 119 cms., Patna 105 cms., Allahabad 100 cms. and Delhi 65 cms.
(iv) S.W. monsoons have 'breaks' or spells of dry weather. The rain does not fall continuously.
(v) The intensity and amount of rain is increased by jet stream and depressions.
(vi) Tamil Nadu and Deccan plateau remain dry as these are rain shadow areas.
Q. 39. Which are the coldest parts of India and why?
Ans. The Trans-Himalayan region consisting of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh are the coldest parts of India. The minimum temperatures of – 50°C are recorded at Dras or Kargil (Ladakh). This is due to the fact that this place lies at a great altitude. These regions get snowfall during winter and temperature remains below freezing point.
Q. 40. Which are the hottest parts of India? What makes them so?
Ans. The highest temperatures are found in the western parts of Rajasthan. Barmer is the hottest place where summer temperatures of 50°C are recorded. The high temperatures are due to : (i) This place has an inland location, and is located away from the Indian Ocean. The continental effect raises the summer temperature. (ii) Hot dusty winds—Loo raises the temperature of this area. (iii) The temperatures remain high due to sandy soils and lack of humidity.
Q. 41. Which are the wettest and driest parts of India? Give reasons.
Ans. Wettest parts. Mawsynram near Cherrapunji, with an annual rainfall of 1280 cms. is the wettest place in India. N.E. Hilly region, Western ghats and West coast are the wettest parts receiving more than 200 cms. of rainfall. The on-shore S.W. monsoons give heavy rainfall in this hilly region.
Driest parts. Jaisalmer (Rajasthan) with 12 cm. rain, is the driest place in India. The driest parts are (i) Thar desert in Rajasthan (ii) Ladakh region (iii) Deccan plateau (rain shadow area). Aravallis are situated parallel to S.W. monsoon and do not help in getting any rain. Deccan plateau and Ladakh are situated in rain shadow areas.
Q. 42. State the two major factors on which Koeppen's method of classification of climate is based.
Ans. Koeppen has divided India into different climatic divisions. This classification is based on two factors. This method is based on the monthly values of temperature and precipitation. This is a quantitative and systematic method. Capital alphabets are used to show a particular major type and small alphabets are used for sub-divisions.
Q. 43. Describe the effect of El-Nino on Indian Monsoons.
Ans. El-Nino and the Indian Monsoon El-Nino is a complex weather system that appears once every five to ten years, bringing drought, floods and other weather extremes to different parts of the world. The system involves ocean and atmospheric phenomena with the appearance of warm currents off the Coast of Peru in the Eastern Pacific and affects weather in many places including India. El-Nino is used in India for forecasting long range monsoon rainfall. In 1990-91 there was a wild El-Nino event and onset of southwest monsoon was delayed over most parts of the country ranging from five to twelve days.