Q. 1. Who is the chief co-ordinator in the Cabinet?
Ans. The Prime Minister.
Q. 2. Who distributes portfolios among the Ministers?
Ans. Prime Minister distributes portfolios among the ministers.
Q. 3. Who has the power to dismiss or remove a Minister from Union Council of Ministers?
Ans. On the advice of the Prime Minister, the President can dismiss or remove a minister from Union Council of Ministers.
Q. 4. Mention one distinction between the Cabinet and Council of Ministers.
Ans. The Council of Ministers consists of all the Ministers, whereas Cabinet consists of a few ministers.
Q. 5. Who presides over the meetings of the Union Council of Ministers?
Ans. The Prime Minister presides over the meetings of the Union Council of Ministers.
Q. 6. Name the present President, Vice President and Prime Minister of India.
Ans. Present President is Sh. Ram Nath Kovind, Vice-President is Sh. Venkaiah Naidu and Prime Minister is Sh. Narendra Modi.
Q. 7. Mention one function of the Council of Ministers.
Ans. An important function of the Council of Ministers is to determine its internal and external policy according to which the administration of the state is to run.
Q. 8. Who is at the head of the Union Council of Ministers?
Ans. Prime Minister is at the head of Union Council of Ministers.
Q. 9 . Who appoints the Prime Minister?
Ans. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President.
Q. 10. Who is the Chief Advisor of the President?
Ans. The Prime Minister is the Chief Advisor of the President.
Q. 11. Under what circumstances the President may exercise his discretion in selecting the Prime Minister?
Ans. If no party or coalition secures a clear-cut majority in the Lok Sabha, then the President can exercise his discretion in selecting the Prime Minister.
Q. 12. What is the term of the Prime Minister?
Ans. The Prime Minister does not have a fixed tenure of office. He remains in office as long as he enjoys the support of the majority party.
Q. 13. Mention any one power of the Prime Minister.
Ans. The first and significant duty of the Prime Minister is the formation of the Council of Ministers.
Q. 14. Who is the leader of the Cabinet?
Ans. The Prime Minister is the leader of the Cabinet.
Q. 15. Write down the salary of president.
Ans. President get a salary of ₹5,00,000 per month.
Q. 16. What is Executive?
Ans. Executive is that organ of the government which enforces the will of the legislature expressed in the form of laws. The Legislature makes laws and the executive is charged with responsibility of giving effect to these laws. Besides, it keeps law and order in the country in check. It also protects the life and property of the people and maintains internal peace by putting down all those factors that disturb the peace of the country. In face, it is executive that runs the administration of the country. In order words, it is a Government in itself.
Q.17. What is a Parliamentary form of Government?
Ans. Parliamentary type of government is also called Cabinet government. In this form of government, there is a nominal head of the state and all executive powers are exercised by a Cabinet of Ministers. These ministers are usually members of the legislature for their action and policies. They attend the meetings of the legislature and answer the questions put to them by the members of legislature. If the legislature passes a vote of noconfidence against them, they resign their offices.
Q.18. Distinguish between the Cabinet and Council of Ministers.
Ans. (i) In the Constitution, the words ‘Council of Ministers’ are used and not the word ‘Cabinet’.
(ii) The Cabinet is a part of the Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers consists of about 70 ministers. It includes three types of ministers. But the Cabinet consists of cabinet ministers only. The Cabinet consists of about 20 members.
(iii) Cabinet is more important than the Council of Ministers. All decisions of the Cabinet are to be carried out by the members of the Council of Ministers.
(iv) The Cabinet Ministers get higher salary than other ministers.
Q.19. ‘The Prime Minister is the Key-stone of the Cabinet arch.’ Explain.
Ans. The Prime Minister is the leader of the Cabinet. He is called the ‘Key-Stone of the Cabinet arch.’ He exercises the following powers regarding the Cabinet :
(1) The Prime Minister is the maker of the Cabinet. He prepares a list of ministers according to his sweet will. Ministers are appointed by the President but on the advice of the Prime Minister.
(2) Number of Council of Ministers depend on the Prime Minister.
(3) The Prime Minister distributes portfolios among the ministers. He can change the department of any minister.
(4) He presides over the meetings of the Cabinet. He can call the meetings of the Cabinet whenever he likes. The Prime Minister prepares the agenda of the meeting as well as controls it.
Q.20. What is the relationship between the President and the Prime Minister in our country?
Ans. India has a Parliamentary form of government. Therefore, the Prime Minister enjoys a better position than the President. The President is the head of Executive but all of his powers are exercised by the Prime Minister. According to 42nd Amendment, it has become binding on the President to accept the Prime Minister’s advice. The Prime Minister submits his list of Ministers to the President and the President appoints them. The Prime Minister keeps the President informed of the proceedings of the cabinet. Thus, he serves as a link between the President and the Cabinet.
Q.21. Explain the role of the Prime Minister as the leader of the Nation.
Ans.The Prime Minister is also the leader of the nation. The President is the head of the State but the Prime Minister is the head of the Government. General election means the election of the Prime Minister. Each political party has its leader and the people vote for the party whose leader they want to see as the Prime Minister of the country. During emergency, the people always have high hopes on the Prime Minister and they always act upon his advice. His office has become more important for his being the leader of the nation. He is always supported by the public and with the help of the public he can do things which he likes.
Q.22. What do you understand by Committed Bureaucracy?
Ans. Committed bureaucracy means that bureaucracy is connected with the principles and policies of a particular party and acts according to the directives of the same party. Committed bureaucracy signifies the fact that it is committed not only to the ideals and principles laid down in the Constitution, but also to the ideology of the political party in power. All the democratic countries emphasise the neutrality of bureaucracy so that it can work independently and impartially. But in communist countries like China, committed bureaucracy exists. There was a single political party in the former Soviet Union and bureaucracy was committed to the objectives and principles of Communist Party. The primary aim of the bureaucracy is to co-operate in the achievement of party’s objectives. Committed bureaucracy is recommended for India also but here bureaucracy is committed to the principles envisaged in the Constitution instead of being committed to a particular party.
Q.23. Mention various kinds of Executive.
Ans. (i) Real and Nominal Executive.
(ii) Single and Plural Executive.
(iii) Parliamentary and Presidential Executive.
(iv) Hereditary and Elective Executive.
(v) Dictatorship and Constitution Executive.
(vi) Appointive or Nominative Executive.
(vii) Political and Permanent Executive.
Q.24. What are the qualifications required for election as President?
Ans. (i) He should be a citizen of India.
(ii) He must have completed the age of 35 years.
(iii) He must qualify to be elected as member of the Lok Sabha.
(iv) He must not hold any office of profit under the Government of the India or any State Government or local authority.
Q.25. Write two executive powers of the President of India.
Ans. (i) All major appointments are made by the President. He appoints the Prime Minister and other ministers in the Council of Ministers. He appoints Governors, Judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts, Ambassadors, Attorney General, etc.
(ii) The President is the Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces.
Q.26. Write down the Legislative powers of the President.
Ans. (i) The President can convene, prorogue and dissolve the Parliament.
(ii) He can address the two Houses of the Parliament jointly or he may address them independently.
(iii) He nominates 12 persons to the Rajya Sabha and two Anglo-Indians to the Lok Sabha.
(iv) No bill passed by the Parliament can become an Act without the assent of the President.
(v) He gives approval to many bills passed by the State Legislatures.
Q.27. What are the financial powers of the President?
Ans. (i) Money-bills can be introduced in the Parliament on the recommendation of the President.
(ii) The President has full control over the contingency fund and can spend it according to his sweet will.
(iii) He distributes the share of income tax among the states.
(iv) He appoints Finance Commission. The 15th Finance Commission was appointed in November 2017.
Q.28. State the judicial powers of the President.
Ans. (i) The President appoints the Chief Justice and other judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts.
(ii) The President has the powers to grant pardon or reduce the sentence awarded to a criminal.
Q.29. Whom does the President appoint as the Prime Minister?
Ans. The President appoints the Prime Minister. He invites the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha and appoints him as the Prime Minister. If no single party has a majority, many parties may form a coalition to make a majority and elect a leader. Then the leader of the coalition will be appointed as the Prime Minister.
Q.30. Mention any two functions of the Prime Minister.
Ans. (i) Formation of the Council of Ministers. First and important function of the Prime Minister is the formation of the Council of Ministers. He prepares the list of the ministers according to his sweet will. Nobody can be appointed as a minister against the wishes of the Prime Minister.
(ii) Distribution of Portfolios. Another major function of the Prime Minister is to distribute portfolios among the ministers. He decides what department is to be allotted to a particular Minister.